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I  J.AAK  (THEODORE),  who  is  said  to  have  first  suggested 
the  weekly  meetings  of  the  royal  society,  and  was  one  of 
its  first  fellows  when  established  after  the  restoration,  was 
born  in  1605,  at  Newhausen,  near  Worms  in  the  Palati- 
nate, and  educated  at  home.  In  1625  he  came  to  Oxford, 
and  studied  there  about  half  a  year,  whence  he  went  for 
the  same  time  to  Cambridge.  He  then  visited  some  of  the 
universities  abroad,  but  returned  to  Oxford  in  1629,  and 
became  a  commoner  of  Gloucester-hall  (now  Worcester 
college).  Here  he  remained  three  years,  but  without 
taking  a  degree,  and,  as  Wood  says,  was  made  a  deacon 
by  Dr.  Joseph  Hall,  the  celebrated  bishop  of  Exeter.  He 
does  not,  however,  appear  to  have  proceeded  farther  in 
ecclesiastical  ordination,  and  both  in  his  translation  of  the* 
"  Dutch  Annotations,"  and  in  the  lists  of  the  royal  society, 
we  find  him  afterwards  styled  "Theodore  Haak,  Esq."  In 
the  time  of  the  German  wars  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
procurators  to  receive  the  benevolence  money,  which  was 
raised  in  several  dioceses  in  England  to  be  transmitted  to 
Germany,  which  he  used  to  say  "  was  a  deacon's  work." 
When  the  rebellion  broke  out  in  this  country,  he  appears 
to  have  favoured  the  interests  of  parliament.  In  1657  he 
published  in  2  vols.  folio,  what  is  called  the  "  Dutch  Anno- 
tations upon  the  whole  Bible,"  which  is  a  translation  of  the 
Dutch  Bible,  ordered  by  the  synod  of  Dort,  and  first  pub- 
lished in  1637.  Wood  says  that  the  Dutch  translators 
were  assisted  in  this  undertaking  by  bishops  Carleton, 
Davenant,  Hall,  and  other  English  divines,  who  wer« 

9  HAAK. 

members  of  the  synod  of  Dort ;  but,  according  to  the  pre- 
face, the  only  assistance  they  gave  was  in  laying  before 
the  synod  an  account  of  the  manner  in  which  king  James's- 
translation  had  been  performed  by  the  co-operation  of  a 
number  of  the  most  eminent  divines  in  England.  The 
synod  accordingly  adopted  the  same  plan  ;  and  their  anno- 
tations being  considered  of  great  value  to  biblical  students, 
the  Westminster  assembly  of  divines  employed  Haak  in 
making  this  English  translation,  and  the  parliament  granted 
him  a  sole  right  in  it  for  fourteen  years  from  the  time  of 
publication.  Haak  also  translated  into  Dutch  several  Eng- 
lish books  of  practical  divinity,  and  one  half  of  Milton's 
"  Paradise  Lost."  He  left  nearly  ready  for  the  press,  a 
translation  of  German  proverbs,  but  it  does  not  appear 
that  this  was  published.  He  was  in  1645  one  of  several 
ingenious  men  (Dr.  Wilkins,  Dr.  Wallis,  Dr.  Goddard,  &c.) 
who  agreed  to  meet  once  a  week  to  discourse  upon  subjects 
connected  with  mathematics  and  natural  philosophy,  and 
it  was  he  who  first  suggested  this  humble  plan  on  which, 
the  royal  society  was  afterwards  formed.  Mr.  Haak  died 
at  the  house  of  his  kinsman  Dr.  Slare,  a  physician  near 
Fetter-lane,  London,  May  9,  1690,  and  was  buried  in  St. 
Andrew's  church,  Holborn.  Dr.  Horneck  preached  his 
funeral  sermon.  He  appears  to  have  been  the  friend  and 
correspondent  of  the  most  learned  men  of  his  time,  and 
has  some  observations  and  letters  in  the  "  Philosophical 
Collections,"  published  in  May  1682.  There  is  a  portrait 
of  him  in  the  picture  gallery  at  Oxford,  which  has  never 
been  engraved.1 

HABERKORN  (PETER),  a  learned  Lutheran  divine, 
was  born  May  9,  1604,  at  Butzbach  in  Wetteraw,  and  de- 
scended from  a  noble  and  ancient  family  of  Franconia.  He, 
became  pastor,  superintendant,  and  professor  of  divinity, 
at  Geissen,  where  he  died,  April  1676,  having  had  14 
children  and  46  grandchildren.  He  became  eminent  by 
his  writings,  and  appeared  with  great  distinction  at  several 
conferences  on  religious  subjects.  His  principal  works 
are,  "  Heptas  disputationum  Anti-Wallemburgicarum," 
in  which  he  takes  great  pains  to  overthrow  the  principles 
of  Mess,  de  Walemburg,  and  in  which  he  is  esteemed  very- 
successful  by  the  Lutherans  ;  "  Vindicatio  Lutherans?,  fidei 
contra  H.  Ulricum  Hunmum,"  4to  ;  "  Syntagma  Disserts- 

1  Atb.  Ox.  YoJ.  Il^-Prefaces  to  his  ««  Dutch  Annotations." 


tionum  Theologicarum,"  1650  and  1652,  2  vols.  8vo; 
"  Anti-Valerianus^"  1652,  4to;  "  Relatio  Actorum  Collo- 
quii  Rheinfelsani,"  &c.  All  this  author's  works  are  much 
valued  by  those  of  his  communion.1 

HABERT  (GERMAIN),  a  French  poet  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  was  abbot  of  Notre  Dame  de  Cerisy,  one  of  the 
first  members  of  the  French  academy,  and  the  most  dis- 
tinguished among  the  beaux  esprits  of  his  time.  He  died 
in  1655,  and  left  several  poems;  that  entitled  "Meta- 
morphose des  Yeux  d'Iris  changes  en  Astres,"  1639,  8vo, 
is  particularly  admired,  and  is  certainly  not  without  con- 
siderable merit.  Habert  also  wrote  the  "  Life,  or  Pane- 
gyric of  Cardinal  de  Berulle,"  1646,  4to,  and  a  Paraphrase 
on  some  of  the  Psalms.  His  brother,  Philip  Habert,  was 
among  the  first  members  of  the  French  academy,  and  ap- 
pointed commissioner  of  artillery,  through  the  interest  of 
M.  de  la  Meilleraye,  who  had  a  great  regard  for  him.  He 
unfortunately  perished  at  the  siege  of  Emmerick,  in  1637, 
aged  thirty-two,  under  the  ruins  of  a  wall,  which  was 
blown  up  by  a  cask  of  gun-powder,  through  the  negligence 
of  an  unskilful  soldier.  There  is  a  poem  of  his  in  Barbin's 
Collection,  entitled  "  Le  Temple  de  la  Mort,"  written 
on  the  death  of  M.  de  la  "Meilleraye's  first  wife,  which 
was  once  much  admired.2 

HABERT  (ISAAC),  was  a  learned  and  celebrated  doctor 
of  the  society  of  the  Sorbonne,  canon  and  theologal  of 
Paris,  and  made  bishop  of  Vabres,  in  1645.  He  died  Ja- 
nuary 11,  1668.  He  distinguished  himself  by  his  preach- 
ing, and  by  several  works  on  Grace,  in  which  he  forcibly 
refutes  Jansenius,  though  he  defends  the  doctrine  of  effi- 
cacious Grace,  but  in  another  sense.  He  also  left  a  Latin 
translation  of  the  "  Pontifical  of  the  Greek  Church,"  with 
learned  notes,  1643,  fol. ;  some  Latin  Poems,  Paris,  1623, 
4to  ;  "  Hymns  for  the  Feast  of  St.  Louis,"  in  the  Paris 
Breviary;  "  De  Consensu  Hierarchies  et  Monarchies," 
Paris,  1640,  4to  ;  and  many  other  works.  SUSANNAH  Ha- 
bert, his  aunt,  married  Charles  du  Jardin,  an  officer  under 
Henry  III.  and  became  a  widow  at  twenty-four.  This 
lady  was  considered  as  a  prodigy  of  genius ;  she  under- 
stood Hebrew,  Greek,  Latin,  Italian,  Spanish,  philosophy, 
and  even  divinity,  which  gained  her  a  great  reputation 
among  the  learned.  She  died  1633,  in  the  convent  of 

1  Mor«ri.— Diet.  Hist.  »•  Ibid. 

1  2 

4  H  A  B  E  R  T. 

Notre  Dame  de  Grace,  at  Paris,  where  she  had  lived  rffear 
twenty  years,  leaving  several  works  in  MS.  in  the  hands  of 
her  nephew.1 

HABERT  (Lewis),  a  pious  and  learned  doctor  of  the 
society  of  the  Sorbonne,  was  born  at  Blois,  in  1636.  He 
was  successively  grand  vicar  of  Lu^on,  Auxerre,  Verdun, 
and  Chalons-sur-Marne ;  in  all  which  dioceses  he  was  uni- 
versally esteemed  for  his  virtue,  learning,  and  zealous 
support  of  ecclesiastical  discipline.  He  afterwards  retired 
to  the  Sorbonne,  and  employed  the  rest  of  his  life  in  de- 
ciding cases  of  conscience,  and  died  there  April  7,  1718. 
M.  Habert  left  a  complete  System  of  Divinity,  7  vols. 
12mo,  much  valued  for  accuracy  and  solidity  ;  but  the 
additions  made  to  it  since  his  death  were  not  acceptable  to 
his  church,  and  were  complained  of  by  Feneion,  as  in- 
clining to  Jansenianism.  He  published  in  his  life-time  a 
defence  of  this  system,  and  "  La  Pratique  de  la  Peni- 
tence," 12mo,  best  known  by  the  title  of  "  Pratique  de 
Verdun,"  of  which  there  have  been  many  additions.2 

HABINGTON  (WILLIAM),  an  excellent  English  poet, 
was  descended  from  a  Roman  catholic  family.  His  great- 
grandfather was  Richard  Habington  or  Abington  of  Brock- 
hampton,  in  Herefordshire.  His  grandfather,  John,  se- 
cond son  of  this  Richard  Habington,  and  cofferer  to  queen 
Elizabeth,  was  born  in  1515,  and  died  in  1581.  He 
bought  the  manor  of  Hindlip,  in  Worcestershire,  and  re* 
built  the  mansion  about  1572.  His  father,  Thomas  Ha- 
bington, was  born  at  Thorpe,  in  Surrey,  1560,  studied  at 
Oxford,  and  afterwards  travelled  to  Rheims  and  Paris. 
On  his  return  he  involved  himself  with  the  party  who  la- 
boured to  release  Mary  queen  of  Scots,  and  was  afterwards 
imprisoned  on  a  suspicion  of  being  concerned  in  Babing- 
ton's  conspiracy.  During  this  imprisonment,  which  lasted 
six  years,  he  employed  his  time  in  study.  Having  been 
at  length  released,  and  his  life  saved,  as  is  supposed  on 
account  of  his  being  queen  Elizabeth's  godson,  he  retired 
to  Hindlip,  and  married  Mary,  eldest  daughter  of  Edward 
Parker  lord  Morley,  by  Elizabeth,  daughter  and  sole  heir 
of  sir  William  Stanley,  lord  Monteagle. 

On  the  detection  of  the  gunpowder  plot,  he  again  fell 
under  the  displeasure  of  government,  by  concealing  some 
of  the  agents  in  that  affair  in  his  house,  and  was  con- 

i.— Diet.  JIU k.  *  Ibid, 


demned  to  die,  but  pardoned  by  the  intercession  of  his 
brother-in-law,  lord  Morley,  who  discovered  the  plot  by 
the  famous  letter  of  warning,  which  Mrs.  Habington  is  re- 
ported to  have  written.  The  condition  of  his  pardon  was, 
that  he  should  never  stir  out  of  Worcestershire.  With 
this  he  appears  to  have  complied,  and  devoted  his  time, 
among  other  pursuits,  to  the  history  and  antiquities  of 
that  county,  of  which  he  left  three  folio  volumes  of  paro- 
chial antiquities,  two  of  miscellaneous  collections,  and  one 
relating  to  the  cathedral.  These  received  additions  from 
his  son  and  from  Dr.  Thomas,  of  whom  bishop  Lyttelton 
purchased  them,  and  presented  them  to  the  society  of 
antiquaries.  They  have  since  formed  the  foundation  of 
Dr.  Nash's  elaborate  history.  Wood  says  he  had  a  hand 
in  the  "  History  of  Edward  IV."  published  afterwards 
under  the  name  of  his  son,  the  poet,  whom  he  survived^ 
dying  in  1647,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty -seven. 

William  Habington,  his  eldest  son,  was  born  at  Hindlip, 
Nov.  5,  1605,  and  was  educated  in  the  Jesuits'  college  at 
St.  Omer's,  and  afterwards  at  Paris,  with  a  view  to  induce 
him  to  take  the  habit  of  the  order,  which  he  declined.  On 
his  return  from  the  continent  he  resided  principally  with, 
his  father,  who  became  his  preceptor,  and  evidently  sent  him 
into  the  world  a  man  of  elegant  accomplishments  and  virtues. 
Although  allied  to  some  noble  families,  and  occasionally 
mixing  in  the  gaieties  of  high  life,  his  natural  disposition 
inclined  him  to  the  purer  pleasures  of  rural  life.  He  wa» 
probably  very  early  a  poet  and'  a  lover,  and  in  both  suc- 
cessful. He  married  Lucy,  daughter  of  William  Herbert, 
first  lord  Powis,  by  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Henry  Percy, 
eighth  earl  of  Northumberland,  by  Katharine,  daughter 
and  coheir  of  John  Neville,  lord  Latimer.  It  is  to  this 
lady  that  we  are  indebted  for  his  poems,  most  of  which  were 
written  in  allusion  to  his  courtship  and  marriage.  Sha> 
was  the  CASTARA  who  animated  his  imagination  with  ten- 
derness and  elegance,  and  purified  it  from  the  grosser 
opprobria  of  the  amatory  poets.  His  poems,  as  was  not 
unusual  in  that  age,  were  written  occasionally,  and  dis- 
persed confidentially.  In  1635  they  appear  to  have  been 
first  collected  into  a  volume,  which  Oidys  calls  the  second 
edition,  under  the  title  of  "  Castara."  Another  edition 
was  published  in  1640,  which  is  by  far  the  most  perfect 
and  correct.  The  reader  to  whom  an  analysis  may  be  ne- 
cessary, will  find  a  vsry  judicious  one  in  the  last  voluai« 


of  the  "  Censura  Literaria."  His  other  works  are,  the 
"  Queen  of  Arragon,"  a  tragi- comedy,  which  was  acted 
at  court,  and  at  Black-friars,  and  printed  in  1640.  It  has 
since  been  reprinted  among  Dodsley's  Old  Plays.  The 
author  having  communicated  the  manuscript  to  Philip  earl 
of  Pembroke,  lord  chamberlain  of  the  household  to  king 
Charles  I.  he  caused  it  to  be  acted,  and  afterwards  pub- 
lished against  the  author's  consent.  It  was  revived,  with 
the  revival  of  the  stage,  at  the  restoration,  about  1666, 
when  a  new  prologue  and  epilogue  were  furnished  by  the 
author  of  Hudibras. 

Our  author  wrote  also  "  Observations  upon  History," 
Loud.  1641,  8vo,  consisting  of  some  particular  pieces  of 
history  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  II.  Richard  I.  &c.  inter- 
spersed with  political  and  moral  reflections,  similar  to  what 
he  had  introduced  in  his  larger  history,  or  "  History  of 
Edward  IV."  1640,  fol.  which,  as  Wood  asserts,  was  both 
written  and  published  at  the  desire  of  Charles  I.  He  also 
insinuates  that  Habington  <c  did  run  with  the  times,  and 
was  not  unknown  to  Oliver  the  Usurper,"  but  we  have  no 
evidence  of  any  compliance  with  a  system  of  political 
measures  so  diametrically  opposite  to  those  which  we  may 
suppose  belonged  to  the  education  and  principles  of  a 
Roman  catholic  family.  It  is,  indeed^  grossly  improbable 
that  he  should  have  complied  with  Cromwell,  who  was  as 
yet  no  usurper,  and  during  the  life  of  his  royal  master, 
whose  cause  was  not  yet  desperate.  Of  his  latter  days  we 
have  no  farther  account  than  that  he  died  Nov.  13,  1645, 
and  was  buried  at  Hendlip,  in  the  family  vault.  He  left 
a  son,  Thomas,  who  dying  without  issue,  bequeathed  his 
estate  to  sir  William  Compton. 

His  poems  are  distinguished  from  those  of  most  of  his 
contemporaries,  by  delicacy  of  sentiment,  tenderness,  and 
a  natural  strain  of  pathetic  reflection.  His  favourite  sub- 
jects, virtuous  love  and  conjugal  attachment, -are  agreeably 
varied  by  strokes  of  fancy  and  energies  of  affection. 
Somewhat  of  the  extravagance  of  the  metaphysical  poets  is 
occasionally  discernible,  but  with  very  little  affectation  of 
learning,  and  very  little  effort  to  draw  his  imagery  from 
sources  with  which  the  muses  are  not  familiar.  The  vir- 
tuous tendency  and  chaste  language  of  his  poems  form  no 
inconsiderable  part  of  their  merit,  and  his  preface  assures 
us  that  his  judgment  was  not  inferior  to  his  imagination, 


They  were  introduced  into  the  late  edition  of  the  English 
Poets,  and  have  since  been  printed  separately.1 

HACKET  (JOHN),  bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry, 
descended  from  an  ancient  family  in  Scotland,  was  born 
near  Exeter-house  in  the  Strand,  London,  September  1, 
1592.  He  was  admitted  very  young  into  Westminster- 
school,  where,  on  account  of  his  proficiency,  he  was  much 
noticed  by  Dr.  (afterwards  bishop)  Andrews,  but  then  dean 
of  Westminster.  In  1608,  along  with  Herbert  the  poet, 
he  was  elected  to  Trinity-college,  Cambridge.  His  un- 
common parts  and  learning  recommended  him  to  parti- 
cular notice  ;  so  that,  after  taking  the  proper  degrees,  he 
was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college,  and  became  a  tutor  of 
great  repute.  One  month  in  the  long  vacation,  retiring 
with  his  pupil,  afterwards  lord  Byron,  to  Newstede  abbey, 
Nottinghamshire,  he  composed  a  Latin  comedy  entitled 
"  Loyola,"  which  was  twice  acted  before  James  I.  and 
printed  in  1648.  He  took  orders  in  1618,  and  was  col- 
lated to  the  rectory  of  Stoke  Hamon,  in  Buckinghamshire, 
and  had  singular  kindness  shewn  him  by  bishop  Andrews 
and  several  great  men.  But  above  all  others,  he  was  re- 
garded by  Dr.  Williams,  dean  of  Westminster  and  bishop 
of  Lincoln,  who,  being  appointed  lord-keeper  of  the  great 
seal  in  1621,  chose  Hacket  for  his  chaplain,  and  ever  pre- 
served a  high  esteem  for  him.  In  1623,  he  was  made 
chaplain  to  Jame$  I.  with  whom  he  became  a  favourite 
preacher,  and  was  also  made  a  prebendary  of  Lincoln ;  and 
the  year  following,  upon  the  lord-keeper's  recommendation, 
rector  of  St.  Andrew's,  Holborn,  in  London.  His  patron 
also  procured  him  the  same  year  the  rectory  of  Cheam,  in. 
Surrey  ;  telling  him  that  he  intended  Holborn  for  wealth, 
and  Cheam  for  health. 

When  rector  of  St.  Andrew's,  having  soon  after  the  re- 
storation, received  notice  of  the  interment  of  a  dissenter 
belonging  to  his  parish,  he  got  the  burial-office  by  heart. 
As  he  was  a  great  master  of  elocution,  and  was  himself 
always  affected  with  the  propriety  and  excellence  of  the 
composition  of  that  service,  he  delivered  it  with  such  em- 
phasis and  grace  as  touched  the  hearts  of  every  one  pre- 
sent, and  especially  of  the  friends  of  the  deceased,  who 
unanimously  declared  they  had  never  heard  a  finer  dis- 
course. But  their  astonishment  was  great,  when  they 
were  told  that  it  was  taken  from  our  liturgy,  a  book  which, 

1  Johnson  and  Chalmers's  English  Poets,  1810,  21  vols.- 


though  they  had  never  read,  they  had  heen  taught  to  re* 
gard  with  contempt  and  detestation.  This  story,  but 
without  the  name  of  Dr.  Hacket,  for  which  we  are  in- 
debted to  Mr.  Granger,  is  circumstantially  told  in  bishop 
Sprat's  excellent  "  Discourse  to  his  Clergy,"  1695.  The 
worthy  bishop  Bull,  when  a  parish  priest,  is  known  to 
have  practised  the  same  honest  art  with  like  success,  in 
using  other  offices  of  the  liturgy. 

In  1625  he  was  named  by  the  king  himself  to  attend  an 
ambassador  in  to  Germany;  but  was  dissuaded  from  the  jour- 
ney by  being  told,  that  on   account  of  his  severe  treat- 
ment of  the  Jesuits  in   his   "  Loyola,"  he   might  be  in 
danger,   though  in  an   ambassador's  train.     In   1628,  he 
commenced  D.  D.  and  in  1631  was  made  archdeacon   of 
Bedford,  to  which  charge  he  usually  went  once  in  a  year, 
and  frequently  exhorted  his  clergy  "  to  all  regular  con- 
formity to  the  doctrine  and  discipline  by  law  established, 
without  under  or  overdoing,  asserting  in  his  opinion,   that 
puritanism  lay  on  both  sides  ;   whosoever  did  more  than 
the  church  commanded,  as  well  as  less,  were  guilty  of  it; 
and  that  he  only  was  a  true  son  of  the  church,  who  broke 
riot  the  boundals  of  it  either  way."     His  church  of  St.  An- 
drew being  old  and  decayed,  he  undertook  to  rebuild  it, 
and  for  that  purpose  got  together  a  great  sum  of  money 
in  stock  and  subscriptions;   but,  upon  the  breaking  out  of 
the  civil  war,  this  was  seized  by  the  parliament,  as  well  as 
what  had  been   gathered  for  the  repair  of  St.  Paul's  ca- 
thedral.    In  March  1641,    he  was  one  of  the  sub-com- 
mittee appointed  by  the  house  of  lords  to  consult  of  what 
was  amiss  and  wanted  correction  in  the  liturgy,  in  hopes 
by  that  means  to  dispel  the  cloud  hanging  over  the  church. 
He  delivered  a  masterly  speech  against  the  bill  for  taking 
away  deans  and  chapters,   which  is  published  at  length  in 
his  life  by  Dr.  Plume.     In  March  1642  he  was  presented 
to  a  residentiary's  place  in   St.  Paul's,   London  ;  but  the 
troubles  coming  on,  he  had  no  enjoyment  of  it,  nor  of  his 
rectory  of  St.  Andrew's.     Besides,  some  of  his  parishioners 
there  having  articled  against  him  at  the  committee  of  plun- 
derers, his  friend  Seltlen  told  him  it  was  in  vain  to  make 
any  defence;  and  advised  him  to  retire  to  Cheam,  where 
he  would  endeavour  to  prevent  his  being  molested.     He 
was   disturbed   here  by  the  earl  of  Essex's  army,    who, 
marching  that  way,  took  him  prisoner  along  with  them  ; 
but  he  was  soon  after  dismissed,  and  from  that  time  lay 

H  A  C  K  E  T.  9 

hid  in  his  retirement  at  Cheam,  where  we  hear  no  more 
of  him,  except  that  in  1648-9,  he  attended  in  his  last  mo- 
ments Henry  Rich,  earl  of  Holland,  who  was  heheaded 
for  attempting  the  relief  of  Colchester. 

After  the  restoration  of  Charles  II.  he  recovered  all  his 
preferments,  and  was  offered  the  bishopric  of  Gloucester, 
which  he  refused ;  but  he  accepted  shortly  after  that  of 
Lichfield  and  Coventry,  and  was  consecrated  December 
22,  1661.  The  spring  following  he  repaired  to  Lichfield, 
where,  finding  the  cathedral  almost  battered  to  the  ground, 
he  rebuilt  it  in  eight  years,  in  a  very  magnificent  style,  at 
the  expence  of  20,000/.  of  which  he  had  1000/.  from  the 
dean  and  chapter;  and  the  rest  was  of  his  own  charge,  or 
procuring  from  benefactors.  He  laid  out  lOOOl.  upon  a 
prebendal  house,  which  he  was  forced  to  live  in,  his  palaces 
at  Lichfield  and  Ecclestiall  having  been  demolished  during 
the  civil  war.  He  added  to  Trinity  college,  in  Cambridge, 
a  building  called  Bishop's  hostel,  which  cost  him  1200/. 
ordering  that  the  rents  of  the  chambers  should  be  laid  out 
in  books  for  the  college  library.  Besides  these  acts  of 
munificence,  he  left  several  benefactions  by  will ;  as  50/. 
to  Clare-hall,  50/.  to  St.  John's  college,  and  all  his  books, 
which  cost  him  about  1500/.  to  the  university  library.  He 
died  at  Lichfield,  October  21,  1670,  and  was  buried  in  the 
cathedral,  under  a  handsome  tomb,  erected  by  his  eldest 
son  sir  Andrew  Hacket,  a  muster  in  chancery  :  he  was  twice 
married,  and  had  several  children  by  both  his  wives. 

He  published  only  the  comedy  of  "  Loyola"  above-men- 
tioned, and  "  A  Sermon  preached  before  the  king,  March 
22,  1660;"  but,  after  his  decease,  "A  Century  of  Ser- 
mons upon  several  remarkable  subjects1'  was  published  by 
Thomas  Plume,  D.  D.  in  1675,  folio,  with  his  life.  His 
sermons  are  rather  too  much  in  the  quaint  style  of  bishop 
Andrews.  In  1693  appeared  his  "  Life  of  archbishop  Wil- 
liams," folio,  of  which  an  abridgement  was  published  in 
1700,  8vo,  by  Ambrose  Philips.  He  intended  to  have 
written  the  life  of  James  I.  and  for  that  purpose  the  lord- 
keeper  Williams  had  given  him  Camden's  MS  notes  or 
annals  of  that  king's  reign  ;  but,  these  being  lost  in  the 
confusion  of  the  times,  he  was  disabled  from  doing  it. 
According  to  his  biographer,  Dr.  Plume,  he  was  zealous 
against  popery,  and  all  separation  from  the  church  of  Eng- 
land. In  the  dispute  between  the  Calvinists  and  the  Ar- 
zmuians  he  was  ever  very  moderate  ;  bu-t  being  bred  under 

10  RACKET. 

bishop  Davenant  and  Dr.  Samuel  Ward  in  Cambridge,  ad- 
hered to  their  sentiments.  He  was  exemplary  in  his  be- 
haviour, chearful  in  conversation,  hospitable,  humble,  and 
affable,  though  subject  to  great  eruptions  of  anger,  but  at 
the  same  time  very  placable  and  ready  to  be  appeased,  and 
of  too  generous  a  nature  to  be  vindictive.  When  he  was  a 
bishop  he  desired  to  hold  nothing  in  commendam  ;  he  re- 
newed all  his  leases  for  years,  and  not  for  lives,  and  upon 
very  moderate  fines,  and  spent  a  very  considerable  share 
thereof  in  the  repair  of  his  cathedrals  and  acts  of  charity. 
In  his  younger  years  he  had  been  much  addicted  to  School 
learning,  which  was  then  greatly  studied  in  the  university ; 
but  he  afterwards  grew  weary  of  it,  and  professed  "  that  he 
found  more  shadows  and  names  than  solid  juice  and  substance 
in  it,  and  would  much  dislike  their  horrid  and  barbarous 
terms,  more  proper  for  incantation  than  divinity ;  and  be- 
came perfectly  of  Beatus  Rhenanus's  mind,  that  the  school- 
men were  rather  to  be  reckoned  philosophers  than  divines ; 
but  if  any  pleased  to  account  them  such,  he  had  much 
rather,  with  St.  John  Chrysostom,  be  styled  a  pious  divine, 
than  an  invincible  or  irrefragable  one  with  Thomas  Aquinas, 
or  our  own  countryman  Alexander  Hales.  For  knowledge 
in  the  tongues,  he  would  confess  he  could  never  fix  upon 
Arabian  learning ;  the  place  was  siticulosa  regio,  a  dry  and 
barren  land,  where  no  water  is ;  and  he  being  discouraged 
in  his  younger  years,  by  such  as  had  plodded  most  in  it; 
and  often  quarrelled  with  his  great  friend  Salmasius,  for 
saying  he  accounted  no  man  solidly  learned  without  skill  in 
Arabic  and  other  eastern  languages.  Our  bishop  declared 
his  mind  otherwise,  and  bewailed  that  many  good  wits  of 
late  years  prosecuted  the  eastern  languages  so  much  as  to 
neglect  the  western  learning  and  discretion  too  sometimes. 
Mr.  Selden  and  bishop  Creighton  had  both  affirmed  to  him, 
that  they  should  often  read  ten  pages  for  one  line  of  sense, 
and  one  word  of  moment ;  and  did  confess  there  was  no 
learning  like  to  what  scholars  may  find  in  Greek  authors, 
as  Plato,  Plutarch,  &c.  and  himself  could  never  discern 
but  that  many  of  their  quotations  and  proofs  from  them 
were,  in  his  own  words,  iucerta,  et  inexplorata."  ! 

HACKSPAN   (THEODORE  or  THIERRI),  a  Lutheran  di- 
vine, and  eminent  oriental  scholar,  was  born  in  1607,  at 

1  Life  by  Dr.  Plume,  prefixed  to  his  Sermons. — Gen.  Diet. — Biog.  P.rit. — 
Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— See  a  letter  in  the  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXVl.  on  his  tomb  and 
epitaph,  written,  if  we  mistake  not,  by  Mr.  Gougli. 

H  A  C  K  S  P  A  N.  11 

Weimar.  Becoming  early  attached  to  the  study  of  sacred 
philology,  he  endeavoured  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of  the 
Oriental  languages  as  necessarily  connected  with  it,  and 
therefore,  after  attending  the  philosophical  and  theological 
schools  of  Jena  for  seven  years,  he  went  to  Altdorf,  to 
profit  hy  the  instructions  of  Schwenter,  who  was  then 
esteemed  one  of  the  ablest  Orientalists.  From  Altdorf  he 
removed  to  Helmstadt,  where  he  applied  to  his  theological 
studies  under  Calixtus,  Horneius,  and  others,  and  on  his 
return  to  Altdorf  in  1636  was  the  first  who  gave  lessons  in 
public  on  the  Oriental  languages  in  that  place.  In  1654 
lie  became  professor  of  theology,  and  in  both  situations 
evinced  great  talents  and  persevering  industry.  No  man 
in  his  time  was  better  skilled  in  the  Hebrew,  Syriac,  Chal- 
dean, and  Arabic,  and  being  the  first  who  attempted  to 
teach  these  languages,  he  wished  to  assist  his  students  by 
proper  elementary  books,  but  the  German  press  at  that 
time  was  so  deficient  in  the  requisite  types,  that  he  must 
have  abandoned  his  design  if  Jodocus  Schmidmaier,  an  ad- 
vocate at  Nuremberg,  had  not  established  a  printing-office 
properly  supplied  with  Oriental  characters;  and  at  this 
place  Hackspan  was  enabled  to  print  his  valuable  works. 
He  died  of  a  decline  in  1659.  His  principal  writings  are, 

1.  u  Tractatus  de  usu  librorum  rabbinicorum,"    1644,  4to. 

2,  "  Lucubrationes  Frankrallenses,  sive  specimen  aliquod 
interpretationum  et  expositionum,  quas   plurimas  in  diffi- 
cillima  quaeque  utriusque  Testamenti   loca   meditatus  est 
B.  C.  Bertramus,"  Altdorf,    1645,  8vo,   reprinted  in  Cre- 
nius's  "Thesaurus."    3.  "  Sylloge  disputation  ujn  theologi- 
carum  etphilologicarum,"  Altdorf,  1663,4to,  most  of  which 
were  published   before  in  separate  tracts.     4.  "  Fides  et 
leges  Mohammedis,  ex  Alcorano,"  ibid.  1646,  4to.     The 
following  appear  to  have  been  printed  after  his  death  :    5. 
"  Miscellaneorum    sacrorum    libri   duo/'  ibid.    1660.      6. 
"  Notae  philologico-theologicoe   in  varia  et  difficiliora  Ve- 
teris  et  Novi  Testamenti   loca,"  ibid.  1664,  3  vols.  8vo. 
7.  "  Observationes  Arabico-Syriacae  in  quaedam  loca  Veteris 
et  Novi  Testamenti,"  ibid.  1662,  4to,  &c. l 

HADDON  (Dr.  WALTER),  an  eminent  scholar,  and  one 
of  the  revivers  of  the  learned  languages  in  England,  was 
descended  from  a  good  family  in  Buckinghamshire,  and 

1  Moreri,  from  the  "  Gloria  academiae  AltdorCnae." — Le  Long  Bibl.  Sacra.—. 
Saxii  Onomast. 

12  H  A  D  D  O  N. 

born  in  1516.  He  was  educated  at  Eton  school,  under 
Dr.  Richard  Cox,  afterwards  bishop  of  Ely,  and  was  thence 
elected  to  King's  college,  in  Cambridge;  where  he  greatly 
distinguished  himself  by  his  parts  and  learning,  and  par- 
ticularly by  writing  Latin  in  an  elegant,  but,  as  Mr.  War- 
ton  thinks,  not  a  very  pure  style.  He  studied  also  the  civil 
law,  of  which  he  became  doctor ;  and  read  public  lectures 
in  it  in  1547,  and  the  two  years  following,  arid  was  so  much 
approved,  that  upon  a  vacancy  in  the  professor's  chair  in 
.1550,  the  university  employed  the  celebrated  Ascham  to 
write  to  king  Edward  VI.  in  his  favour.  He  was  accord- 
ingly appointed  professor,  and  was  also  for  some  time  pro- 
fessor of  rhetoric  and  orator  .of  the  university.  During 
king  Edward's  reign,  he  was  one  of  the  most  illustrious 
promoters  of  the  reformation;  and  therefore,  upon  the 
deprivation  of  Gardiner,  was  thought  a  proper  person  to 
succeed  him  in  the  mastership  of  Trinity-hall.  In  Sep- 
tember 1552,  through  the  earnest  recommendation  of  the 
court,  though  not  qualified  according  to  the  statutes,  he 
was  chosen  president  of  Magdalen  college  in  Oxford  ;  but, 
in  October  1553,  upon  the  accession  of  queen  Mary,  he 
quitted  the  president's  place  for  fear  of  being  expelled,  or 
perhaps  worse  used,  at  Gardiner's  visitation  of  the  said 
college.  He  is  supposed  to  have  lain  concealed  in  Eng- 
land all  this  reign  ;  but,  on  the  accession  of  Elizabeth,  was 
ordered  by  the  privy  council  to  repair  to  her  majesty  at 
Hatfield  in  Hertfordshire,  and  soon  after  was  constituted 
by  her  one  of  the  masters  of  the  court  of  requests.  Arch- 
bishop Parker  also  made  him  judge  of  his  prerogative- 
court.  In  the  royal  visitation  of  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge, performed  in  the  beginning  of  Elizabeth's  reign, 
he  was  one  of  her  majesty's  commissioners,  as  appears  by 
the  speech  he  then  made,  printed  among  bis  works.  In 
1566  he  was  one  of  the  three  agents  sent  to  Bruges  to  re- 
store commerce  between  England  and  the  Netherlands 
upon  the  ancient  terms.  He  died  Jan/21,  1571-2,  and 
was  buried  in  Christ  Church,  London,  where  a  monument 
was  erected  to  his  memory,  but  was  destroyed  in  the  great 
fire  of  Lofndon.  He  was  engaged,  with  sir  John  Cheke, 
in  turning  into  Latin  and  drawing  up  that  useful  code  of 
ecclesiastical  law,  published  in  1571,  by  the  learned  John 
Fox,  under  this  title,  "  Reformatio  Legum  Ecclesiastica- 
rum,"  in  4to.  He  published,  in  1563,  a  letter,  or  answer 
tp  an  epistle,  directed  to  queen  Elizabeth,  by  Je,rom  Osorio, 

H  A  D  D  O  N.  IS 

bishop  of  Silva  in  Portugal,  and  entitled  "  Admonitio  ad 
Elizabethan!  reginam  Anglise,"  in  which  the  English  na- 
tion, and  the  reformation  of  the  church,  were  treated  in  a 
scurrilous  manner.  His  other  works  were  collected  and 
published  in  1567,  4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Lucubra- 
tiones."  This  collection  contains  ten  Latin  orations,  four- 
teen letters,  besides  the  above-mentioned  to  Osorio ;  and 
also  poems.  Several  of  his  original  letters  are  in  the  Har- 
leian  collection  ;  and  his  poems,  "  Poemata,"  containing  a 
great  number  of  metrical  epitaphs,  were  separately  pub- 
lished with  his  life  in  1576.  Many  of  our  writers  speak  in 
high  terms  of  Haddon,  and  not  without  reason  ;  for,  through, 
every  part  of  his  writings,  his  piety  appears  equal  to  his 
learning.  When  queen  Elizabeth  was  asked  whether  she 
preferred  him  or  Buchanan  ?  she  replied,  "  Buchananum 
omnibus  antepono,  Haddonum  nemini  postpono."  * 


HAEN  (  ANTHONY  DE),  professor  of  medicine  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Vienna,  was  born  at  Leyden  in  1704,  and  edu- 
cated under  the  celebrated  Boerhaave.  After  having  re- 
ceived the  degree  of  M.  D.  at  his  native  place,  he  settled 
at  the  Hague,  where  he  practised  with  success  for  nearly 
twenty  years.  Baron  Van  Swieten  being  acquainted  with 
the  extent  of  his  talents,  invited  him  to  remove  to  Vienna, 
with  the  view  of  uniting  with  him  in  the  proposed  plan  of 
reform,  which  he  had  prevailed  on  the  empress  to  support, 
in  the  medical  faculty  of  that  capital.  De  Haen  accord- 
ingly repaired  to  that  city  in  1754  ;  and  his  merits  were 
found  fully  equal  to  the  expectations  that  had  been  formed 
of  them.  At  the  express  command  of  Maria  Theresa,  he 
undertook  a  system  of  clinical  education,  in  the  hospital 
which  he  superintended,  as  the  most  advantageous  method 
of  forming  good  physicians  :  the  result  of  this  duty  was  the 
collection  of  a  great  number  of  valuable  observations,  which 
were  published  in  the  successive  volumes  of  the  work  en- 
titled "  Ratio  Medendi  in  Nosocomio  Practico,"  Vienna, 
1757,  which  amounted  ultimately  to  sixteen.  He  died 
Sept.  5,  1776,  at  the  age  of  seventy- two. 

He  published  other  medical  works  of  considerable  repu- 
tation, but  added  little  to  his  fame  by  the  last  of  them, 

1  Eiog.  Brit. — Alumni  Etonenses. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. — Strype's  Cranmer,  pv 
134,  231,  249.— Strype's  Parker,  p.  28,  43,  82,  105,  222,  365.— Warton's 
Hist,  of  Poetry. — Lloyd's  State  Worthies. — Peck's  Desiderata. — Nichols's  Pjc- 
$ress«g  of  Queeu  ElizaVeU^—Gent,  Mag.  vol.  LXXXI.  part  2nd.  p.  414. 


"  De  Magia,"  1775,  in  which  he  attempted  to  prove  the 
reality  of  magical  operations.1 

HAGEDORN  (FREDERIC),  a  celebrated  German  poet 
of  the  last  century,  was  born  at  Hamburgh  in  1708.  His 
father  was  minister  from  the  king  of  Denmark  to  the  circles 
of  Lower  Saxony,  a  well  informed  man,  who  associated 
with  men  of  letters,  and  was  capable  of  giving  a  direction 
to  his  son's  studies  suitable  to  his  genius.  By  various  mis- 
fortunes, however,  he  lost  his  property,  and  died  when  our 
poet  was  only  fourteen,  and  very  ill  provided  for  the  liberal 
education  which  his  father  intended.  His  mother  endea- 
voured to  make  up  this  loss  by  placing  him  at  a  college  at 
Hamburgh,  where,  having  previously  imbibed  a  taste  for 
poetry,  he  read  the  ancient  as  well  a*  the  modern  poets 
with  eagerness  and  assiduity.  Without  the  help  of  a  mas- 
ter, or  the  salutary  aid  of  criticism,  he  endeavoured  to 
draw  from  his  own  stock  the  power  of  dissipating  the  fogs 
of  dulness  in  the  north,  as  Haller  had  done  in  the  south  of 
German}-.  In  1728  or  1729,  he  published  a  small  collec- 
tion of  poems,  which  have  many  marks  of  youth,  and 
though  his  versification  is  free,  and  his  language  often  very 
pure,  the  thoughts  are  frequently  cold,  and  the  expression 
too  concise.  In  subjects  which  require  little  taste  and 
philosophy,  he  has  succeeded  better  than  in  works  of  sen- 
timent and  imagination.  Of  his  taste  at  this  time,  he  has 
given  a  bad  specimen  in  his  satire  entitled  "  The  Poet,"  in 
which  he  puts  Pietsch  by  the  side  of  Virgil. 

About  this  time  (1729),  he  came  to  London  with  the 
Danish  ambassador,  baron  Stoelenthal,  and  here  he  com- 
posed some  of  his  most  beautiful  odes,  and  his  best  songs. 
In  1733  he  was  appointed  secretary  of  the  English  factory 
at  Hamburgh,  which  united  him  with  our  countrymen, 
whom  he  always  esteemed.  In  1734  he  married  the 
daughter  of  an  English  taylor,  of  the  name  of  Butler,  a 
step  which  does  not  seem  to  have  added  to  his  happiness. 
In  1738  he  published  the  first  volume  of  his  "Fables,"  an 
original  work,  which  contributed  much  to  his  reputation.  In 
1740,  he  composed  the  beautiful  satire  of  "  The  Philoso- 
pher;" in  1741,  the  sublime  picture  of  the  "Sage;"  in 
1742,  the  Universal  Prayer,  from  the  Paraphrase  of  Pope  ; 
and,  in  1743,  his  celebrated  poem  on  "  Happiness."  This 
last  piece  is  equally  favourable  to  his  opinions  and  his 

1  Diet,  Hist.--Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 

H  A  G  E  D  O  R  N.  15 

poetical  talents.  His  modest  muse  does  not  succeed  in 
sublime  descriptions,  or  the  dithirambic  flights :  it  has 
more  of  the  elegance  that  pleases,  than  the  splendour  that 
dazzles ;  more  Socratic  wisdom,  than  oriental  sublimity. 
His  Moral  Poems  are  like  the  Sermones  of  Horace.  His 
"  Considerations  on  some  of  the  Attributes  of  God"  con- 
tains the  sublimest  passages  of  Scripture  :  "  The  Prattler'* 
is  a  dialogue  full  of  familiar  descriptions  of  human  life : 
*/  The  Letter  to  a  Friend"  is  an  instructive  commentary 
on  the  "  Nil  Adrnirari"  of  Horace.  Various  other  pieces 
followed;  but,  in  1750,  he  first  excited  the  gaiety  of  his 
nation,  by  mixing  sports  and  graces  with  the  solemn  poetry 
of  the  Germans.  His  odes  and  songs  are  highly  pleasing. 
Nature,  sprightliness,  simplicity,  enthusiasm,  and  harmony, 
unite  to  render  them  seductive  :  for  spirit  and  elegance, 
he  may  be  said  to  resemble  our  own  Prior. 

The  second  edition  of  his  "  Moral  Poems"  appeared  in 
1752,  with  a  considerable  supplement,  and  many  new  epi- 
grams. In  1754,  was  published  an  enlarged  edition  of  his 
songs,  with  a  translation  of  two  discourses,  on  the  songs  of 
the  Greeks,  by  Ebert.  In  this  year  he  died  of  a  dropsy, 
aged  only  forty-seven.  His  works  have  gone  through  so 
many  editions,  that  they  may  be  considered  as  perpetuatiirg 
his  reputation,  and  placing  him  among  the  standard  poets 
of  his  country. — He  had  a  brother,  CHRISTIAN  LEWIS  Hage- 
dorn,  who  was  born  at  Hamburgh  in  1717,  and  died  at 
Dresden  in  1780,  counsellor  of  legation  and  director  of 
the  academy  of  arts  in  Saxony.  He  wrote  a  work  entitled 
"  Meditations  on  Painting,"  one  of  the  few  which  the  Ger- 
mans think  have  not  been  equalled  by  their  neighbours ; 
"  Lettre  a  un  Amateur  de  Peinture,"  1755,  and  many 
pieces  in  the  Leipsic  Journal  entitled  "  The  Library  of  the 
Fine  Arts,"  to  the  progress  of  which  arts  in  Saxony  he  con- 
tributed greatly.1 

HAHN  (SiMON  FREDERIC),  ayoungrnan  of  extraordinary 
talents,  was  born  at  Bergen,  in  the  duchy  of  Hanover,  in 
1692.  He  soon  acquired  an  extensive  knowledge  of  the 
learned  languages,  and  when  he  was  only  fourteen  years 
of  age,  he  pronounced,  at  the  university  of  Halle,  a  Latin 
harangue  on  the  origin  of  the  monastery  of  Bergen,  which 
was  printed  with  some  other  pieces.  In  1703,  he  published 

1  Bilduise,  &c.  Portraits  of  Illustrious  Germans,  from  Crit,  Rev,  vol.  XI.  N.S, 
~Maty's  Review,  vol.  VIII.  p.  102^ 

1C  H  A  H  N. 

a  continuation  of  the  "  Chronicon  Bergense"  of  Meibo- 
mius;  and,  in  171  1,  printed  two  "Dissertations;"  one  on 
"  Henry  the  Fowler,"  the  other  on  the  kingdom  of  Aries, 
which  do  him  great  honour.  After  giving  public  lectures 
fo'r  some  years  at  Halie,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  his- 
tory at  Helmstadt,  though  but  twenty-four  years  old,  and 
afterwards  was  made  counsellor,  historiographer,  and  libra- 
rian to  his  Britannic  majesty  at  Hanover.  He  died  in  1729, 
leaving  the  first  four  volumes  of  a  "  History  of  the  Empire;17 
and  "  Collectio  Monumentorum  veterum  et  recentium  in- 
editorum,"  2  vols.  8vo,  &C.1 

HAILLAN  (BERNARD  DE  GIRARD,  lord  of),  a  French 
historian,  of  an  ancient  family,  was  born  at  Bourdeaux  about 
1535.  He  went  to  court  at  twenty  years  of  age,  and  in 
1556  and  1557  was  secretary  to  Francis  de  Noailles,  bishop 
of  Acqs,  in  his  embassies  to  England  and  Venice.  After 
that,  his  first  appearance  in  the  republic  of  letters  was  in 
the  quality  of  a  poet  and  translator.  In  1559,  he  published 
a  poem,  entitled  "  The  Union  of  the  Princes,  by  the  Mar- 
riages of  Philip  King  of  Spain  and  the  Lady  Elizabeth  of 
France,  and  of  Philibert  Emanuel  Duke  of  Savoy,  and  the 
Lady  Margaret  of  France ;"  and  another  entitled  "  The 
Tomb  of  the  most  Christian  King  Henry  II."  In  1560  he 
published  an  abridged  translation  of  "  Tully's  Offices,7' 
and  of  "  Eutropius's  Roman  History;"  and,  in  1568,  of 
"  The  Life  of  JEmilius  Probus."  He  applied  himself 
afterwards  to  the  writing  of  history,  and  succeeded  so  well, 
that  by  his  first  performances  of  this  nature,  he  obtained 
of  Charles  IX.  the  title  of  Historiographer  of  France  1571. 
He  had  published  the  year  before  at  Paris  a  book  entitled 
"  Of  the  State  and  Success  of  the  Affairs  of  France  ;"  which 
was  reckoned  very  curious,  and  was  often  reprinted.  He 
augmented  it  in  several  successive  editions,  and  dedicated  it 
to  Henry  IV.  in  1594  :  the  best  editions  of  it  are  those  of 
Paris  1609  and  1613,  in  8vo.  He  had  published  also  the 
same  year  a  work  entitled  "  Of  the  Fortune  and  Power  of 
France,  with  a  Summary  Discourse  on  the  Design  of  a  His- 
tory of  France  :"  though  Niceron  suspects  that  this  may  be 
the  same  with  "The  Promise  and  Design  of  the  History  of 
France,"  which  he  published  in  1571,  in  order  to  let 
Charles  IX.  see  what  he  might  expect  from  him  in  support 
of  the  great  honour  he  had  conferred  of  historiographer  of 

1  Uibi.  Germanique,  vol.  XXII.—  Moreri.— Diet,  Hist. 

ti  A  I  L  L  A  tf.  17 

France.  In  1576,  he  published  a  history,  which  reaches 
from  Phararnond  to  the  death  of  Charles  VII.  and  was  the 
first  who  composed  a  body  of  the  French  history  in  French. 
Henry  III.  shewed  his  satisfaction  with  this  by  the  advan- 
tageous and  honourable  gratifications  he  made  the  author. 
The  reasons  which  induced  de  Haillan  to  conclude  his 
work  with  Charles  Vllth's  death  were,  that  the  event  being- 
recent,  he  must  eitlier  conceal  the  truth,  or  provoke  the 
resentment  of  men  in  power,  but  he  afterwards  promised 
Henry  IV.  to  continue  this  history  to  his  time,  as  may  be 
\een  in  his  dedication  to  him  of  this  work  in  1594  ;  nothing 
however  of  this  kind  was  found  among  his  papers  after  his 
death  :  the  booksellers,  who  added  a  continuation  to  his 
work  as  far  as  to  1615,  and  afterwards  as  far  as  to  1627, 
took  it  from  Paulus  ^Emilius,  de  Comines,  Arnoul  Ferron, 
du  Bellay,  &c. 

Du  Haillan  died  at  Paris,  Nov.  23,  1610.  Dupleix 
remarks,  that  he  was  originally  a  protestant,  but  changed 
his  religion,  in  order  to  ingratiate  himself  at  court.  His 
dedications  and  prefaces  indeed  shew,  that  he  was  not 
very  disinterested  either  as  to  fame  or  fortune.  He  dis- 
plays his  labours  too  ostentatiously,  and  the  success  of  his 
books,  their  several  editions,  translations,  &c.  and  he  too 
palpably  manifests  that  species  of  puffing  quackery  which 
disgraces  the  literary  character.1 

HAKEWILL  (GEORGE),  a  learned  English  divine,  was 
the  son  of  a  merchant  in  Exeter,  and  born  there  in  1579. 
After  a  proper  education  in  classical  literature,  he  was  ad- 
mitted of  St.  Alban's-hall,  in  Oxford,  in  1595,  where  he 
became  so  noted  a  disputant  and  orator,  that  he  was  unani- 
mously elected  fellow  of  Exeter  college  at  two  years  stand- 
ing. He  then  studied  philosophy  and  divinity,  and  having 
received  holy  orders,  travelled  abroad.  In  1610  he  was 
admitted  to  the  reading  of  the  sentences,  and  in  1611  took 
his  degrees  in  divinity.  He  was  afterwards  made  chaplain 
to  prince  Charles,  and  archdeacon  of  Surrey,  in  16]  6  ;  but 
never  rose  to  any  higher  dignity,  on  account  of  the  zealous 
opposition  he  made  to  the  match  of  the  infanta  of  Spain 
with  the  prince  his  master.  Wood  relates  the  story  thus  : 
After  Hakevvill  had  written  a  small  tract  against  that  match, 
not  without  reflecting  on  the  Spaniard,  he  caused  it  to  be 
transcribed  in  a  fair  hand,  and  then  presented  it  to  the 

1  Niceron,  vol.  XIV. — Gen.  Diet.— Moren, 


IS  H  A  K  E  W  I  L  L. 

prince.  The  prince  perused  it,  and  shewed  it  to  the  king  ; 
who,  being  highly  offended  at  it,  caused  the  author  to  be 
imprisoned,  in  August  1621  ;  soon  after  which,  being  re- 
leased, he  was  dismissed  from  his  attendance  on  the  prince. 
He  was  afterwards  elected  rector  of  Exeter  college,  but 
resided  very  little  there,  although  he  proved  a  liberal  be- 
nefactor to  the  college  ;  for,  the  civil  war  breaking  out,  he 
retired  to  his  rectory  of  Heanton  near  Barnstaple  in  De- 
vonshire, and  there  continued  to  the  time  of  his  death  in 
1649.  He  wrote  several  things,  enumerated  by  Wood  ; 
but  his  principal  work,  and  that  for  which  he  is  most 
known,  is  "  An  Apology  or  Declaration  of  the  Power  and 
Providence  of  God  in  the  Government  of  the  World,  prov- 
ing that  it  doth  not  decay,  &c."  in  four  books,  1627.  To 
which  were  added  two  more  in  the  third  edition,  1635,  in 

He  had  a  brother  JOHN,  who  was  mayor  of  Exeter  in  1632; 
and  an  elder  brother  WILLIAM,  who  was  of  Exeter  college, 
and  removed  thence  to  Lincoln's-inn,  where  he  arrived  at 
eminence  in  the  study  of  the  common  law.  He  was  always 
a  puritan,  and  therefore  had  great  interest  with  the  pre- 
vailing party  in  the  civil  war.  He  published  some  pieces 
in  his  own  way ;  and,  among  the  rest,  "  The  Liberty  of 
the  Subject  against  the  pretended  Power  of  Impositions, 
&c.  1641,"  4to.! 

HAKLUYT  (RICHARD),  an  eminent  naval  historian,  was 
descended  from  an  ancient  family  at  Eyton  or  Yetton,  in 
Herefordshire,  and  born  about  1553.  He  was  trained  up 
at  Westminster  school;  and,  in  1570,  removed  to  Christ 
church  college  in  Oxford.  While  he  was  at  school,  he 
used  to  visit  his  cousin  Richard  Hakluyt,  of  Eyton,  esq.  at 
his  chambers  in  the  Middle  Temple,  a  gentleman  well 
known  and  esteemed,  not  only  by  some  principal  ministers 
of  state,  but  also  by  the  most  noted  persons  among  the 
mercantile  and  maritime  part  of  the  kingdom,  as  a  great 
encourager  of  navigation,  and  the  improvement  of  trade, 
arts,  and  manufactures.  At  this  gentleman's  chambers 
young  Hakluyt  met  with  books  or'  cosmography,  voyages, 
travels,  and  maps ;  and  was  so  pleased  with  them,  that  he 
resolved  to  direct  his  studies  that  way,  to  which  he  was  not 
a  little  encouraged  by  his  cousin.  For  this  purpose,  as 

•  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Walker's.  Si.ftVfings  of  the  Clerey.— Lloyd's  Memoirs, 
folio,  p.  540.— Usher'*  Life  and  Letter*,  t>,  393. 

H  A  K  L  U  Y  f .  19 

soon  as  he  got  to  Oxford,  he  made  himself  master  of  the 
modern  as  well  as  ancient  languages  ;  and  then  read  over 
whatever  printed  or  written  discourses  of  voyages  and  dis- 
coveries, naval  enterprizes,  and  adventures  of  all  kinds,  he 
found  either  extant  in  Greek^  Latin,  Italian,  Spanish,  Por- 
tuguese, French,  or  English.  By  such  means  he  became 
so  conspicuous  in  this  new  branch  of  science,  that  he  was 
chosen  to  read  public  lectures  on  naval  matters  at  Oxford, 
and  was  the  first  who  introduced  maps,  globes,  spheres,  and 
other  instruments  of  the  art,  into  the  common  schools.  The: 
zeal  and  knowledge  he  displayed  made  him  acquainted 
with  and  respected  by  the  principal  sea-commanders,  mer- 
chants, and  manners  of  our  nation  ;  and^  though  it  was  but 
a  few  years  after  that  he  went  beyond  sea,  yet  his  fame 
travelled  thither  long  before  him.  He  held  a  correspond- 
ence with  the  learned  in  these  matters  abroad,  as  with  Or- 
telius,  the  king  of  Spain's  cosmographer,  Mercator,  &c. 

In  1582,  he  published  a  small  "  Collection  of  Voyages 
and  Discoveries  ;"  in  the  epistle  dedicatory  of  which  to 
Mr.  Philip  Sidney  it  appears,  that  his  lecture  upon  naviga- 
tion above  mentioned  was  so  well  approved  of  by  sir  Francis 
Drake,  that  the  latter  made  some  proposals  to  continue 
and  establish  it  in  Oxford.  The  same  year,  he  was  much 
encouraged  by  secretary  Walsingham  to  pursue  the  study 
of  cosmography,  and  to  persevere  in  the  same  commend- 
able collections  and  communications.  The  secretary  also 
gave  him  a  commission  to  confer  with  the  mayor  and  mer- 
chants of  Bristol,  upon  the  naval  expedition  they  were  un- 
dertaking to  Newfoundland  ;  and  incited  him  to  impart  to 
them  such  intelligence  as  he  should  think  useful.  Hakluyt 
readily  complied,  and  in  acknowledgment  of  the  services 
he  had  done  them,  the  secretary  sent  him  a  very  polite 
letter,  which  is  printed  in  the  third  volume  of  his  voyages 
in  folio. 

About  1584,  he  attended  sir  Edward  Stafford  as  his 
chaplain,  when  that  gentleman  went  over  ambassador  to 
France ;  and  continued  there  some  years  with  him,  and 
during  his  absence,  being  then  master  of  arts  and  in  order^ 
he  was  made  a  prebendary  of  Bristol.  While  at  Paris,  he 
contracted  an  acquaintance  with  all  the  eminent  mathema- 
ticians, cosmographers,  and  other  persons  of  a  similar  taste 
with  himself.  He  inquired  after  every  thing  that  had  any 
relation  to  our  English  discoveries ;  and  prevailed  with 
some  to  search  their  libraries  for  the  same*  At  last,  hav- 

c  2 

20  H  A  K  L  U  Y  T. 

ing  met  with  a  narrative  in  MS.  containing  "  The  notable 
History  of  Florida,"  which  had  been  discovered  about 
twenty  years  before  by  captain  Loudonniere  and  other 
French  adventurers,  he  procured  the  publication  of  it  at 
Paris  at  his  own  expence  in  1586;  and  in  May  1587,  he 
published  an  English  translation  of  it,  which  he  dedicated , 
after  the  example  of  the  French  editor,  to  sir  Walter 
Raleigh.  The  same  year  he  published  a  new  edition  of 
Peter  Martyr's  book,  entitled  "  De  Orbe  Novo,"  illustrated 
with  marginal  notes,  a  commodious  index,  a  map  of  New 
England  and  America,  and  a  copious  dedication,  also,  to 
sir  Walter  Raleigh  ;  and  this  book  he  afterwards  caused  to 
be  translated  into  English. 

Hakluyt  returned  to  England  in  the  memorable  year 
1588,  and  applied  himself  to  methodize  the  naval  history 
of  England  more  accurately  and  more  extensively  than  had 
ever  yet  been  attempted,  in  which  he  was,  as  usual,  en- 
couraged by  sir  Walter  Raleigh.  He  applied  himself  also 
to  collect,  translate,  and  digest,  all  voyages,  journals,  nar- 
ratives, patents,  letters,  instructions,  &c.  relating  to  the 
English  navigations,  which  he  could  procure  either  in  print 
or  MS.  ;  and  towards  the  end  of  1589  he  published  these 
collections  in  one  volume  folio,  with  a  dedication  to  sir 
Francis  Walsingham,  who  was  a  principal  patron  and  pro- 
moter of  the  work.  About  1594  he  entered  into  the  state 
of  matrimony,  which  did  not  divert  him  from  going  on 
with  his  collections  of  English  voyages,  till  he  had  in- 
creased them  to  three  volumes  folio  :  and,  as  he  was  per- 
petually employed  himself,  he  did  not  cease  to  invite 
others  to  the  same  useful  labours.  Thus,  Mr.  John  Pory, 
whom  he  calls  his  honest,  industrious,  and  learned  friend, 
undertook,  at  his  instigation,  and  probably  under  his  in- 
spection, to  translate  from  the  Spanish  "  Leo's  Geogra- 
phical History  of  Africa,"  which  was  published  at  London, 
1600,  in  folio.  Hakluyt  himself  appeared  in  1601,  with 
the  translation  of  another  history,  written  by  Antonio  Gal- 
vano  in  the  Portuguese  tongue,  and  corrected  and  amended 
by  himself.  This  history  was  printed  in  4to,  and  contains 
a  compendious  relation  of  the  most  considerable  discoveries 
in  various  parts  of  the  universe  from  the  earliest  to  the 
later  times. 

In  1605  he  was  made  a  prebendary  of  Westminster; 
which,  with  the  rectory  of  Wetheringset  in  Suffolk,  is  all 
the  ecclesiastical  promotion  \ve  find  he  obtained.  About 

H  A  K  L  U  Y  T.  21 

this  time  the  translation  of  Peter  Martyr's  "  History  of  the 
West  Indies"  was  undertaken,  and  first  published  by  Mr. 
Lock,  at  the  request  and  encouragement  of  our,  author: 
for,  besides  his  own  publications  of  naval  history,  far  su- 
perior to  any  thing  of  the  like  kind  that  had  ever  appeared 
in  this  kingdom,  he  was  no  less  active  in  encouraging 
others  to  translate  and  familiarize  among  us  the  conquests 
and  discoveries  of  foreign  adventurers.  This,  and  the 
spirit  with  which  he  also  animated  those  of  his  countrymen 
who  were  engaged  in  naval  eriterprizes,  by  his  useful  com- 
munications, gained  the  highest  esteem  and  honour  to  his 
name  and  memory,  from  mariners  of  all  ranks,  in  the  most 
distant  nations  no  less  than  his  own.  Of  this  there  are 
several  instances  ;  and  particularly  in  those  northern  dis- 
coveries made  at  the  charges  of  the  Muscovy  merchants  in 
1608,  under  captain  W.  Hudson:  when  among  other 
places  there  denominated,  on  the  continent  of  Greenland, 
which  were  formerly  discovered,  they  distinguished  an 
eminent  promontory,  lying  in  80  degrees  northward,  by 
the  name  of  Hakluyt's  Headland.  In  1609  he  published  a 
translation  from  the  Portuguese  of  an  history  of  Virginia, 
entitled  "Virginia  richly  valued,  by  the  description  of  the 
rpaine  land  of  Florida,  her  next  neighbour,  &c."  and  de- 
dicated to  the  right  worshipful  counsellors,  and  others  the 
chearful  adventurers  for  the  advancement  of  that  Christian 
and  noble  plantation  of  Virginia. 

In  1611  we  find  Edmund  Hakluyt,  the  son  of  our  author, 
entered  a  student  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge.  In  the 
same  year,  the  northern  discoverers,  in  a  voyage  to  Peckora 
in  Russia,  called  a  full  and  active  current  they  arrived  at, 
by  the  name  of  Hakluyt's  River;  and,  in  1614,  it  appears 
that  the  banner  and  arms  of  the  king  of  England  were 
erected  at  Hakluyt's  Headland  above-mentioned.  Our 
historian  died  November  23,  1616,  and  was  buried  in 
Westminster-abbey.  His  MS  remains,  which  might  have 
made  another  volume,  falling  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Pur- 
chas,  were  dispersed  by  him  throughout  his  "  Pilgrimage," 
printed  1613 — 1625,  in  5  vols.  fol.  His  own  work,  having 
become  uncommonly  scarce,  was  lately  reprinted  in  five 
handsome  quarto  volumes,  with  some  valuable  additions.  * 

HALDE  (JoiiN  BAPTIST  DU)  the  historian  of  China,  was 
born  at  Paris,  Feb.  1,  1674,  and  entered  into  the  society 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Oldys's  Librarian,  p.  136. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  L— Locke's  "  Ex« 
flapatory  Catalogue  of  Voyages,— Clarke's  Progress  of  Maritime  Discovery. 

22  H  A  L  D  E. 

of  the  Jesuits.  In  1708  be  was  removed  to  one  of  their 
houses  in  Paris,  where  he  was  employed  in  collecting  and 
publishing  the  letters  received  from  their  missionaries 
abroad.  He  was  also  secretary  to  father  Tellier,  the  king's 
confessor,  and  director  of  the  corporation  of  artisans.  In 
the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  was  much  afflicted  with  the 
ague,  but  bore  it  with  great  resignation.  He  was  a  man  of 
an  amiable  temper,  and  of  great  zeal  in  his  profession. 
He  died  at  Paris,  Aug.  18,  1743.  He  published  various 
complimentary  Latin  poems,  and  some  pious  works;  but 
was  principally  known  for  his  share  in  the  *'  Lettres  edifi- 
antes  et  curieuses,1'  or  correspondence  from  the  Jesuit 
missionaries,  which  he  published  from  collection  9th  to 
the  26th  ;  and  for  his  "  Description  geographique,  histo- 
riqae,  chronologique,  et  physique  de  Tempire  de  la  Chine, 
et  de  la  Tartarie  Chinoise,"  Paris,  1735,  4  vols.  fol.  which 
has  been  often  reprinted,  and  considered  as  the  most  am- 
ple history  we  have  of  the  Chinese  empire.  It  was  trans- 
lated into  English  soon  after  its  appearance,  by  persons 
employed  by  Cave,  the  printer,  and  another  translation 
having  been  attempted  at  the  same  time,  occasioned  a 
controversy,  the  particulars  of  which  may  amuse  the  reader.1 
HALE  (Sir  MATTHEW),  a  most  learned  lawyer,  an$ 
upright  judge,  was  born  at  Alderley,  in  Gloucestershire, 
November  J,  1609.  His  father  was  a  barrister  of  Lincoln's 
Inn,  a  man  of  such  tenderness  of  conscience,  as  to  with- 
draw from  his  profession  because  unwilling  to  tamper  with 
truth  in  giving  that  colour  to  pleadings  which  barristers 
call  «  doing  their  best  for  their  client;"  and  this,  with 
some  other  practices,  customary  in  those  days,  appearing 
unworthy  of  his  character,  he  retired  to  his  estate  in  the 
country,  where  he  died  in  1614,  at  which  time  his  son  was 
but  five  years  old.  His  wife  having  died  two  years  before, 
their  son  was  committed  to  the  guardianship  of  Anthony 
Kingscot,  esq.  to  whom  he  was  related,  and  by  whom,  for 
grammatical  learning,  he  was  placed  under  the  care  of 
Mr.  Staunton,  vicar  of  Wotton-under-Edge,  a  noted  pu- 
ritan. In  1626  he  was  admitted  of  Magdalen-hall,  Oxford, 
under  the*  tuition  of  Obadiah  Sedgwick,  another  puritan, 
where  he  laid  the  foundation  of  that  learning  and  know- 
ledge, on  which  he  afterwards  raised  so  vast  a  superstruc- 
ture. Here,  however,  he  fell  into  many  levitres  and  exr 

1  Nichols's  Bovcyer. — Moreri. 

HALE.  23 

travagances,  and  was  preparing  to  go  along  with  his  tutor, 
who  went  chaplain  to  lord  Vere  into  the  Low  Countries, 
with  a  resolution  of  entering  himself  into  the  prince  of 
Orange's  army,  when  he  was  diverted  from  this  design  by 
being  engaged  in  a  law-suit  with  sir  William  Whitmore, 
who  laid  claim  to  part  of  his  estate.     Afterwards,   by  the 
persuasions  of  Serjeant  Glanville,  who  happened  to  be  his 
counsel  in   this  case,  and  had  an  opportunity  of  observing 
his  capacity,  he  resolved   upon  the  study  of  the  law,  and 
was  admitted  of  Lincoln's  Inn,  November  8,  1629.     Sen- 
sible of  the  time  he  had  lost  in  frivolous  pursuits,  he  now- 
studied  at  the  rate  of  sixteen  hours  a  day,  and  threw  aside 
all  appearance  of  vanity  in  his  apparel.     He  is  said,  in- 
deed, to  have  neglected  his  dress  so  much,  that,  being  a 
strong  and  well-built  man,  he  was  once  taken  by  a  press- 
gang,  as  a  person  very  fit  for  sea-service;   which  pleasant 
mistake  made  him  regard  more  decency  in  his  cloaths  for 
the  future,  though  never  to  any  degree  of  extravagant 
finery.     What  confirmed   him   still  more  in  a  serious  and 
regular  way  of  life,  was  an  accident,  which  is  related  to 
have  befallen   one  of  his  companions.     Hale,  with  other 
young  students  of  the  inn,  being  invited  out  of  town,  one 
of  the  company  called   for  so  much  wine,  that,  notwith- 
standing all  Hale  could  do  to  prevent  it,  he  went  on  in  his 
excess  till  he  fell  down  in  a  fit,  seemingly  dead,  and  was 
with  some  difficulty  recovered.     This  particularly  affected 
Hale,  in  whom  the  principles  of  religion  had  been  early 
implanted,  and  therefore  retiring  into  another  room,  and, 
falling  down  upon  his  knees,  he  prayed  earnestly  to  God, 
both  for  his  friend,  that  he  might  be  restored  to  life  again, 
and  for  himself,  that  he  might  be  forgiven  for  being  pre- 
sent and  countenancing  so  much  excess  :  and  he  vowed  to 
God,  that  he  would  never  again  keep  company  in   that 
manner,  nor  drink  a  health  while  he  lived.     His  friend  re- 
covered ;  and  from  this   time  Mr.  Hale  forsook  all  his  gay 
acquaintance,   and   divided    his   whole  time   between   the 
duties    of    religion    and    the    studies   of    his   profession. 
Noy,    the    attorney- general,    who  was   one   of  the    most 
eminent  men  of  his  profession,  took  early  notice  of  him, 
directed  him  in  his  studies,  and  discovered  so  much  friend- 
ship for  him,  that  Mr.  Hale  was  sometimes  called  Young 

While  pursuing  his  studies,  he  not  only  kept  the  hours 
«f  the  hall  constantly  in  term-time,  but  seldom  put  him? 

24  HALE. 

self  out  of  commons  in  vacation -time,  and  continued 
to  pursue  his  studies  with  unwearied  diligence.  Not 
being  satisfied  with  the  law-books  then  published,  he  was 
very  , diligent  in  searching  records;  and  with  collections 
out  of  the  books  he  read,  together  with  his  own  learned 
observations,  he  made  a  most  valuable  common-place 
book.  Selden  soon  found  him  out,  and  took  such  a  liking 
to  him,  that  he  not  only  lived  in  great  friendship  with  him, 
but  left  him  at  his  death  one  of  his  executors.  Selden 
also  prescribed  to  him  a  more  enlarged  pursuit  of  learning, 
which  he  had  before  confined  to  his  own  profession  ;  so 
that  he  arrived  in  time  to  a  considerable  knowledge  in  the 
civil  law,  in  arithmetic,  algebra,  and  other  mathematical 
sciences,  as  well  as  in  physic,  anatomy,  and  surgery.  He 
was  also  very  conversant  in  experimental  philosophy,  and 
other  branches  of  philosophical  learning;  and  in  ancient 
history  and  chronology.  But  above  all,  he  seemed  to  have 
made  divinity  his  chief  study,  so  that  those  who  read  some 
of  his  works,  might  naturally  think  that  he  had  studied 
nothing  else. 

It  was  by  indefatigable  application  that  he  acquired  so 
great  an  extent  of  knowledge.  He  rose  early,  was  never 
idle,  and  scarce  ever  held  any  discourse  about  the  passing 
events  of  the  day,  except  with  some  few  in  whom  he  con- 
fided. He  entered  into  no  correspondence,  unless  on  ne- 
cessary business  or  matters  of  learning,  and  spent  very 
little  time  at  his  meals.  He  never  went  to  public  feasts, 
and  gave  no  entertainments  but  to  the  poor,  literally  fol- 
lowing our  Saviour's  direction,  of  feasting  none  but  these. 
He  always  rose  from  dinner  with  an  appetite,  and  able  to 
enter  with  an  unclouded  mind  on  any  serious  employment 
that  might  present  itself. 

Some  time  before  the  civil  wars  broke  out,  he  was  called 
to  the  bar,  and  began  to  make  a  figure  in  the  world  ;  but, 
observing  how  difficult  it  was  to  preserve  his  integrity,  and 
yet  live  securely,  he  resolved  to  follow  those  two  maxims 
of  Pomponius  Atticus,  who  lived  in  similar  times;  viz. 
"  To  engage  in  no  faction,  nor  meddle  in  public  business, 
and  constantly  to  favour  and  relieve  those  that  were  lowest." 
He  often  relieved  the  royalists  in  their  necessities,  which 
so  ingratiated  him  with  them,  that  he  became  generally 
employed  by  them  in  his  profession.  He  was  one  of  the 
counsel  to  the  earl  of  Strafford,  archbishop  Laud,  and  king 
Charles  himself  5  as  also  to  the  duke  of  Hamilton,  the  earl 

HALE.  3$ 

of  Holland,  the  lord  Capel,  and  the  lord  Craven.     Being 
esteemed  a  plain  honest  man,  and  of  great  knowledge  in 
the  law,  he  was  equally  acceptable  to   the   presbyterians 
and  the  loyalists.     In  1643  he  took  the  covenant,  and  ap- 
peared several  times   with  other   lay -persons  among  the 
assembly  of  divines.     He  was  then  in  great  esteem  with 
the  parliament,  and  employed  by  them  in    several  affairs, 
particularly  in  the  reduction  of  the  garrison  at  Oxford  ; 
being  as  a  lawyer  added  to  the  commissioners  named  by 
the  parliament  to  treat  with  those  appointed  by  the  king. 
In  that  capacity  he  was  instrumental  in  saving  the  univer- 
sity, by  advising  them,  especially  the  general  Fairfax,  to 
preserve   that  seat   of  learning   from    ruin.      Afterwards, 
though  no  man  more  lamented   the  murder  of  Charles  I. 
he  took  the  oath  called  "  The  Engagement;"  and,  Janu- 
ary 1651-2,  was  one  of  those  appointed  to  consider  of  the 
reformation  of  the  law.     Cromwell,  who  well  knew  the 
advantage  it  would  be  to  have  the  countenance  of  such  a 
man  as  Hale  to  his  courts,  never  left  importuning  him,  till 
he  accepted  the  place  of  one  of  the  justices  of  the  common 
bench,  as  it  was  called  ;  for  which  purpose  he  was  by  writ 
made  serjeant  at  law  January  25,  1653-4.     In  that  station 
he  acted  with  great  integrity  and  courage.     He  had  at  first 
serious  scruples  concerning  the  authority  under  which   he 
was  to  act ;  and,  after  having  gone  two  or  three  circuits, 
he  refused  to  sit  any  more  on  the  crown  side ;  that  is,  to 
try  any  more  criminals*.    He  had  indeed  so  carried  himself 
in  some  trials,  that  the  powers  then  in  being  were  not  un- 
willing he  should  withdraw  himself  from  meddling  any  far- 
ther in  them;  of  which  Burnet  gives  the  following  instance. 
Soon  after  he  was  made  a  judge,  a  trial  was  brought  before 
him,  upon  the  circuit  at  Lincoln,  concerning  the  murder 
of  one  of  the  townsmen  who  had  been  of  the  king's  army, 
and  was  killed  by  a  soldier  of  the  garrison  there.     He  was 
in  the  field  with  a  fowling-piece  on  his  shoulder,  which 
the  soldier  seeing,  he  came  to  him,  and  said,  he  was  acting 

*  Blackstone    observes,    that    "  if  and  try  prisoners,  having  very  strong 

judgment  of  death  be  given  by  a  judge  objections  to  the  legality  of  the  usur- 

not  authorised  by  lawful  commission,  per's  commission  as  to  capital  offences, 

and  execution  is  done  accordingly,  the  but  that  it  was  necessary  to  decide  the 

judge  is  guilty  of  murder;  and  upon  disputes  of  civil  property  in  the  worst 

this   argument  sir    M.    Hale    himself,  of  times;  a  distinction,  perhaps,  ra- 

though   he   accepted   the  place   of    a  ther  too  refined,  since  the  punishment 

judge    of    the    common-pleas    under  of  crimes  is  at  least  as  necessary  to  so- 

CromwelPs  government,  yet  declined  ciety  as  maintaining  the  boundaries  of 

to  sit  on  the  crown  side  at  the  assizes,  property." 

26  HALE. 

against  an  order  the  protector  had  made,  viz.  "  That  none 
who  had  been  of  the  king's  party  should  carry  arms  ;"  and 
so  would  have  forced  the  piece  from  him.  But  the  other 
not  regarding  the  order,  and  being  the  stronger  man,  threw 
down  the  soldier,  and  having  beat  him,  left  him.  The 
soldier  went  to  the  town,  and  telling  a  comrade  how  he 
had  been  used,  got  him  to  go  with  him,  and  help  him  to 
be  revenged  on  his  adversary.  They  both  watched  his 
coming  to  town,  and  one  of  them  went  to  him  to  demand 
his  gun;  which  he  refusing,  the  soldier. struck  at  him  ;  as 
they  were  struggling,  the  other  came  behind,  and  ran  his 
sword  into  his  body,  of  which  he  presently  died.  It  was 
in  the  time  of  the  assizes,  so  they  were  both  tried.  Against 
the  one  there  was  no  evidence  of  malice  prepense,  so  he 
was  only  found  guilty  of  manslaughter,  and  burnt  in  the 
hand;  but  the  other  was  found  guilty  of  murder:  and 
though  colonel  Whaley,  who  commanded  the  garrison, 
came  into  the  court,  and  urged  that  the  man  was  killed 
only  for  disobeying  the  protector's  order,  and  that  the 
soldier  was  but  doing  his  duty;  yet  the  judge  regarded 
both  his  reasonings  and  threatenings  very  little,  and  there- 
fore not  only  gave  sentence  against  him,  but  ordered  the 
execution  to  be  so  suddenly  done,  that  it  might  not  be 
possible  to  procure  a  reprieve. — On  another  occasion  he 
displayed  both  his  justice  and  courage  in  a  cause  in  which 
the  protector  was  deeply  concerned,  and  had  therefore 
ordered  a  jury  to  be  returned  for  the  trial.  On  hearing 
this,  judge  Hale  examined  the  sheriff  about  it,  and  having 
discovered  the  fact,  shewed  the  statute  which  ordered  all 
juries  to  be  returned  by  the  sheriff  or  his  lawful  officer, 
and  this  not  being  done,  he  dismissed  the  jury,  and  would 
not  try  the  cause.  The  protector  was  highly  displeased 
with  him,  and  at  his  return  from  the  circuit  (for  this  hap- 
pened in  the  country)  told  him  in  great  anger,  that  "  he 
wa£  not  fit  to  be  a  judge."  Hale  replied  only,  with  in- 
imitable aptness  of  expression,  that  "  it  was  very  true." 

When  Cromwell  died,  he  not  only  excused  himself  from 
accepting  the  mourning  that  was  sent  him,  but  also  refused 
the  new  commission  offered  him  by  Richard;  alleging, 
that  "  he  could  act  no  longer  under  such  authority."  He 
did  not  sit  in  Cromwell's  second  parliament  in  1655;«but 
in  Richard's,  which  met  in  January  1658-9,  he  was  one^of 
the  burgesses  for  the  university  of  Oxford.  In  the  healing 
parliament  in  1660,  which  recalled  Charles  II,  he  was 

HALE.  27 

elected  one  of  the  knights  for  the  county  of  Gloucester ; 
and  moved,  that  a  committee  might  be  appointed  to  look 
into  the  propositions  that  had  been  made,  and  the  conces- 
sions that  had  been  offered  by  Charles  I.  during  the  late 
war,  that  thence  such  propositions  might  be  digested  as 
they  should  think  fit  to  be  sent  over  to  the  king  at  Breda. 
The  king  upon  his  return  recalled  him  in  June  by  writ,  to 
the  degree  of  serjeant-at-law  ;  and  upon  settling  the  courts 
in  Westminster-hall,  constituted  him  in  November  chief 
baron  of  the  exchequer.  When  chancellor  Clarendon  de- 
livered him  his  commission,  he  told  him  that  "  if  the  king 
could  have  found  out  an  honester  and  fitter  man  for  that 
employment,  he  would  not  have  advanced  him  to  it;  and 
that  he  had  therefore  preferred  him,  because  he  knew  none 
that  deserved  it  so  well."  As  he  knew  it  was  usual  for 
persons  in  his  present  station  to  be  knighted,  he  endea- 
voured to  avoid  that  honour,  by  declining  for  a  considerable 
time  all  opportunities  of  waiting  on  the  king ;  which  Cla- 
rendon observing,  sent  for  him  upon  business  one  day, 
when  the  king  was  at  his  house,  and  told  his  majesty, 
"  there  was  his  modest  chief-baron,'1  on  which  he  was  un- 
expectedly knighted.  He  continued  eleven  years  in  this 
place,  and  very  much  raised  the  reputation  and  practice 
of  the  court  by  his  impartial  administration  of  justice,  and 
by  his  cautious  diligence,  and  great  exactness  in  trials. 
This  gave  occasion  to  the  only  complaint  that  was  made 
of  him,  "  that  he  did  not  dispatch  matters  quick  enough  ;" 
but  on  the  other  hand  his  deliberation  had  this  good  effect, 
that  causes  tried  before  him  were  seldom  if  ever  tried 

He  would  never  receive  private  addresses  or  recom~ 
mendations  from  any  persons  of  whatever  rank,  in  any 
matter  in  which  justice  was  concerned.  One  of  the  first 
peers  in  England  went  once  to  his  chamber,  and  told  him, 
*c  that  having  a  suit  in  law  to  be  tried  before  him,  he  was 
come  to  acquaint  him  with  it,  that  he  might  the  bet- 
ter understand  it  when  it  should  be  heard  in  court." 
Judge  Hale  interrupted  him,  and  said,  "  he  did  not  deal 
fairly  to  com-e  to  his  chamber  about  such  affairs,  for  he 
never  received  any  information  of  causes  but  in  open  court, 
where  both  parties  were  to  be  beard  alike,"  and  therefore  he 
would  not  suffer  him  to  go  on.  The  nobleman  complained  of 
this  to  the  king,  as  a  rudeness  that  was  not  to  be  endured ;  but 
fcis  majesty  bid  him  "content  himself  that  he  was  no  worse 

28  HAL  E. 

used,"  and  added,  "  he  verily  believed  Hale  would  have 
used  himself  no  better,  if  he  had  gone  to  solicit  him  in 
any  of  his  own  causes."  Two  other  stories  are  told  to 
prove  his  strict  integrity,  one  of  a  gentleman  who  sent  him 
a  buck  for  his  table,  and  the  other  of  the  dean  and  chapter 
of  Salisbury,  who  made  him  a  present  of  six  sugar-loaves, 
and  as  the  gentleman  and  the  dean  and  chapter  had  causes 
pending  before  him,  he  insisted  on  paying  for  these  ar- 
ticles before  he  would  try  them.  Too  much,  however, 
has  been  made  of  these  stories,  for  it  was  proved  that  both 
presents  were  compliments  which  the  parties  had  been  ac- 
customed to  pay  to  the  judges  for  the  time  being  on  the 
circuit.  So  many  are  the  testimonies  to  judge  Hale's  in- 
tegrity, that  it  cannot  stand  in  need  of  such  petty  supports 
as  these. 

Judge  Hale,  probably  in  consequence  of  his  rule  of  fa- 
vouring and  relieving  those  that  were  lowest,  and  perhaps 
owing  to  the  connections  he  had  formed  in  early  life,  was 
now  very  charitable  to  the  nonconformists,  and  screened 
them  as  much  as  possible  from  the  severities  of  the  law. 
He  thought  many  of  them  had  merited  highly  in  the  affair 
of  the  king's  restoration,  and  at  least  deserved  that  the 
terms  of  conformity  should  not  have  been  made  stricter 
than  they  were  before  the  war.  In  1671  he  was  promoted 
to  the  place  of  lord  chief  justice  of  England,  and  behaved 
in  that  high  station  with  his  usual  strictness,  regularity,  and 
diligence ;  but  about  four  years  and  a  half  after  this  ad- 
vancement, he  was  attacked  by  an  inflammation  in  the 
diaphragm,  which  in  two  days  time  broke  his  constitution 
to  that  degree  that  he  never  recovered  ;  for  his  illness 
turned  to  an  asthma,  which  terminated  in  a  dropsy.  Find- 
ing himself  unable  to  discharge  the  duties  of  his  function, 
he  petitioned  in  January  1675-6,  for  a  writ  of  ease ;  which 
being  delayed,  he  surrendered  his  office  in  February.  He 
died  December  25th  following,  and  was  interred  in  the 
church-yard  of  Alderley,  among  his  ancestors ;  for  he  did 
not  approve  of  burying  in  churches,  but  used  to  say,  "  That 
churches  were  for  the  living,  and  church-yards  for  the 
dead."  He  was  twice  married,  having  by  his  first  wife  ten 
children,  all  of  whom  he  outlived  except  his  eldest  daugh- 
ter and  youngest  son.  The  male  line  of  the  family  became 
extinct  in  1784,  by  the  death  of  his  great  grandson,  Mat- 
thew Haje,  esq.  barrister  at  law. 

HALE.  2» 

To  enter  more  minutely  into  the  character  of  this  great 
and  good  man  would  be  to  enlarge  this  article  beyond  ail 
reasonable  bounds.  The  testimonies  to  the  excellence  of 
his  character  are  numerous.  Whoever  knew  him  spoke 
well  of  him.  One  enemy  only,  Roger  North  (in  his  Life 
of  the  Lord  Keeper  North)  has  endeavoured  to  lessen  the 
respect  due  to  sir  Matthew  Hale's  character  ;  but  in  so 
doing,  it  has  been  justly  remarked,  has  degraded  his  own. 
Sir  Matthew  was,  for  the  brightness  and  solidity  of  his  ge- 
nius, the  variety  and  elegance  of  his  learning,  and  the  po- 
liteness of  his  manners,  the  delight  and  envy  of  his  con- 
temporaries. His  knowledge  in  divinity  and  humanity  was 
a  radicated  habit :  and  there  was  scarce  ever  any  appeal 
from  his  judgment  as  a  casuist  or  a  critic.  Biirnet's  Life 
of  Hale  cannot  be  too  often  read. 

He  was  the  author  of  several  things  which  were  pub- 
lished by  himself;  namely,  1.  "  An  Essay  touching  the- 
Gravitation  or  Non -gravitation  of  Fluid  Bodies,  and  the 
Reasons  thereof."  2.  "  Difficiies  Nugse,  or  observations- 
touching  the  Torricellian  Experiment,  and  the  various  so- 
lutions of  the  same,  especially  touching  the  weight  and 
elasticity  of  the  air."  3.  "  Observations  touching  the  Prin- 
ciples of  natural  motion,  and  especially  touching  rarefac- 
tion and  condensation."  4.  "Contemplations  moral  and 
divine."  5.  "  An  English  Translation  of  the  Life  of 
Pomponius  Atticus,  written  by  Corn.  Nepos ;  together 
with  observations  political  and  moral."  6.  "  The  Pri- 
mitive Origination  of  Mankind  considered  and  explained 
according  to  the  Light  of  Nature,  &e."  He  left  also  at 
his  decease  other  works,  which  were  published  ;  namely, 
1.  His  "Judgment  of  the  Nature  of  true  Religion,  the 
Causes  of  its  Corruption,  and  the  Church's  Calamity  by 
men's  addition  and  violences,  with  the  desired  Cure.'* 
,2.  "Several  Tracts;  as  a  f  Discourse  of  Religion  under 
three  heads',"  &c.  3.  "A  Letter  to  his  Children,  ad- 
vising  them  how  to  behave  in  their  speech."  4.  "  A  Letter 
to  one  of  his  sons  after  his  recovery  from  the  small-pox/' 
5.  "  Discourse  of  the  Knowledge  of  God  and  of  ourselves, 
first  by  the  light  of  nature  ;  secondly,  by  the  sacred  Scrip- 
tures." All  these,  under  the  title  of  his  "  Moral  and  Re- 
ligious Works,"  were  published  by  the  rev.  Thomas  Thirl- 
wall,  1805,  2  vols.  Svo,  with  his  life  by  bishop 
and  an  appendix  to  it. 

30  HALE, 

Of  his  law  tracts,  one  only  was  printed  in  his  life-time^ 
viz. :  "  London  Liberty,  or  an  argument  of  Law  and  Rea- 
son,'* 1650,  which  was  reprinted  in  1682,  under  the  title 
of  "  London's  Liberties,  or  the  opinions  of  those  great 
lawyers,  lord  chief  justice  Hale,  Mr.  justice  Wild,  and 
serjeant  Maynard,  about  the  election  of  mayor,  sheriffs, 
aldermen,  and  common  councel  of  London,  and  concerning 
their  charter."  In  1668  he  wrote  a  preface  to  Rolle's 
"  Abridgment,"  which  he  published  with  the  whole  of  that 

After  his  death,  appeared,  1.  "The  Pleas  of  the  Crown, 
or  a  Methodical  Summary,"  1678,  8vo,  continued  by  Jacob 
and  reprinted  in  1716.  To  this  edition  is  often  annexed 
"  The  Treatise  of  Sheriffs7  Accounts,"  and  "  The  Trial  of 
the  Witches."  It  must  not  be  concealed  that  this  other- 
wise learned  and  sagacious  man  was  so  far  prejudiced  by 
early  opinions,  as  to  believe  in  witchcraft,  and  to  preside 
on  the  trials  of  some  persons  accused  of  it.  The  "  Pleas" 
has  passed  through  seven  editions,  the  last  of  which  was  in 
1773.  It  was  not,  however,  considered  by  the  author  as  a 
complete  work,  but  intended  as  a  plan  for  his  "  Historia 
Placitorum  Coronse,"  of  which  hereafter.  2.  "  Treatise 
shewing  how  useful,  &c.  the  inrolling  and  registering  of 
all  conveyances  of  land,"  1694,  4to,  reprinted  with  addi- 
tions in  1756.  3.  "  Tractatus  de  Successionibus  apud  An- 
glos, or  a  treatise  of  Hereditary  Descents,"  1700,  and 
1735,  8vo.  This  forms  a  chapter  in  his  "  History  of  the 
Common  Law."  4.  u  A  treatise  on  the  original  Institution, 
&c.  of  Parliaments,"  1707,  republished  by  Francis  Har- 
grave,  esq.  in  1796,  4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Hale's  Juris- 
diction of  the  House  of  Lords,"  with  an  introductory  pre- 
face, including  a  narrative  of  the  same  jurisdiction,  from 
the  accession  of  James  I.  5.  "  Analysis  of  the  Law," 
without  date,  but  seems  to  have  been  only  a  design  for  a, 
6.  "  History  of  the  Common  Law  of  England,  in  twelve 
chapters,"  1713,  8vo,  a  fourth  and  fifth  edition  of  which 
were  published  in  1779  and  1794,  2  vols.  8vo,  by  Mr.  ser- 
jeant Runnington.  7.  "  Historia  Placitorum  Coronie,  or 
History  of  the  Pleas  of  the  Crown,"  1739,  2  vols.  folio, 
edited  by  Sollom  Emlyn,  esq.  and  again  in  1772, by  George 
Wilson,  esq.  2  vols.  8vo,  and  lastly  in  the  same  size,  in 
1800,  by  Thomas  Dogherty,  esq.  There  are  a  few  other 
tracts  and  opinions  published  by  Mr.  Hargrave  and  other 
law  writers  in  tbeir  collections, 


Sir  Matthew  Hale  by  his  will  bequeathed  to  the  so- 
ciety of  Lincoln's-inn  his  MS  books,  of  inestimable  value, 
which  he  had  been  near  forty  years  in  gathering  with  great 
industry  and  expence.  "  He  desired  they  should  be  kept 
safe  and  all  together,  bound  in  leather,  and  chained;  not 
lent  out  or  disposed  of:  only,  if  any  of  his  posterity  of  that 
society  should  desire  to  transcribe  any  book,  and  give  good 
caution  to  restore  it  again  in  a  prefixed  time,  they  should 
be  lent  to  him,  and  but  one  volume  at  a  time :  "  They  are,'* 
says  he,  "  a  treasure  not  fit  for  every  man's  view;  nor  is 
every  man  capable  of  making  use  of  them."1 

HALES  (ALEXANDER),  an  eminent  scholastic  divine  of 
the  thirteenth  century,  is  supposed  by  some  to  have  been 
a  native  of  Gloucestershire,  but  others  think  he  was  a  na- 
tive of  Hales  in  Norfolk.  He  was  educated  probably  at 
Oxford,  whence  he  went  to  the  university  of  Paris,  studied 
divinity  and  the  canon  law,  and  excelled  so  in  both  as  to 
be  called  the  "  Irrefragable  Doctor,"  and  the  "  Fountain 
of  Life."  Nothing  indeed  can  exceed  the  encomiums  be- 
stowed upon  him  in  extravagance,  although  he  appears  to 
have  been  a  good  man,  and  well  versed  in  the  learning  of 
his  time.  In  1222  he  entered  into  the  order  of  the  Friars 
Minims,  and  took  up  his  principal  residence  at  Paris, 
where  he  died  August  27,  1245.  By  order  of  Innocent 
IV.  he  wrote  a  commentary  on  the  four  books  of  sentences, 
or  "  Sum  of  Divinity,"  printed  at  Nuremberg,  1482,  and 
often  reprinted ;  but  there  is  a  commentary  on  the  sen- 
tences printed  at  Lyons  in  1515,  with  his  name  to  it, 
which  is  not  his ;  and  Dupin  is  inclined  to  think  that  the 
"  Sum  of  the  Virtues,"  Paris,  1509,  and  the  "  Destruc- 
torium  Vitiorum,"  Nuremberg,  1496,  and  Venice,  1582, 
are  improperly  attributed  to  his  pen.  Other  works  are 
enumerated  by  Dupin,  of  which  doubts  may  be  entertained, 
and  many  of  his  MSS.  are  said  to  be  lost,  but  neither  the 
authenticity  of  the  one,  or  the  loss  of  the  other,  "will  now 
be  thought  matters  of  much  interest  or  regret.2 

HALES,  or  HAYLES  (JOHN),  a  learned  Englishman, 
was  the  younger  son  of  Thomas  Hales,  of  Hales'- place,  at 
Halden  in  Kent,  and  was  liberally  educated,  although  at 
no  university.  He  became  an  excellent  scholar  in  the 
Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew  tongues,  and  was  well  skilled 

*  Life  by  Buruet. — Biog.  Brit,— Life  by  Runnington, — Granger,  &^ 
2  Tanner. — Dupin.— Care. 

3$  HALES.. 

in  the  municipal  laws  and  antiquities.  In  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIII.  he  was  clerk  of  the  ha,naper  for  several  years^ 
and  in  1548  was  appointed  a  commissioner  to  inquire  into 
inclosures,  decayed  houses,  and  the  unlawful  converting 
of  arable  land  into  pasture,  for  the  counties  of  Oxfordj, 
Berks,  &c.  On  this  occasion  he  made  an  excellent  charge, 
which  is  printed  at  length  hy  Strype.  He  obtained  a  good 
estate  in  Warwickshire  and  elsewhere,  upon  the  dissolution 
of  the  monasteries,  and  founded  a  free-school  at  Coventry. 
For  the  use  of  the  scholars  there,  he  wrote  "  Introduc- 
tiones  ad  Grammaticam,"  Latin  and  English.  He  was  also 
the  author  of  the  "  High  way  to  Nobility,"  Lond.  4to  ;  and 
translated  into  English  "  Plutarch's  Precepts  for  the  pre- 
servation of  good  health,"  Lond.  1543,  8vo.  Being  a 
zealous  protestant,  he  went  abroad  during  queen  Mary's 
reign,  and  took  every  pains  to  compose  the  unhappy  dif- 
ferences that  took  place  among  the  English  exiles  at  Franc- 
fort.  On  the  accession  of  queen  Elizabeth,  he  distin- 
guished his  loyalty  in  "  An  Oration  to  Queen  Elizabeth 
at  her  first  entrance  to  her  reign,"  which  was,  however, 
not  spoken,  but  delivered  in  manuscript  to  the  queen. 
He  also  wrote  a  treatise  in  favour  of  the  succession  of  the 
house  of  Suffolk  to  the  crown  on  the  demise  of  Elizabeth, 
who  was  so  displeased  with  it,  as  to  commit  the  author  to 
the  Tower.  It  was  answered  by  Lesley,  bishop  of  Ross. 
Mr.  Hales,  whose  imprisonment  was  probably  of  no  long 
duration,  died  Jan.  28,  1572,  and  was  buried  in  the  church 
of  St.  Peter  le  Poor,  Broad-street,  London.  Some  of  his. 
MSS.  are  in  the  Harleian  collection.1 

HALES  (JOHN),  an  eminent  divine  and  critic,  usually 
distinguished  by  the  appellation  of  THE  EVER  MEMORABLE,, 
was  the  fourth  son  of  John  Hales,  of  High  Church,  near 
Bath,  in  Somersetshire,  by  Bridget  his  wife,  one  of  the 
Goldsburghs  of  Knahill,  in  Wiltshire.  He  was  born  April 
19,  1584,  at  Bath,  where  his  father  then  resided,  but  ac- 
cording to  his  register  at  Corpus  college,  Oxford,  at  High- 
church.  His  parents,  who  are  stated  to  have  been  of 
"  genteel  quality,"  placed  him  to  school  at  Mells  and  Kill- 
maston,'in  Somersetshire,  until  fit  for  the  university,  in 
which  he  was  entered  of  Corpus  college  April  16,  1597,, 
but  being  then  under  age,  was  not  sworn  till  April  17> 

»  Ath,  Ox.  new  edit.  voL  I.—  Strype's  Ecclesiastical  Memorials.— Stryp**a 
Cranmer,  p.  147. 


1599.  He  continued  at  this  college  until  he  toolc  his  ba- 
chelor's degree  in  arts  July  9,  1603,  and  had  distinguished 
himself  in  the  interval  hy  equal  diligence  and  proficiency 
in  his  studies.  The  reputation  he  thus  acquired  engaged 
the  attention  of  sir  Henry  Savile,  then  warden  of  Merton- 
college,  who  being  always  desirous  of  increasing  the  num- 
ber of  its  learned  members,  persuaded  him  to  remove  ; 
and  accordingly  he  was  chosen  probationer  of  Merton  in 
September,  and  admitted  fellow  Oct.  13,  1606.  He  pro- 
ceeded to  his  master's  degree  in  1609.  He  had  not  been 
long  in  this  station  before  the  warden  availed  himself  of 
his  assistance  in  preparing  his  edition  of  St.  Chrysostom's 
works,  and  found  him  a  very  able  coadjutor,  as  he  was  an 
excellent  Greek  scholar.  His  reputation  indeed  for  skill 
in  this  language  was  such  as  to  procure  him  the  place  of 
lecturer  in  Greek  in  the  college. 

On  the  death  of  sir  Thomas  Bodley,  Jan.  28,  1613,  he 
was  appointed  by  sir  Henry  Savile  to  deliver  the  funeral 
oration  at  Merton -college,  where  sir  Thomas  was  buried; 
and  this  was  published  the  same  year  at  Oxford,  "  Oratio 
funebris  habita  in  collegio  Mertonensi,  a  Johanne  Halesio, 
magistro  in  artibus,  et  ejusdem  collegii  socio,  anno  1613; 
Martii  29,  quo  die  clarissimo  equiti  D.  Thoniae  Bodleio 
funus  ducebatur,"  4to.  It  is  reprinted  in  Bates's  "  Vitae 

On  May  24  of  this  year,  Mr.  Hales  quitted  his  fellow- 
ship at  Merton,  and  was  admitted  fellow  of  Eton  col- 
lege. He  was  then  in  orders,  and  had  acquired  fame  as  a 
preacher.  In  1616  he  held  a  correspondence  with  Mr. 
Oughtred,  as  appears  by  a  letter  of  his  to  that  excellent 
mathematician,  printed  in  the  General  Dictionary,  hi 
1618  he  accompanied  sir  Dudley  Carlton,  ambassador  to 
the  Hague,  as  his  chaplain,  by  which  means  he  procured 
admission  into  the  synod  of  Dort,  though  he  was  not  pro- 
perly a  member.  This  indeed  seems  to  have  been  his 
principal  view  in  accompanying  sir  Dudley,  who,  besides 
his  brother  the  bishop  of  Llandaff,  first  English  commis- 
sioner, recommended  him  to  Bogerman,  president  of  the 
synod,  and  some  other  leading  men.  Ail  this  afforded  him 
a  favourable  opportunity  of  collecting  that  information  re- 
specting the  proceedings  of  the  synod,  which  was  after- 
wards published  in  his  "  Golden  Remains."  The  effect  of 
these  proceedings  on  his  own  mind  was,  that  he  became  a 
convert  to  Arminianism.  His  friend  Mr.  Faringdon.  informs 


34  HALES. 

us  that  "  in  his  younger  days  he  was  a  Calvinist,  but  that 
some  explanation  given  by  Episcopius*  of  the  text  in  St. 
John  iii.  16,  induced  him,  as  he  said,  to  "  bid  John 
Calvin  good  night."  It  does  not  appear,  however,  from 
his  sermons,  that  he  became  a  decided  anti-predestinarian, 
although  he  pleads  strongly  for  a  toleration  between  the 
two  parties,  and  thinks  they  may  remain  in  Christian 
charity  with  each  other.  It  is  more  remarkable  that  he 
should  be  induced  by  the  arguments  advanced  in  this  sy- 
nod, to  think  with  indifference  of  the  divinity  of  Jesus 
Christ  as  a  necessary  article  of  faith.  This,  however, 
seems  obvious  from  some  passages  in  his  "  Tract  on 
Schism ;"  and  such  was  his  free  and  open  manner  both  of 
talking  and  writing  on  these  subjects,  that  he  soon  incurred 
the  suspicion  of  inclining  to  Socinianism.  Dr.  Heylin 
went  so  far  as  to  attribute  two  works  to  him,  published  with 
fictitious  names,  which  have  been  since  printed  in  the 
"  Phoenix;"  but  it  has  been  proved  that  they  were  written 
by  Socinian  authors.  His  biographers,  however,  all  allow 
that  he  may  be  classed  among  those  divines  who  were 
afterwards  called  Latitudinarians.  He  returned  from  the 
synod  Feb.  8,  1619. 

About  1636  he  wrote  his  tract  on  "  Schism"  for  the  use 
of  his  friend  Chilling-worth,  in  which,  as  already  noticed, 
he  expresses  his  sentiments  on  liturgies,  forms  of  worship, 
&c.  in  exact  conformity  with  those  who  are  for  dispensing 
with  all  obligations  of  the  kind  in  established  churches. 
Being  informed  that  archbishop  Laud  was  displeased  with 
it,  he  drew  up  a  vindication  of  himself  in  a  letter  addressed 
to  his  grace,  who  in  1638  sent  for  him  to  Lambeth,  and 
after  a  conference  of  several  hours,  appears  to  have  been 
reconciled  to  him.  Of  this  conference  we  have  a  curious 
account  by  Dr.  Heylin,  in  his  "  Cyprianus  Anglicus," 
some  particulars  of  which  have  been  eagerly  contested  by 
Des  Maizeaux,  in  his  Life  of  Hales.  What  seems  most 
clear  is,  that  Hales  made  some  kind  of  declaration  to  the^ 
archbishop,  purporting  that  he  was  a  true  son  of  the  church 
of  England,  both  in  doctrine  and  discipline,  which  cer- 
tainly implies  a  change  or  intended  change  of  opinion, 
unless  we  allow  to  the  writer  of  his  life  in  the  Biographia 
Britannica,  that  "  a  true  son  of  the  church,"  or  an  "  or- 

*  Such  is  the  story  given  by  all  his  87  and  92,  we  shall  see  more  reasor. 
biographers  ;  but  if  we  consult  his  to  think  that  he  was  influenced  by  the 
Letters  in  the  "  Golden  Remains,"  p.  opinions  of  Martinius. 

HALES.  35 

thodox  son  of  the  church,"  were  phrases  used,  not  in  op- 
n  ^ition  to  heretics,  but  to  puritans.  In  either  way,  the 
archbishop  appears  to  have  been  satisfied,  and  informed 
Mr.  liuies  that  he  might  have  any  preferment  he  pleased. 
Hales  at  this  time  modestly  declined  the  offer,  but  the 
year  following  was  presented  by  the  archbishop  at  a  public 
dinner,  with  a  canonry  of  Windsor,  in  which  he  was  in- 
stalled June  27,  1639.  With  respect  to  the  letter  above-r 
ttientioned,  which  he  wrote  to  the  archbishop,  it  is  said  to 
have  been  first  published  by  Dr.  Hare  in  the  seventh  edi- 
tion of  his  pampnlet  entitled  "  Difficulties  and  Discourage- 
ments which  attend  the  study  ot  the  Scriptures  in  the  way 
of  private  judgment."  Des  Maizeaux  says  it  was  probably 
found  among  the  papers  of  archbishop  Laud,  which  after 
the  restoration  were  taken  from  Prynne;  but  this  conjecture 
is  erroneous;  it  was  found  in  the  house  of  Mrs.  Powney, 
where  Mr.  Hales  died,  and  there  are  even  some  reasons  for 
doubting  whether  it  was  ever  sent  to  the  archbishop,  al- 
though this  is  certainly  not  improbable.  The  original  is  at 
Eton,  and  appeared  in  print  before  it  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Dr.  Hare,  the  author  of  "  Difficulties  and  Discourage- 
ments," if  indeed  Dr.  Hare  was  that  author,  which  has 
been  questioned. 

In  1642  his  tract  on  "  Schism"  was  printed*  without 
his  consent,  as  favouring  the  disorganizing  principles  then 
prevailing,  a  clear  proof  that  its  tendency  before  had  not 
been  mistaken  ;  but  this  procured  our  author  no  favour ; 
for  the  same  year  he  was  ejected  from  his  stall  at  Windsor. 
About  the  time  of  archoishop  Laud's  death,  in  1644,  Mr. 
Hales  retired  from  his  lodgings  in  the  college  to  a  private 
chamber  at  Eton,  where  he  remained  for  a  quarter  of  a 
year  unknown  to  any,  and  spent  in  that  time  only  six- 
pence a  week,  living  upon  bread  and  beer;  and  as  it  was 
his  custom  formerly  to  fast  from  Tuesday  night  to  Thurs- 
day night,  now  in  his  retirement  he  abstained  during  the 
same  time  from  his  bread  and  beer ;  and  when  he  iieard  of 
the  archbishop's  murder,  he  wished  that  his  own  head  had 
been  taken  off  instead  of  his  grace's.  Another  account 

*  It  was  published  with  the  title  "  A  printed    in  the  same  year  R.  C.  i.e. 

Tract  concerning  Schism*  and  Sdiis-  Richard    Cud  worth's    Tract,     <c    The 

matiques;  wherein  is  briefly  discovered  Union  of  Christ  and  the  Church  in  a 

the    original    causes    of  all    schisme.  Shadow. '»     The  tract  on  Schistn  has  a 

Written    by  a  learned   and  judicious  curious  wood-cut  in  the  title-jjage.     If, 

divine,"  London,  4to,  printed  for  R.  B.  occasioned  some  controversy,  not  uew 

supposed,  to  be  Richard  Bishop,  who  worth  reviving. 

D   2 

36  HALES. 

forms  us  that  he  was  bursar  about  the  time  when  the  con- 
test began  between  the  king  and  parliament,  and  when 
both  armies  had  sequestered  the  college  rents,  so  that  he 
could  not  get  any  to  pay  wages  to  the  servants,  or  to  buy 
victuals  for  the  scholars.  But  after  nine  weeks  hiding  him- 
self to  preserve  the  college  writings  and  keys,  he  was 
forced  to  appear.  The  old  woman  that  concealed  him 
demanded  but  six-pence  a  week  for  his  brown  bread  and 
beer,  which  was  all  his  meat,  and  he  would  give  her 
twelve-pence.  This  concealment  was  so  near  the  college 
or  highway,  that  he  used  to  say,  "  those  who  searched  for 
him  might  have  smelt  him  if  he  had  eaten  garlick." 

He  continued  in  his  fellowship  at  Eton,  although  he  re- 
fused the  covenant,  but  was  ejected  upon  his  refusal  to  take 
the  engagement  "  to  be  faithful  to  the  Common- wealth  of 
England,  as  then  established  without  a  king,  or  a  house 
of  lords."  His  successor,  a  Mr.  Penwarn,  or  Penwarden, 
kindly  offered  him  half  the  profits  of  his  fellowship  ;  but 
Mr.  Hales  refused  to  accept  it,  saying,  if  he  had  a  right 
to  any  part,  he  had  a  right  to  the  whole.  Both  Wood  and 
Des  Maizeaux  have  misrepresented  this  expression,  which 
we  give  on  the  authority  of  Mr.  Montague,  one  of  his 
executors.  About  the  same  time  he  refused  a  liberal  offer 
from  a  gentleman  of  the  Sedley  family,  in  Kent,  of  100/. 
his  board,  and  servants  to  attend  him.  In  this  spirit  of  in- 
dependence he  retired  to  the  house  of  a  Mrs.  Salter,  at 
Rickings,  near  Colebrook,  accepting  of  a  smaller  salary  of 
50/.  with  his  diet,  to  instruct  her  son.  Here  he  also  offi- 
ciated as  chaplain,  performing  the  service  according-  to 
the  liturgy  of  the  church  of  England,  in  company  with 
Dr.  Henry  King,  the  ejected  bishop  of  Chichester,  who 
was  in  the  same  house.  But  this  retirement  was  soon  dis- 
turbed by  an  order  from  the  ruling  powers,  prohibiting  all 
persons  from  harbouring  malignants,  or  royalists ;  and  al- 
though Mrs.  Salter  assured  Mr.  Hales  that  she  was  prepared 
to  risk  the  consequences,  he  would  not  suffer  her  to  incur 
any  danger  upon  his  account,  but  retired  to  the  house  of 
Hannah  Dickenson,  in  Eton,  whose  husband  had  been  his 
servant,  and  who  administered  the  humble  comforts  she 
could  afford  with  great  care  and  respect.  But  being  now 
destitute  of  every  means  of  supporting  himself,  ne  was 
obliged  to  sell  (not  the  whole,  as  Wood  says,  but)  a  part 
of  his  valuable  library  to  Cornelius  Bee,  a  bookseller  in 
London,  for  700/.  which,  Walker  informs  us,  and  the  fact 

HALES.  «7 

seems  to  be  confirmed  by  Dr.  Pearson  in  his  preface  to  the 
"  Golden  Remains,"  he  shared  with  several  ejected  cler- 
gymen, scholars,  and  others. 

We  shall  now  relate  a  story  which  has  appeared  in  the 
various  accounts  of  his  life,  and  which  is  at  least  interesting-, 
but  in  most  particulars  questionable.  It  is  thus  related,: 
"  His  friend  Mr.  Faringdon"  (See  FARINGDON)  "  coming 
to  see  Hales  some  few  months  before  his  death,  found  him 
in  very  mean  lodgings  at  Eton,  but  in  a  temper  gravely 
ch earful,  and  well  becoming  a  good  man  under  such  cir- 
cumstances. After  a  slight  and  homely  dinner,  suitable 
to  their  situation,  some  discourse  passed  between  them 
concerning  their  old  friends,  and  the  black  and  dismal 
aspect  of  the  times ;  and  at  last  Hales  asked  Faringdon  to 
walk  out  with  him  into  the  church-yard.  There  this  un- 
happy man's  necessities  pressed  him  to  tell  his  friend  that 
he  had  been  forced  to  sell  his  whole  library,  save  a  few 
books  which  he  had  given  away,  and  six  or  eight  little 
books  of  devotion  which  lay  in  his  chamber  ;  and  that  for 
money,  he  had  no  more  than  what  he  then  shewed  him, 
which  was  about  seven  or  eight  shillings ;  and  '  besides,' 
says  he,  <  I  doubt  I  am  indebted  for  my  lodging.'  Fa- 
ringdon, it  seems,  did  not  imagine  that  it  had  been  so  very 
low  with  him,  and  therefore  was  much  surprised  to  hear  it ; 
but  said  that  '  he  had  at  present  money  to  command,  and 
to-morrow  would  pay  him  fifty  poui>ds,  in  part  of  the 
many  sums  he  and  his  wife  had  received  of  him  in  their 
great  necessities,  and  would  pay  him  more  as  he  shoukl 
want  it.'  But  Hales  replied,  <  No,  you  don't  owe  me  a 
penny ;  or  if  you  do,  I  here  forgive  you  ;  for  you  shall 
never  pay  me  a  penny.  I  know  you  and  yours  will  have 
occasion  for  much  more  than  what  you  have  lately  gotten;; 
but  if  you  know  any  other  friend  that  hath  too  full  a  purse, 
and  will  spare  me  some  of  it,  I  will  not  refuse  that.'  To 
this  Hales  added,  '  When  I  die,  which  I  hope  is  not  far 
off,  for  I  am  weary  of  this  uncharitable  world,  I  desire  you 
to  see  me  buried  in  that  place  in  the  church-yard,'  point- 
ing to  the  place.  l  But  why  not  in  the  church-/  said  Fa- 
ringdon, *  with  the  provost  (sir  Henry  Savile),  sir  Henry 
Wotton,  and  the  rest  of  your  friends  and  predecessors?' 
'  Because,'  says  he,  *  I  am  neither  the  founder  of  it,  nor 
have  I  been  a  benefactor  to  it,  nor  shall  I  ever  now  be  able 
to  be  SQ.'" 


Dr.  Walker,  who  ,  relates  this  story,  informs  us  of  the 
persons  from  whom  he  received  it;  but  it  is  now  unneces- 
sary to  trace  a  narrative  so  flatly  contradicted  by  Mr. 
Ha,es's  will*,  in  which  we  find  him  bequeathing  a  very 

*  The  following:  is  a  copy  of  his 
will,  from  Eton  college  register.  "  In 
Dei  nomine  Amen.  May  19,  1656. 
My  soul  having  been  Ion;:  since  bf- 
qutaihed  unto  the  mercies  of  God  in 
Jesus  Christ  my  ouly  Saviour,  and  my 
body  naturally  bequeathing  itself  to 
dust  and  ashes,  out  of  which  it  was 
taken,  I  John  Hales,  of  Eton,  in  the 
county  of  Bucks,  C'eik,  by  this  my 
last  will  and  testa  in-  nt,  do  dispose  of 
the  small  remainder  of  my  poor  and 
broken-  estate,  in  manner  and  form 
following.  First,  I  give  to  my  sister 
Cicely  Combes,  51.  I  give  to  my  sis- 
ter Bridget  Guilliford,  J/.  More,  I 
give  to  the  poor  of  the  town  of  Eton, 
to  be  distributed  at  the  disci etion  of 
iny  executrix  hereafter  named,  51. 
More,  I  give  to  .six  persons,  to  be  ap- 
pointed by  my  said  executiix  to  carry 
my  body  to  the  grave,  31.  to  be  dis- 
tributed among  them  by  even  portions. 
More,  I  give  to  Mr.  Thomas  Mans- 
field, of  Windsor,  grocer,  51.  More, 
I  give  to  Mrs.  Mary  Collins,  wife  to 
Mr.  John  Collins,  of  Eton,  51.  to  this 
end  and  purpose,  that  she  would  be 
pleased  to  provide  her  a  ring  in  what 
manner  she  listeth,  to  remain  with  her 
in  memory  of  a  poor  <ler<  aser  friend. 
All  which  monies  here  bequt^ted,  do 
nt  this  present  rest  intrusted  in  the 
hands  of  ray  singular  good  friends  Mr. 
William  Smith,  and  Mr.  Thomas  Mon- 

"  Moreover,  all  my  Greek  and  Latin 
books  (except  St.  Jerome's  works, 
which  1  give  to  Mr.  Thomas  Monta- 
gue), I  give  to  my  most  deservedly 
beloved  friend  W.I  iam  Salter  of  Rich- 
kings,  esq. ;  to  whom  1  further  give  51. 
to  this  end,  that  he  would  provide  him 
a  fair  seal-ring  of  gold,  engraven  with 
his  arms  and  hatchments  doubled  and 
mantled,  to  preserve  the  memory  of  a 
poor  deceased  friend.  All  my  Eng- 
lish books,  together  with  the  remainder 
of  all  monies  goods  and  utensils  what- 
soever, I  give  and  bequeath  to  Mrs. 
Hannah  Dickenson  of  Eton,  widow 
and  relict  of  John  Dickenson,  lately 
deceased.  In  whose  house  (for  her's 
indeed  it  is,  and  not  mine,  as  being 
bought  with  her  money,  howsoever 

for  some  reasons  I  have  suffered  the 
public  voice  to  entitle  me  to  it) — in 
whose  house  I  say,  I  have  for  a  long 
time  (especially  since  my  unjust  and 
causeless  extrusion  from  my  college) 
been  with  great  caieand  good  respect 
entertained.  And  her  the  said  Han- 
nah, I  do  by  these  presents  constitute 
and  ordain  my  sole  executrix.  And 
unto  this  my  last  will  I  make  overseers 
rny  very  good  friends  Mr.  Thomas 
Montague  and  Mr.  William  Smith,  of 
Eton,  and  to  each  of  them  I  give  5/. 
humbly  requesting  them  to  be  assis- 
tant to  my  said  executrix  with  their 
besr  advice  to  help,  it  so  be  .^he  chance 
to  find  any  trouble. 

"  Now  because  monies  are  many 
times  not  at  command,  but  may  re- 
qtfire  some  time  to  take  them  up,  I 
ordain,  that  in  six  months  after  my 
departure,  she  see  all  these  my  be- 
quests and  legacies  orderly  and  faith- 
fully discharged.  As  for  my  funeral, 
I  ordain  that  at  the  time  of  the  next 
evensong  after  my  departure  (if  con- 
veniently it  may  be)  my  body  be  laid 
in  the  church-yard  of  the  town  of  Eton 
(if  1  chance  to  die  there),  as  near  as 
may  be  to  the  body  of  my  little  god- 
son, Jack  Dickenson  the  elder ;  and 
this  to  be  done  in  plain  and  simple 
manner,  without  any  sermon,  or  ring- 
ing the  bell,  or  calling  the  people  to- 
gether; without  any  unseasonable  com- 
me-sation  or  compotatiou.  or  other 
solemnity  on  such  occasions  usual. 
And  t  strictly  command  rny  executiix, 
that  neither  of  her  own  head,  nor  at 
the  importunity  or  authority  of  any 
other,  neither  upon  any  other  pretence 
whatsoever,  to  take  upon  her  to  dis- 
pense with  this  part  of  my  will  ;  for 
as  in  my  life  I  have  done  the  church 
no  service,  so  I  will  not,  that  in  my 
death,  the  church  do  me  any  honour." 

Mr.  Montague,  mentioned  here  as 
an  overseer  or  executor,  was  at  that 
time  usher  of  Eton  school,  afterwards 
head-master,  and  then  fellow  of  the 
college.  Mrs.  Dickenson  afterwards 
was  married  to  Simon  Powney,  and 
has  already  been  mentioned  by  that 

HALES.  39 

considerable  property,  and  a  very  considerable  part  of  his 
library,  and  indeed  leaving  such  friendly  legacies  as  are 
wholly  inconsistent  with  the  circumstances  of  a  man  re- 
duced to  a  few  shillings,  and  in  debt  for  his  lodging. 

His  last  illness  was  of  short  duration,  nor  did  it  appear 
serious  to  his  friends,  with  whom  he  conversed  as  freely  as 
if  in  perfect  health,  within  half  an  hour  of  his  death.  Mr. 
Montague,  to  whom  he  had  been  talking,  left  the  room  for 
about  that  time,  and  found  him  dead  on  his  return.  During 
this  sickness,  being  aware  that  he  was  suspected  of  holding 
opinions  adverse  to  the  faith  of  the  church  of  England,  he 
made  a  declaration  of  his  belief  to  his  pupil,  Mr.  Salter, 
and  appears  to  have  recanted,  if  ever  he  held,  opinions 
unfavourable  to  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity.  Mr.  Salter 
made  a  memorandum  of  this  from  his  mouth,  which  was 
long  in  possession  of  that  family,  as  Mr.  Fulman,  when 
collecting  materials  for  Hales' s  life,  was  credibly  assured, 
both  by  Mr.  Salter  and  by  Mr.  Montague.  There  is  an 
article  indeed  in  his  u  Remains"  which  seems  to  confirm 
this  point,  entitled  his  "  Confession  of  the  Trinity,"  and 
may  probably  be  the  manuscript  which  Mr.  Salter  penned. 

He  died  May  19,  1656,  aged  seventy-two,  and  was  bu- 
ried, according  to  his  own  desire,  in  Eton  church-yard, 
where  a  monument  was  erected  over  his  grave  by  Mr.  Peter 
Curwen.  In  person,  he  was  of  an  ingenuous  and  open 
countenance,  sanguine,  cheerful,  and  vivacious;  his  body 
was  well  proportioned,  and  his  motion  quick  and  sprightly. 
As  to  the  excellence  of  his  character,  all  writers  seem 
agreed.  Whatever  his  errors,  he  was  esteemed  a  good 
man  by  those  who  knew  him,  and  an  able  writer,  as  ap- 
pears by  the  testimonies  of  lord  Clarendon,  lord  Say  and 
Sele,  Dr.  Pearson,  bishop  of  Chester,  Dr.  Heylin,  An- 
drew Marvel,  Wood,  Sailing-fleet,  and  others,  quoted  by 
sir  David  Dalrymple  lord  Hailes,  in  his  fine  edition  of 
Hales's  works,  and  in  the  Biographia  Britannica.  "They," 
says  lord  Hailes,  "  who  are  acquainted  with  the  literary 
and  political  history  of  England,  will  perceive  that  the 
leading  men  of  all  parties,  however  different  and  discordant, 
have,  with  a  wonderful  unanimity,  concurred  in  praise  of 
the  virtues  and  abilities  of  the  ever  memorable  Mr.  John 
Hales  of  Eton.'7 

We  do  not  find  that  Hales  ever  suffered  any  thing  to  be 
published  in  his  life-time,  except  his  oration  at  the  funeral 
of  sir  Thomas  Bodley.  Bishop  Pearson  says,  that  "  while 

40  HALES. 

he  lived,  none  was  ever  more  solicited  and  urged  to  write, 
and  thereby  truly  teach  the  world,  than  he  ;  but  that  none 
was  ever  so  resolved,  pardon  the  expression,  so  obstinate 
against  it."     In  1659,  however,  there  appeared  a  collec- 
tion of  his  works  with  this  title,   "  Golden  Remains  of  the 
ever-memorable   Mr.  John   Hales  of  Eton   college,   &c." 
which   was  enlarged  with  additional  pieces  in    a  second 
edition  of  1673.     This  collection  consists  of  sermons,  mis- 
cellanies, and  letters  ;  all  of  them  written  upon  particular 
occasions.     In  1677   there  appeared  another  collection  of 
his  works,  entitled  "  Several  Tracts  by  the  ever-memo- 
rable Mr.  John  Hales,  &c."     The  1st  of  which  is,   "  Con- 
cerning  the.  Sin  against  the  Holy  Ghost;"  2.  "  Concern- 
ing the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  and  whether  the 
Church  may  err  in  Fundamentals;"  3.  "  A  Paraphrase  on 
the  12th  chapter  of  the  Gospel  according  to  St.  Matthew ;" 
4.  "  Concerning  the   power  of  the   Keys,  and   auricular 
Confession  ;"   5.  "  Concerning  Schism  and  Schismatics  ;" 
and  some  short  pieces  entitled   "  Miscellanies."     There  is 
no  preface  nor  advertisement  to  this  volume,  which  seems 
to  have  been  put  out  by  the  editor,  who  was  thought  to 
be  sir  Robert  Filmer,  with   caution  :  but  it  is  finely  and 
correctly  printed,  with  a  portrait  of  Mr.  Hales.     To  these 
volumes  of  posthumous  works  we  must  add  the  letter  to 
archbishop  Laud,  mentioned  before,  which  was  printed  in 
1716.     In  1765  lord  Hailes  edited  a  beautiful  edition  of 
his  whole  works,  3  vols.  12mo,  with  a  very  few  alterations 
of  obsolete  words,  and  corrections  in  spelling,  &c.     Dr. 
Johnson   blamed  him  for  taking  these  liberties.     We   are 
more  inclined  to  blame  him  for  omitting  bishop  Pearson's 
preface  to  the  "  Golden  Remains,"  with  Faringdon's  Let- 
ter, which  give  a  particular  value  to  the  edition  of  1673. 
On  the  other  hand,  lord  Hailes  has  added  some  letters 
and  other  articles  which  enhance  the  merit  of  his  labours. 

It  remains  to  be  mentioned,  that  Wood  informs  us  that 
Mr.  Hales  not  only  associated  with,  and  was  respected  by 
the  wits  of  his  time,  sir  John  Suckling,  sir  William  Da- 
venant,  Ben  Jonson,  &c.  but  would  sometimes  divert  him- 
self with  writing  verses;  and  that  he  had  a  talent  for 
poetry  he  thinks  appears  from  sir  John  Suckling's 
tioning  him  in  his  "  Session  of  Poets :" 

"  Hales,  set  by  himself,  most  gravely  did  smile 
To  see  them  about  nothing  keep  such  a  coil. 
Apollo  had  spied  him,  but  knowing  his  mind, 
Past  by,  and  called  Falkland  that  sat  just  behind." 

HALES.  41 

But  there  is  no  proof  that  Mr.  Hales  of  Eton  was  meant 
here,  and  still  less  proof  of  a  letter  in  verse  by  sir  John 
Suckling  having  been  written  to  Mr.  Hales  at  Eton,  and  be- 
ginning"" Sir,  whether  these  lines  do  find  you  out,"  &c. 
It  has  more  the  appearance  of  one  written  to  some  person, 
at  Oxford  or  Cambridge,  than  at  Eton. 

Mr.  had  collected  materials  with  a  view  to  the 
life  of  Mr.  Hales,  which,  Mr.  Zouch  informs  us,  were  on 
his  demise  consigned  to  the  care  of  Isaac  Walton,  by  Mr. 
Fulman  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford,  who  had  pro- 
posed to  finish  the  work,  and  on  that  occasion  had  applied 
for  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Walton.  Mr.  Zouch  adds,  that 
"  the  result  of  this  application  is  not  known."  Having, 
however,  by  the  kindness  of  Henry  Ellis,  esq.  of  the  Bri- 
tish museum,  had  access  to  a  transcript  of  Mr.  Fulman's 
MSS.  in  Corpus  college,  as  far  as  they  regard  the  project 
of  writing  Hales's  life,  we  are  enabled  to  say  that  it  was  a 
Mr.  Milington,  and  not  Mr.  Fulman,  who  sent  Faringdon's 
materials  to  Mr.  Walton,  and  that  the  latter  gave  Fulman 
every  information  in  his  power.  By  the  same  MSS.  we  have 
been  enabled  to  correct  many  mistakes  in  Des  Maizeaux's 
life  of  Haiti,,  as  well  as  in  those  in  the  General  Dictionary, 
and  Biographia  Britannica. l 

HALES  (STEPHEN)^  an  eminent  natural  philosopher, 
particularly  distinguished  by  his  experiments  on  the  phy- 
siology of  plants,  was  the  sixth  son  of  Thomas  Hales,  esq. 
of  Beakeborn,  or  Beckesbourn,  Kent,  and  grandson  of  sir 
Robert  Hales,  bart.  of  Beckesbourn,  where  he  was  born, 
Sept.  17,  1677,  and  was  admitted  a  pensioner  of  Bene't 
college,  Cambridge,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Moss,  June 
19,  1696,  where,  after  taking  his  first  degree  in  arts,  he 
was  admitted  a  fellow,  Fob.  25,  1702-3.  He  proceeded 
M.  A.  at  the  next  commencement,  and  was  admitted  B.  D. 
in  1711.  The  degree  of  D.  D.  was  conferred  on  him  by 
the  university  of  Oxford  in  1733.  Botany  and  anatomy 
formed  his  studies  of  relaxation  while  at  Cambridge,  his 
companion  in  which 'was  the  celebrated  antiquary  Dr. 
Stukeiey,  He  was  advanced  successively  to  the  perpetual 
curacy  of  Teddington,  Middlesex,  and  "to  the  livings  of 
Portlock,  Somersetshire,  and  Farringdon,  Hampshire.  He 
married  Mary,  the  daughter  and  heiress  of  Dr.  Henry 

1  Gen.  Diet. — Biog.  Brit. — Des  Maizeaux's  Life  interleaved  with  MS  notes 
and  corrections,  apparently  intended  as  materials  for  a  life. — Letters}  by  emi- 
nent persons,  3  vols.  8vo,  1813. 



Newce  of  Much-Hadham,  in  the  county  of  Hertford,  and 
rector  of  Halisham  in  Sussex.  This  lady  died  at  the  end 
of  two  years,  leaving  no  issue,  nor  did  he  ever  marry 
strain.  He  resided  to  the  end  of  his  life  at  Teddington, 
wliere  he  was  visited  by  persons  of  rank  and  taste,  amongst 
others  by  late  prince  of  Wales,  after  whosedeath 
Dr.  Hales  was  made  clerk  of  the  closet  to  the  princess 
dowager,  who  always  entertained  a  high  respect  for  him, 
and  after  his  decease  erected  a  handsome  monument  to  his 
memory  in  Westminster-abbey,  near  that  of  Handel.  On 
this  is  liis  bust  in  a  large  medallion,  supported  by  a  female 
figure  representing  Botany,  accompanied  by  Religion.  The 
epitaph  is  in  Latin.  He  refused  a  canonry  01  Windsor, 
that  he  migbt  continue  to  devote  himself  to  his  parochial 
duties,  and  his  favourite  scientific  pursuits  ;  and  as  piety, 
truth,  and  virtue  were  the  principles  of  his  character,  he 
lived  in  universal  esteem  to  the  age  of  eighty-four,  dying 
at  Teddington,  January  4,  1761,  where  he  was  buried, 
under  the  church  tower,  which  he  had  rebuilt  at  his  own 

Dr.  Hales,  having  been  elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal  so- 
ciety in  1717,  communicated  to  that  learned  body  his  first 
essay  in  Vegetable  Physiology,  containing  an  account  of 
some  experiments  concerning  the  effect  of  the  sun's  heat 
in  raising  the  sap.  In  1727  appeared  the  first  edition  of 
his  "  Vegetable  Staticks,"  in  8vo,  illustrated  by  plates,  of 
which  a  second  edition  was  published  in  1731,  followed 
afterwards  by  several  others.  This  work  was  translated 
into  French  by  Buffon  in  1735,  and  into  Italian  by  a  Nea- 
politan lady  named  Ardinghelli,  in  1756.  There  are  also 
German  and  Dutch  editions.  The  original  book  was,  in 
fact,  the  first  volume  of  a  work  entitled  "  Statical  Essays," 
of  which  the  second,  relating  to  the  circulation  of  the 
blood  in  animals,  was  called  "Hemastaticks,"  and  came  out 
in  1733.  In  this  the  subject  of  the  urinary  calculus  also  is 
treated  chemically  and  medically.  With  a  laudable  view 
of  preventing  as  well  as  curing,  the  sufferings  and  crimes 
of  his  fellow-creatures,  this  good  man  published  anony- 
mously "  a  friendly  admonition  to  the  drinkers  of  gin, 
brandy,  and  other  spirituous  liquors,"  which  has  often 
been  reprinted  and  distributed  gratis,  by  those  who  consi- 
der the  temporal  and  eternal  interests  of  their  fellow  sub- 
jects rather  than  the  increase  of  the  revenue.  His  inven- 
tion of  a  ventilator  for  mines,  prisons,  hospitals,  and  the 

HALES.  43 

holds  of  ships,  laid  before  the  royal  society  in  1741,  and 
applied  also  to  the  ventilation  and  consequent  preservation 
of  corn  in  granaries,  has  proved  one  of  the  most  exten- 
sively useful  contrivances  for  the  preservation  of  health 
and  human  life.  His  philosophy  was  not  a  barren  accu- 
mulation for  the  ignorant  to  wonder  at,  or  for  its  professor 
to  repose  on  in  sottish  self-sufficiency  and  uselessness  ;  but 
an  inexhaustible  bank,  on  which  his  piety  and  his  bene- 
volence were  continually  drawing.  Such  philosophy  and 
such  learning  alone  entitle  their  possessors  to  authority  or 
respect,  and  such  are  the  best  fruits  of  religion.  In  this 
instance  at  least  they  were  duly  honoured,  both  at  home 
and  abroad.  The  fame  of  Hales  was  widely  diffused 
throughout  the  learned  world,  of  which  he  received  a  most 
distinguished  testimony,  in  being  elected  one  of  the  eight 
foreign  members  of  the  French  academy  of  sciences,  in 
1753,  in  the  place  of  sir  Hans  Sloane,  who  died  that  same 
year.  In  1732  he  had  been  appointed,  by  the  British  go- 
vernment, a  trustee  for  settling  a  colony  in  Georgia.  He 
was  well  acquainted  with  Mr.  Ellis,  and  other  naturalists  of 
his  day,  with  whose  views  and  pursuits  of  all  kinds  he  ar- 
dently concurred  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  his  foreign 
correspondence  was  extensive.  His  name  does  not  occur 
among  the  correspondents  of  Haller,  who  nevertheless  held 
him  in  the  highest  estimation,  as  a  philosopher  and  a  man. 
As  a  vegetable  physiologist,  Dr.  Hales  is  entitled  to  the 
highest  honour.  His  experiments  and  remarks  led  the 
way  to  those  of  Du  Hamel,  Bonnet,  and  all  that  have  fol- 
lowed. His  accuracy  of  observation,  and  fidelity  of  rela- 
tion, have  never  been  impeached,  and  his  ideas  in  physics, 
in  many  instances,  went  before  the  knowledge  of  his  day, 
and  anticipated  future  discoveries :  such  are  his  observa- 
tions relative  to  airs,  and  to  vegetable  secretions.  One  of 
his  more  able  successors  in  the  study  of  vegetable  physio- 
logy has  doubted  the  accuracy  of  one  of  his  plates  only, 
tab.  11,  in  which  three  trees,  having  been  united  by  en- 
grafting their  branches,  the  intermediate  one,  by  the  earth 
being  removed  from  its  roots,  iy  left  hanging  in  the  air, 
but  an  experiment  of  the  late  Dr.  Hope's  at  Edinburgh, 
upon  three  willows,  of  which  Dr.  Smith  was  an  eye-witness, 
and  which  was  conducted  with  success  in  imitation  of  this 
of  Hales,  puts  his  account  beyond  all  doubt  whatever. ' 

1  Masters's  Hist,  of  C.  C.  C.  C.— Annual  Register,  1764. — Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 
—Gent.  MaS.  vol.  LXIX,— Butler's  Life  of  Hildesley,  p.  362,— Lysons's  £a- 
yiroiis,  vol.  III. 

44  H  A  L  I  -  B  E  I  G  H. 

HALI-BEIGH,  a  Polande'r,  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
whose  original  name  was  Albert  Bobowski,  was  born  a 
Christian  ;°but,  being  taken  by  the  Tartars  while  a  child, 
was  sold  to  the  Turks,  who  educated  him  in  their  religion. 
He  acquired  the  knowledge  of  seventeen  languages,  among 
the  rest,  of  the  French,  English,  and  German,  having  had 
part  of  his  education  in  these  countries ;  and  became  in- 
terpreter to  the  grand  seignior.  He  translated  into  the 
Turkish  language  the  catechism  of  the  church  of  England, 
and  all  the  Bible.  He  composed  a  Turkish  grammar  and 
dictionary,  and  other  things  which  were  never  printed. 
His  principal  work  is,  "  A  Treatise  upon  the  Liturgy  of 
the  Turks,  their  pilgrimages  to  Mecca,  their  circumcision, 
and  manner  of  visiting  the  sick,"  which  he  was  induced  to 
write  by  Dr.  Smith,  chaplain  to  the  English  embassy  at  the 
Porte,  and  who  gave  the  MS.  to  Dr.  Hyde,  by  whom  it  was 
published  in  Latin,  in  the  appendix  of  the  "  Itinera  mun- 
cli  ab  Abrahamo  Peritsol,"  Oxford,  1691.  His  death, 
which  happened  in  1675,  prevented  the  execution  of  a 
design  which  he  had  formed  of  returning  to  the  Christian 
religion.  He  is  supposed  to  have  furnished  Ricaut,  the 
consul  of  Smyrna,  with  some  materials  for  his  book  en- 
titled "  The  State  of  the  Ottoman  Empire."  l 

HALKET  (LADY  ANNE),  a  learned  English  lady,  the 
daughter  of  Mr.  Robert  Murray  of  the  Tullibardin  family, 
and  allied  by  the  mother's  side  to  the  Perth  family,  was 
born  in  London,  Jan.  4,  1622.  Her  father  was  preceptor 
to  Charles  I.  and  afterwards  provost  of  Eton  college,  and 
her  mother  was  subgoverness  to  th.Q  duke  of  Gloucester 
and  the  princess  Elizabeth.  Anne  was  instructed  by  her 
parents  in  every  polite  and  liberal  science ;  but  theology 
and  physic  were  her  favourite  studies.  She  became  so 
particularly  versed  in  the  latter  art,  and  in  the  practice  of 
surgery,  that  she  was  consulted  by  the  first  personages  in 
the  kingdom  :  and  the  reputation  of  her  skill  was  also  dif- 
fused over  Holland,  whence  many  persons  came  for  her 
advice.  She  was  a  faithful  royalist,  and  a  sufferer  in  the 
cause  of  Charles.  On  March  2,  1656,  she  was  married  to 
sir  James  Halket,  a  worthy  and  amiable  man,  to  whom  she 
bore  four  children,  one  of  which,  Robert,  her  eldest  son, 
only  survived.  During  her  first  pregnancy  she  wrote, 
mder  the  apprehension  that  she  should  not  survive  her 

!  Moreri — Gen,  Diet. 

H  A  L  K  E  -T.  45 

delivery,  a  tract,  containing  excellent  instructions,  entitled 
"The  Mother's  Will  to  the  Unborn  Child."  She  was 
fourteen  years  a  wife,  and  twenty-eight  a  widow.  She  was 
an  acute  theologian  and  a  profound  student.  Her  learning, 
simplicity,  unaffected  piety,  exemplary  conduct,  and  sweet- 
ness of  manners,  conciliated  universal  respect  and  esteem. 
She  left  twenty-one  volumes,  principally  on  religious  sub- 
jects, some  in  folio,  and  others  in  quarto,  from  which  a 
volume  of  "  Meditations"  was  printed  at  Edinburgh  in 
1701.  She  died  April  22,  1699. l 

HALL  (ANTHONY),  a  learned,  but  not  very  accurate 
editor,  was  the  son  of  the  rev.  Henry  Hall,  of  Kirkbridge 
in  Cumberland,  where  he  was  born  in  1679.  He  received 
the  rudiments  of  learning  at  Carlisle,  whence  he  was  re- 
moved to  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  and  admitted  battiler 
July  7,  1696,  but  for  some  reason  was  not  matriculated  till 
Nov.  18,  1698.  He  took  his  bachelor's  degree  in  1701, 
and  that  of  master  in  1704,  having  just  entered  into  holy 
orders;  and  war,  elected  fellow  of  his  college,  April  18, 
1706.  In  1719,  upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Hudson,  keeper  of 
the  Bodleian  library,  he  became  a  candidate  for  that  office, 
and  it  appears  that  Dr.  Hudson,  a  little  time  before  his 
death,  expressed  a  wish  that  Mr.  Hall  should  be  his  suc- 
cessor; but  his  endeavours  failed.  Dr.  Hudson,  at  the 
time  of  his  death,  had  nearly  finished  his  edition  of  Jose- 
phus;  and  by  Mr.  Hall's  exertions  it  was  soon  published. 
Shortly  after,  he  married  Dr.  Hudson's  widow.  On  April 
8,  1720,  he  was  instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Hampton  Poyle, 
in  Oxfordshire,  at  the  presentation  of  his  college  ;  and  in 
the  following  year  took  his  degrees  in  divinity.  He  died 
at  Garford,  in  Berkshire,  and  was  buried  at  Kingston,  in 
that  county,  April  6,  1723. 

Dr.  Hall,  by  his  literary  labours,  deserved  far  more  at- 
tention than  he  acquired.  He  had  a  quick  apprehension, 
and  his  judgment  was  clear  and  penetrating;  but  it  was  his 
misfortune  never  to  compare  or  revise  the  manuscripts  he 
had  once  transcribed.  His  edition  of  "  Leland  de  Scrip- 
toribus"  is  very  erroneously  printed,  and  in  some  parts  are 
great  omissions,  from  his  negligence.  This  was  his  first 
publication,  and  appeared  in  2  vols.  8vo,  Oxford,  1709. 
From  a  letter  of  bishop  Tanner,  we  learn  that  he  originally 
designed  to  publish  Leland's  work  only,  and  not  what  he 

»  Ballard's  Memoirs. 

4G  HAL  L. 

afterwards  completed  in  his  "  Bibliotheca  ;"  and  that  he 
was  at  first  somewhat  concerned  to  find  himself  antici- 
pated, although  he  allows  Mr.  Hall's  fitness  for  the  task. 
Mr.  Hail  published  also  "  N.  Triveti  Annales,"  1718,  3vo, 
the  "  Continuatio"  of  the  same,  1722,  8vo  ;  and  drew  up 
the  account  of  Berkshire  for  the  "  Magna  Britannia,"  but 
was  not,  as  reported,  the  author  of  the  account  of  Cumber- 
land in  that  work.1 

HALL,  or  HALLE  (EDWARD),  an  English  lawyer  and 
historiographer,  was  the  son  of  John  Halle  of  Northall  in 
Shropshire,  by  Catherine  his  wife,  daughter  and  heir  of 
Thomas  Gedding,  and  was  descended  from  sir  Francis  Van 
Halle,  knight  of  the  garter  in  the  time  of  Edward  III.  who 
was  the  son  of  Frederic  Van  Halle,  of  the  Tyrol,  in  Ger- 
many, natural  son  of  Albert  king  of  the  Romans  and  arch- 
duke of  Austria.  He  was  born,  probably  about  the  last 
year  of  the  fifteenth  century,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mildred's, 
London.  He  was  educated  at  Eton,  whence  in  1544  he 
was  sent  to  King's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  continued 
until  he  became  a  junior  fellow.  He  afterwards  studied  at 
GrayVinn,  and  resided  there  until  he  was  made  a  judge  in 
the  sheriffs'  court.  Wood,  however,  says  that  he  went  to 
Oxford  about  1518,  when  cardinal  Wolsey  founded  certain 
lectures  there;  and  adds  that,  that  being  the  common  mart 
of  learning,  no  person  of  ingenuity  or  curiosity  thought 
themselves  complete  until  they  had  been  there.  But  Mr. 
Baker  of  St.  John's,  in  a  letter  to  Hearne,  seems  to  think 
this  doubtful,  as  he  is  not  to  be  traced  from  GrayVinn  to 

After  he  had  been  called  to  the  bar,  he  became  first  one 
of  the  common  Serjeants,  and  then  under-sheriff  of  the  city 
of  London,  in  both  which  offices  he  gave  much  satisfaction. 
In  1533  he  was  appointed  summer  reader  of  GrayVinn, 
and  in  1540  double  reader  in  Lent,  and  one  of  the  judges 
of  the  sheriffs'  court.  About  the  same  time,  according  to 
Fox,  he  was  a  member  of  the  house  of  commons,  and  was 
one  of  those  who  supported  the  bill  for  establishing  the  Six 
Articles  by  which  popery  was  in  a  great  measure  upheld. 
He  died  in  1547,  and  was  buried,  but  without  any  memo- 
rial, in  the  church  of  St.  Bennet  Sherehog,  London.  He 
wrote  "  The  Union  of  the  Houses  of  York  and  Lancaster," 

iMt'*'  *\*?'  Vn  '  L^X*  wrUfen  by  a  ?entle™n,  on  whose  accuracy  we  can 
licitly  rely.— Mutchmsou's  Cumberland,  vol.  II.  p.  485. 

HALL.  47 

Lond/1548,  folio*.  This  was  continued  only  to  the  reign 
of  Henry  VIII.  1532.  The  continuation  to  the  latter  end 
of  that  king's  reign  in  1546,  he  left  in  manuscript,  which 
falling  into  the  hands  of  Grafton,  he  completed  it,  and 
printed  it  in  1550.  In  1555  it  was  protiibiied  by  procla- 
mation. A  third  edition  was  printed  in  Lond.  1809,  4to, 
by  the  booksellers,  who  have  reprinted  the  whole  of  the 
English  Chronicles,  with  a  care  and  at  an  expence  which 
cannot  be  too  highly  commended. 

There  are  various  characters  given  of  this  chronicle  by 
antiquaries.  Bishop  Nicolson  speaks  of  it  with  disrespect, 
as  a  record  of  the  fashions  of  clothes  ;  but  Peck  vindicates 
Hall  with  some  warmth.  The  author  of  a  fragment,  sup- 
posed to  be  Stow,  published  by  Hearne  in  the  appendix 
to  the  chartulary  of  Worcester,  also  vindicates  the  merit 
of  the  work ;  and  Hearne  says  it  is  written  in  a  masculine 
and  elegant  style,  and  contains  nothing  but  what  is  agree- 
able to  the  dignity  and  majesty  of  an  historian.  On  the 
other  hand  Fox  and  Ascham  object  to  the  fidelity  and  style 
of  our  author.  Hall  has  been  accused  of  being  no  favourer 
of  the  clergy,  and  some  instances  of  misrepresentation  in 
that  respect  have  been  pointed  out  by  Fiddes  in  his  life  of 
cardinal  Wolsey  (p.  50,  &C.)1 

HALL  (HENRY),  a  learned  English  divine,  was  born  in 
London  in  1716.  Of  his  parents  little  is  known.  His  fa- 
ther is  said  to  have  occasionally  resided  at  an  old  house  at 
Poplar,  which  had  a  large  hanging  garden  and  a  building 
at  the  bottom,  and  this,  tradition  reported,  had  been  the 
laboratory  of  sir  Richard  Steele.  The  subject  of  this  memoir 
was  sent  early  to  Eton,  admitted  on  the  foundation  in  1729; 
and  elected  to  King's  college,  Cambridge,  in  1735,  where 
of  course  he  became  a  fellow  in  1738,  and  took  the  degrees 
in  arts.  Being  recommended  by  Dr.  Chapman  to  arch- 
bishop Potter,  his  grace  appointed  him  his  librarian  at 
Lambeth  in  1748,  on  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Jones.  In 
that  station  he  continued  till  the  death  of  his  patron  in 
1749;  when  archbishop  Herring,  who  succeeded  to  the 
primacy,  being  sensible  of  his  merit,  not  only  continued 
him  in  that  office,  but,  on  his  taking  orders,  appointed 
him  one  of  his  chaplains;  and,  in  April  1750,  collated  him 
to  the  rectory  of  Harbledown  (vacant  by  the  promotion  of 

*  That  of  Bertholette  of  1542  seems  doubtful. 

1  Ath.  Ox.  rol.  I. —  Cole's  MS  Athens  Cantab,  in  Brit.  Mns. — Harwood's 
Alumni  Etoaenses. — Tanner  and  Piu.~P«<;k'$  J^sideiala,  rol,  II, 

48  H  A  L  L. 

Mr,  Thomas  Herring  to  the  rectory  of  Chevening) ;  in 
November  1752,  the  archbishop  collated  him  also  to  the 
vicarage  of  Herne,  which  he  held  by  dispensation  ;  to 
which  his  grace  afterwards  added  the  sinecure  rectory  of 
Orpington,  in  the  deanery  of  Shoreham,  one  of  his  pecu- 
liars. °In  1756,  Mr.  Hall  vacated  Herne,  on  being  pre- 
sented to  the  vicarage  of  East  Peckham  by  the  dean  and 
chapter  of  Canterbury,  by  whom  he  was  much  esteemed, 
having  greatly  assisted  their  auditor  in  digesting  many  of 
the  records,  charters,  &c.  preserved  in  their  registry.  In 
return,  the  late  Dr.  Walwyn  (one  of  the  prebendaries,  who 
vacated  that  vicarage)  was  called  by  the  archbishop  to  the 
rectory  of  Great  Mongeham,  void  by  the  death  of  Mr. 
Byrch.  On  the  death  of  archbishop  Herring  in  1757,  he 
resigned  the  librarianship  of  Lambeth,  and  from  that  time 
resided  chiefly  at  Harbledown,  in  a  large  house,  which  he 
hired,  afterwards  the  seat  of  Robert  Mead  Wilmot,  esq. 
Soon  after  the  death  of  archbishop  Herring,  Mr.  Hall  was 
presented  by  his  executors  to  the  treasurership  of  the  cathe- 
dral of  Wells,  one  of  his  grace's  options.  He  was  also  at 
first  a  competitor  for  the  precentorship  of  Lincoln,  an  op- 
tion of  archbishop  Potter  (which  Dr.  Richardson  gained  in 
1760  by  a  decree  of  the  house  of  lords)  ;  but  soon  withdrew 
his  claim,  well  grounded  as  it  seemed.  His  learning  and 
abilities  were  great,  but  not  superior  to  his  modesty  ;  and 
by  his  singular  affability  he  obtained  the  love  and  esteem 
of  all  who  knew  him.  His  charitable  attention  to  his  poor 
parishioners,  especially  when  they  were  ill,  was  constant 
and  exemplary.  At  archbishop  Seeker's  primary  visitation 
at  Canterbury,  in  17.58,  Mr.  Hall  was  "pitched  upon"  (his 
grace's  official  expression)  to  preach  before  him  at  St. 
Margaret's  church,  which  he  did  from  Acts  xvii.  21.  He 
died  a  bachelor,  at  Harbledown,  Nov.  2,  1763,  in  the  forty- 
seventh  year  of  his  age,  after  a  short  illness,  occasioned  by 
a  violent  swelling  in  the  neck,  which  could  not  be  ac- 
counted for  by  the  eminent  physicians  who  attended  him. 
He  was  buried  under  the  communion-table,  at  Harble- 
down -church,  without  any  epitaph.1 

HALL  (JOHN),  an  English  poet  of  some  note,  was  born 

Durham,  August  1627,  and  after  one  year  spent  at  St. 

John's  college,  Cambridge,  removed  to   Gray's-inn,    Lon- 

un,   where  he  was  called  to  the  bar-   but  entering  into 

*  Bri, 

HALL.  49 

the  politics  of  the  times,  and  writing  on  subjects  favour- 
able to  the  rebellion,  he  attracted  the  notice  of  parliament, 
who  sent  him  into  Scotland  to  attend  Oliver  Cromwell, 
and  afterwards  distinguished  him  by  other  marks  of  favour : 
but,  being  too  much  addicted  to  pleasure,  he  fell  a  sacri- 
fice to  its  indulgence;  and  returning  to  his  native  city  of 
Durham,  died  there,  August  1,  1656.  In  1646  (during  his 
short  residence  at  Cambridge),  being  then  but  nineteen 
•  years  of  age,  he  published  "  Horas  Vacivse,  or  Essayes,"  a 
sufficient  proof  of  his  abilities.  His  poems  came  out  the 
same  year.  He  published  the  first  English  version  of  Lon- 
ginus,  which  he  entitled  "  The  Height  of  Eloquence," 
Lond.  1652,  8vo.  This  he  translated  from  the  Greek,  as 
he  also  did  "  Hierocles  upon  the  Golden  Verses  of  Pytha- 
goras ;"  before  which  is  an  account  of  the  ingenious  trans- 
lator and  his  works,  by  John  Davis  of  Kidwelly,  by  whom 
it  was  published  in  1657,  8vo.  Several  of  his  poems  are 
preserved  in  Nichols's  "  Select  Collection,"  reprinted  from 
a  little  volume,  entitled  "  Poems  by  John  Hall,  Cambridge, 
printed  by  Roger  Daniel,  printer  to  the  universitie,  1646, 
for  J.  Rothwell  at  the  Sun  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,"  to 
which  in  1647  was  added  "The  Second  Booke  of  Divine 
Poems  by  J.  H."  which  is  now  become  exceedingly  scarce. 
Recommendatory  verses  are  prefixed  to  it  by  Jo.  Pawson 
(his  tutor),  H.  More,  W.  Dillingham,  W.  Harrington,  Ja. 
Windet,  R.  Marshall,  T.  Smithsby,  and  Edw.  Holland.1 

HALL  (JOSEPH),  a  very  eminent,  pious,  and  learned 
English  prelate,  was  born  July  1,  1574,  in  Bristow-park, 
within  the  parish  of  Ashby  de  la  Zouch,  in  Leicestershire. 
His  father  was  an  officer  to  Henry  earl  of  Huntingdon,  then 
president  of  the  North,  and  under  him  had  the  government 
of  that  town,  which  was  the  chief  seat  of  the  earldom.  His 
mother  was  of  the  family  of  the  Bembridge's,  and  accord- 
ing to  his  own  account,  a  woman  of  great  piety.  His  pa- 
rents had  twelve  children,  and  therefore,  although  disposed 
to  bring  up  Joseph  for  the  church,  were  inclined  from  mo- 
tives of  oeconomy  to  confine  his  education  to  the  care  of  a 
private  tutor.  But  Mr.  Gilby,  fellow  of  Emanuel  college, 
hearing  of  tbis  design,  represented  its  disadvantages  in 
such  a  manner  to  Mr.  Hall's  eldest  son,  that  the  latter  im- 
portuned his  father  that  Joseph  might  be  sent  to  the  uni- 
versity, and  generously  offered  to  sacrifice  part  of  his  in-* 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Ellis's  Specimens,  vol.  II.— Nichols's  Poems. 


10  HALL. 

beritance,  rather  than  prevent  his  brother  from  enjoying 
the  advantages  of  academical  education.  His  father,  struck 
with  this  mark  of  brotherly  affection,  declared  that,  what- 
ever it  •might  cost  him,  Joseph  should  be  sent  to  the  uni- 

He  was  accordingly  removed  to  Cambridge  at  the  age 
of  fifteen,  and  admitted  of  Ernanuel  college,  of  which  he 
was  chosen  scholar,  and  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts. 
His  residence,  however,  was  not  without  its  difficulties.  In 
1591,  as  his  expences  began  to  be  felt  in  so  large  a  family, 
he  was  recalled  to  fill  the  office  of  schoolmaster  at  Ashby 
de  la  Zouch,  and  would  have  been  prevented  from  ever 
returning  to  college,  had  not  Mr.  Edmund  Sleigh  of  Derby, 
an  uncle  by  marriage,  offered  to  defray  half  the  expences 
of  his  residence  at  Cambridge,  until  he  should  attain  the 
degree  of  master  of  arts;  and  this  he  liberally  performed. 
Another  difficulty  still  presented  itself.  In  1395,  his 
•rholar&hip  exnir*^  a^rj  +hQ  statutes  of  the  college  per- 
mitting only  one  person  of  a  county  to  become  fellow,  he 
was  about  to  leave  the  university  a  second  tinie,  when  the 
earl  of  Huntingdon  prevailed  on  his  countryman  and  tutor, 
Mr.  Gilby,  to  resign  his  fellowship,  on  promise  of  being 
made  his  lordship's  chaplain,  and  receiving  higher  promo- 
tion ;  Mr.  Gilby  consented,  and  the  days  of  examination  for 
die  fellowship  were  appointed  ;  but  before  two  of  the  three 
days  of  trial  had  expired,  news  was  brought  of  the  sudden 
death  of  the  earl,  by  which  event  Mr.  Gilby  was  likely  to 
be  deprived  of  the  conditions  on  which  he  resigned. 
Alarmed  at  this,  our  author,  with  very  honourable  feeling, 
went  to  the  master  of  the  college,  Dr.  Chaderton,  and 
stated  the  case,  offering  at  the  same  time  to  leave  college, 
and  hoping  that  Mr.  Gilby  could  be  re-admitted.  The 
latter,  however,  he  was  told,  could  not  take  place,  as  the 
fellowship  had  been  declared  void,  and  the  election  must 
proceed  whether  he  continued  to  be  a  candidate  or  not. 
Mr.  Hall  accordingly  went  to  the  third  examination,  and 
was  unanimously  chosen. 

In  1596  he  took  his  degree  of  master  of  arte,  and  ac- 
quitted himself  on  every  public  trial  with  great  reputation. 
He  read  also  the  rhetoric  lecture  in  the  schools,  but  re- 
signed it,  when  he  found  that  it  interfered  with  an  object 
more  dear  to  him,  the  study  of  divinity  ;  and  he  soon  after 
entered  into  holy  orders.  As  we  have  no  account  of  him 
when  at  college,  except  the  few  particulars  in  his  "  Spe- 

HALL.  51 

cialities,"  written  by  himself,  we  cannot  trace  the  progress 
of  his  muse.  It  is  not  improbable  that,  like  other  juvenile 
poets,  he  had  written  some  pieces  at  a  very  early  period  of 
life.  All  that  is  certain,  however,  is,  that  his  satires  were 
published  in  1597  and  1598  in  the  following  order  :  "  Vir- 
gidemiarurn  (i.  e.  a  gathering  or  harvest  of  rods),  sixe 
bookes.  First  three  bookes  of  tooth-lesse  satyrs,  1.  Poetical. 
2.  Academical!.  3.  Moral."  Printed  by  T.  Creede  for  R. 
Dexter.  "  The  three  last  bookes  of  byting  satyrs,"  by  R. 
Bradock  for  Dexter,  1598  ;  both  parts,  1599*. 

Soon  after  his  entering  into  the  church,  he  was  recom- 
mended by  Dr.  Chaderton  to  the  lord  chief  justice  Popham, 
to  be  master  of  Tiverton -school  in  Devonshire,  then  newly 
founded  by  Mr.  Blundel ;  but  he  had  scarcely  accepted  the 
appointment,  when  lady  Drury  of  Sufteld  offered  him  the 
rectory  of  Halsted  near  St.  Edmundsbury,  which  induced 
him  to  relinquish  the  school.  Two  years  after  his  settle- 
ment at  this  place,  he  married  a  daughter  of  sir  George 
Winniff  of  Bretenham.  In  1605,  he  accompanied  sir  Ed- 
mund Bacon  to  the  Spa,  where  he  composed  his  "  Second 
Century  of  Meditations,'*  the  first  having  been  published 
before  he  set  out.  At  Brussels  he  entered  into  a  confer- 
ence with  Coster  the  Jesuit,  and  confirmed  his  own  reli- 
gious persuasion  by  what  he  had  occasion  to  see  of  the 
practices  and  actual  state  of  the  Romish  church,  which  he 
states  as  the  principal  object  that  induced  him  to  take  this 
journey.  About  a  year  and  a  half  after,  happening  to  be 
in  London,  he  was  invited  to  preach  before  prince  Henry 
at  Richmond  palace,  which  he  performed  so  much  to  his 
highness' s  satisfaction,  that  he  made  him  one  of  his  chap- 
lains f, 

His  errand  to  London  was  a  dispute  with  his  patron  sir 
Robert  Drury,  whom  we  have  noticed  as  the  patron  of  the 
poet  Donne,  but  who  in  Mr.  Hall's  case  does  not  appear 
to  have  acted  with  liberality  or  justice.  He  had  detained 
about  ten  pounds  per  annum  belonging  to  the  living  of 

*  Warton  observes,   not    with   his  once  proscribed  by  authority,  as  unfit 

usual  judgment,  that  "  the  poet  is  bet-  to  be  circulated  or  read.  See  Warton's 

ter  known  than  the  prelate  or  the  pole-  Hist,  of  Poetry,  and  the  Life  of  Hall  in 

roic."     So  far  is  this  from  being  the  the  late  edition  of  the  Poets, 

case,  that  of  many  thousands  who  have  f  Wood  says  that  in  1611,  Oct.  30, 

read    bishop  Hail's   Meditations   and  he  was  collated  to  the  archdeaconry  of 

Sermons  with  pleasure  and  advantage,  Nottingham,    upon  the  promotion   of 

few  have  ever  heard  that  he  was  a  poet.  Dr.  John  King  to  the  see  of  London, 

and   still   fewer  that  his   poems   were  Wood's  Ath.  vpl.  I.  Fasti.  155. 

E   2 



Halsted,  notwithstanding  the  remonstrances  of  the  incum- 
bent, who  assured  him  that  with  such  a  deduction  it  was  an 
incompetent  maintenance,  and  that  he  had  been  obliged 
to  write  books  in  order  to  be  able  to  buy  some.  These  ar- 
guments not  prevailing,  he  was  about  to  resign  Halsted, 
when  Edward  lord  Denny,  afterwards  earl  of  Norwich, 
gave  him  the  donative  of  Waltham  Holy  Cross  in  Essex. 
About  the  same  time  (1612)  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor 

in  divinity.  . 

He  now  returned  home,  and  resumed  his  professional 
duties,  happy  in  having  overcome  his  perplexities,  an£  in 
the  acquisition  of  a  new  patron,  whom  he  valued  so  highly 
as  to  refuse  the  prince's  invitation  to  reside  near  his  per- 
son, and  in  the  road  to  higher  preferment.  He  was  after- 
wards made  a  prebendary  of  the  collegiate  church  of  Wol- 
verhampton,  a  very  small  endowment,  but  acceptable  to 
our  author  from  the  prospect  it  afforded  of  public  useful- 
ness ;  and  after  many  law-suits  he  was  the  means  of  reco- 
vering some  revenues  belonging  to  the  church  which  had 
been  unjustly  withheld.  He  is  said  by  all  his  biographers 
to  have  retained  the  living  of  Waltham  for  twenty-two 
years,  and  this  assertion  is  founded  on  his  own  words  in 
his  "  Specialities  ;"  but  as  he  expressed  the  time  in  nume- 
rals, there  may  be  a  mistake  in  the  printing,  for  if  he  re- 
mained at  Waltham  twenty -two  years,  he  must  have  kept 
that  living  after  he  was  bishop  of  Exeter,  which  is  not  very 
probable,  especially  as  we  find  there  were  three  incum- 
bents on  the  living  of  Waltham  before  1637. 

In  16)6  he  attended  the  embassy  of  James  Hay,  viscount 
Doncaster,  into  France,  and  during  his  absence  king  James 
performed  a  promise  he  had  made  before  his  setting  out, 
of  conferring  upon  him  the  deanery  of  Worcester.  In  the 
following  year  he  accompanied  his  majesty  into  Scotland 
as  one  of  his  chaplains  ;  but  on  his  return  it  was  insinuated 
to  the  king  that  Dr.  Hall  leaned  too  much  to  the  presby- 
terian  interpretation  of  the  five  points  *,  the  discussion  of 
which  at  that  time  occupied  the  attention  of  the  protestant 
world  :  on  this  he  was  required  to  give  his  opinion  in  writ- 
ing, with  which  the  king  was  so  well  satisfied,  and  found 
himself  s*  much  of  his  way  of  thinking,  that  he  commanded 
it  to  be  read  in  the  university  of  Edinburgh.  In  1618  he 

*  Viz.  Predestination  j  the  extent  of  Christ's  death ;  Man's  free-will  and  cor- 
ruption, the  manner  of  our  conversion,  to  Gcdj  ami,  Perseverance. 

HALL.  53 

was  sent  to  the  synod  of  Dort,  which  was  summoned  by 
the  states-general,  and  consisted  of  the  most  eminent  di- 
vines deputed  from  the  United  Provinces,  and  churches  of 
England,  Scotland,  Switzerland,  &c.  and  its  object  .was  to 
decide  the  controversy  between  the  Calvinists  and  Armini- 
ans  respecting  the  five  points.  Dr.  Hairs  companions  on 
this  mission  were  Dr.  Carleton,  bishop  of  Landaff,  and 
afterwards  of  Chichester,  Dr.  Davenant,  master  of  Queen's 
college,  Cambridge,  and  Dr.  Ward,  master  of  Sidney  ;  bujt 
the  state  of  his  health  requiring  his  return  after  about  two 
months,  his  place  was  supplied  by  Dr.  Goad.  During  his 
short  residence,  however,  he  preached  a  Latin  sermon  be- 
fore the  synod,  and  on  his  departure,  among  other  honour- 
able testimonies  of  their  esteem,  received  from  them,  a 
rich  gold  medal  which  is  painted  suspended  on  his  breast 
in  the  fine  portrait  now  in  Emanuel  college.  It  appears 
by  his  treatise  entitled  "  Via  Media,"  that  he  was  not 
extremely  rigid  with  respect  to  all  the  five  points;  but  his 
was  not  an  age  for  moderation,  and  no  party  sought  a 
middle  way. 

In  1624-  he  refused  the  bishopric  of  Gloucester,  but  in 
1627  accepted  that  of  Exeter,  to  which  he  was  consecrated 
Dec.  23,  holding  with  it  in  commendam  the  rectory  of  St. 
Breock  in  Cornwall.  At  this  time  he  appears  again  to 
have  lain  under  the  suspicion  of  being  a  favourer  of  the 
puritans.  What  he  says  in  his  defence  is  worthy  of  no- 
tice. "  I  entered  upon  that  place  (the  bishopric)  not  with- 
out much  prejudice  and  suspicion  on  some  hands ;  for  some 
who  sat  at  the  stern  of  the  church,  had  me  in  great  jea- 
lousy for  too  much  favour  of  puritanism.  I  soon  had  intel- 
ligence who  were  set  over  me  for  spies;  my  ways  were 
curiously  observed  and  scanned.  Some  persons  of  note  in 
the  clergy,  finding  me  ever  ready  to  encourage  those 
whom  I  found  conscionably  forward  and  painful  in  their 
places,  and  willingly  giving  way  to  orthodox  and  peace- 
able lecturers,  in  several  parts  of  my  diocese,  opened 
their  mouths  against  me,  both  obliquely  in  the  pulpits,  and 
directly  at  the  court,  complaining  of  my  too  much  indul- 
gence to  persons  disaffected,  and  my  too  much  liberty  of 
frequent  lecturings  within  my  charge.  The  billows  went 
so  high,  that  I  was  three  several  times  upon  my  knees  to 
his  majesty,  to  answer  these  great  criminations ;  and  what 
contest  I  had  with  some  graat  lords  concerning  these  par- 
ticulars, it  would  be  too  long  to  report :  only  this,  under 

54  HALL. 

how  dark  a  cloud  I  was  here  upon,  I  was  so  sensible,  that 
I  plainly  told  the  lord  archbishop  of  Canterbury  (Laud) 
that  rather  than  I  would  be  obnoxious  to  these  slanderous 
tongues  of  his  misinformers,  I  would  cast  off  my  rochet ;  I 
knew  I  went  right  ways,  and  would  not  endure  to  live 
under  undeserved  suspicion." 

It  must  be  allowed  that  the  religious  principles  which  he 
inculcated  from  the  pulpit  and  the  press,  were  much  more 
consonant  to  what  the  puritans  maintained,  than  the  lax 
Arminianism  for  which  Laud  contended,  but  at  the  same 
time  bishop  Hall's  zeal  for  episcopacy  was  not  inferior  to 
that  of  any  supporter  of  the  church.  Few  men,  indeed, 
wrote  more,  or  suffered  more,  in  the  cause.  He  published, 
even  when  publishing  became  hazardous,  several  able 
treatises  in  defence  of  the  liturgy  and  church  discipline  ; 
and  was  the  powerful  antagonist  of  Marshall,  Calamy, 
Young,  Newcomen,  and  Spurstow,  who  wrote  a  celebrated 
book  called  Smectymnuus  (a  title  made  up  of  their  initials, 
Christian  and  surname),  and  all  this  he  boldly  ventured, 
when  the  republican  party  had  possessed  themselves  of  the 
fortresses  of  civil  and  ecclesiastical  government,  and  were 
about  to  substitute  power  for  argument ;  nor  was  it  long 
before  they  made  him  experience  the  dangers  of  a  high 
station  in  the  church. 

On  the  15th  of  November,  1641,  he  was  translated,  by 
the  little  power  now  left  to  the  king,  to  be  bishop  of  Nor- 
wich ;  but  on  the  30th  of  December  following,  having  joined 
with  the  archbishop  of  York,  and  eleven  other  prelates,  in 
a  protest  against  the  validity  of  such  laws  as  should  be 
made  during  their  compelled  absence  from  parliament,  he 
was  ordered  to  be  sent  to  the  Tower  with  his  brethren  on 
the  30th  of  January,  1641-2.  Shortly  after,  they  were  im- 
peached by  the  commons  of  high  treason,  and  on  their 
appearance  in  parliament  were  treated  with  the  utmost 
rudeness  and  contempt.  The  commons,  however,  did  not 
think  fit  to  prosecute  the  charge  of  high  treason,  having 
gained  their  immediate  purpose  by  driving  them  from  the 
house  of  lords,  and  he  and  his  brethren  were  ordered  to 
be  dismissed ;  but  upon  another  pretext  they  were  again 
sent  to  the  Tower,  and  it  was  not  until  June  following  that 
he  was  finally  released  on  giving  bail  for  5000/.  He  im- 
mediately returned  to  Norwich,  and  being  received  with 
rather  more  respect  than  could  be  hoped  for  in  the  then 
state  of  popular  opinion,  he  resumed  his  functions,  fre- 

HAL  L.  55 

quently  preaching,  as  was  his  custom,  to  crowded  audien- 
ces, and  enjoying  the  forbearance  of  the  predominant 
party  till  the  beginning  of  April,  1643,  when  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  church  could  no  longer  be  delayed.  About  this 
time,  the  ordinance  for  sequestering  notorious  delinquents 
having  passed,  and  our  prelate  being  included  by  name,  a 
distinction  which  his  writings  and  his  popularity  had  me- 
rited, all  his  rents  were  stopped,  even  the  half-year  then 
due  ;  and  a  few  days  after,  the  sequestrators  entered  his 
palace,  and  began  the  work  of  devastation  with  unfeeling 
brutality,  seizing  at  the  same  time  all  his  property  real 
and  personal.  Some  notion  of  their  proceedings  may  be 
formed  from  his  own  brief  account. 

"  The  sequestrators  sent  certain  men  appointed  by  them 
(whereof  one  had  been  burned  in  the  hand)  to  appraise  all 
the  goods  that  were  in  my  house;  which  they  accordingly 
executed  with  all  diligent  severity,  not  leaving  so  much  as 
a  dozen  of  trenchers,  or  my  children's  pictures  out  of  their 
curious  inventory :  yea,  they  would  have  apprized  our 
very  wearing-apparel,  had  not  some  of  them  declared  their 
opinion  to  the  contrary.  These  goods,  both  library  and 
household-stuff  of  all  kinds,  were  appointed  to  be  exposed 
to  public  sale ;  but  in  the  mean  time,  Mrs.  Goodwin,  a 
religious  good  gentlewoman,  whom  yet  we  had  never 
known  or  seen,  being  moved  with  compassion,  very  kindly 
offered  to  lay  down  to  the  sequestrators  the  whole  sum  at 
which  the  goods  were  valued ;  and  was  pleased  to  leave 
them  in  our  hands,  for  our  use,  till  we  might  be  able  to 
re-purchase  them.  As  for  the  books,  several  stationers 
looked  on  them,  but  were  not  forward  to  buy.  At  last  Mr. 
Cooke,  a  worthy  divine  of  this  diocese,  gave  bond  to  the 
sequestrators,  to  pay  them  the  whole  sum  whereat  they 
were  set ;  which  was  afterwards  satisfied  out  of  that  poor 
pittance  which  was  allowed  me  for  my  maintenance." 

This  "  poor  pittance"  had  at  first  the  appearance  of 
liberality,  for  when  he  applied  to  the  committee  of  seques- 
trators at  Norwich,  they  were  either  so  ashamed  of  what 
they  had  been  compelled  to  do,  or  entertained  so  much 
respect  for  his  character,  as  to  agree  that  he  should  have 
400/.  a-year  out  of  the  revenues  of  the  bishopric.  But 
their  employers  at  the  seat  of  government  disdained  to  vary 
their  proceedings  by  such  an  act  of  generosity,  and  the 
Norwich  committee  were  told  that  they  had  no  power  to 
allow  any  such  thing,  but  if  his  wife  needed  a  maintenance. 

56  HALL. 

upon  her  application  to  the  lords  and  commons  she  might 
receive  a  fifth  part.  After  long  delays,  this  was  granted  ; 
but  the  sequestrators  produced  such  confused  accounts,  that 
the  bishop  could  never  ascertain  what  a  fifth  part  meant, 
and  was  obliged  to  take  what  they  offered.  And  that  even 
this  pittance  might  wear  the  appearance  of  insult  and  per- 
secution, after  they  had  cut  off  all  his  resources  they  de- 
manded assessments  and  monthly  payments  for  the  very 
estates  they  had  seized,  and  levied  distresses  upon  him  in 
spite  of  every  assurance  that  he  had  given  up  all.  They 
even  commanded  him  to  find  the  arms  usually  furnished 
by  his  predecessors,  although  they  had  deprived  him  of  all 
power  over  his  diocese. 

While  he  remained  in  his  palace,  he  was  continually  ex- 
posed to  the  insolence  of  the  soldiery  and  mob,  who  were 
plundering  and  demolishing  the  windows  and  monuments 
of  the  cathedral.  At  length  he  was  ordered  to  leave  his 
house,  and  would  have  been  exposed  to  the  utmost  extre- 
mity, had  not  a  neighbour  offered  him  the  shelter  of  his 
humble  roof.  Some  time  after,  but  by  what  interest  we 
are  not  told,  the  sequestration  was  taken  off  a  small  estate 
which  he  rented  at  Higham  near  Norwich,  to  which  he  re- 
tired. His  sufferings  had  not  damped  his  courage,  as  in 
1644  we  find  him  preaching  in  Norwich,  wherever  he 
could  obtain  the  use  of  a  pulpit,  and,  with  yet  more  bold- 
ness, in  the  same  year  he  sent  "  A  modest  offer  of  some 
meet  considerations,"  in  favour  of  episcopacy,  addressed 
to  the  assembly  of  divines.  During  the  rest  of  his  life  he 
appears  to  have  remained  at  Higham  unmolested,  perform- 
ing the  duties  of  a  faithful  pastor,  and  exercising  such 
hospitality  and  charity  as  his  scanty  means  permitted.  He 
died  Sept.  8,  1656,  in  the  eighty-second  year  of  his  age, 
and  was  buried  in  the  church-yard  of  Higham  without  any 
memorial.  In  his  will  he  says,  "  I  leave  my  body  to  be 
buried  without  any  funeral  pomp,  at  the  discretion  of  my 
executors,  with  this  only  monition,  that  I  do  not  hold 
God's  house  a  meet  repository  for  the  dead  bodies  of  the 
greatest  saints."  His  wife  died  in  1647.  He  left  a  family 
behind,  according  to  Lloyd,  of  whom  Robert,  the  eldest 
son,  was  afterwards  a  clergyman  and  D.  D.  and  archdeacon 
of  Cornwall,  and  George  was  bishop  of  Chester. 

His  works  were  published  at  various  periods  in  folio, 
quarto,  and  duodecimo.  They  have  lately  been  collected 
w  a  very  handsome,  correct,  and  well-arranged  edition, 

HALL.  57 

by  the  rev.  Josias  Pratt,  in  10  vols.  8vo.  The  "  Medita- 
tions" have  been  often  reprinted.  As  a  moralist  he  has 
been  entitled  the  Christian  Seneca ;  his  knowledge  of  the 
world,  depth  of  thought,  and  elegance  of  expression,  place 
him  nearer  our  own  times  than  many  of  his  contemporaries, 
while  he  adorned  his  age  by  learning,  piety,  and  the  uni- 
form exercise  of  all  the  Christian  graces.  It  would,  in- 
deed, be  difficult  to  mention  a  prelate  of  more  excellent 
character,  or  one,  of  his  time,  whose  talents  and  sufferings, 
whose  zeal  in  prosperity,  and  courage  in  adversity,  deserve 
more  honourable  mention.1 

HALL  (GEORGE),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at 
Waltham  Holy  Cross  in  1612,  while  his  father  was  rector 
there,  and  was  admitted  commoner  of  Exeter  college,  Ox- 
ford, in  1628.  After  taking  his  degrees  and  obtaining  a 
fellowship,  he  was  in  1639  collated  to  a  prebend  of  Exeter. 
In  1641  he  was  made  archdeacon  of  Cornwall  on  the  re- 
signation of  his  brother  Robert,  and  had  also  the  rectory 
of  Minhinnet  in  that  county,  but  was  sequestered  by  the 
usurping  powers,  and  although  he  would  have  kept  a 
school  for  his  subsistence,  was  not  suffered  even  that  re- 
source. On  the  restoration,  he  was  first  made  canon  of 
Windsor,  and  afterwards  bishop  of  Chester,  with  which  he 
held  Wigan  in  Lancashire,  a  living  that  was  for  several 
turns  presented  to  the  bishops  of  Chester.  His  death,  on 
Aug.  23,  1668,  was  occasioned  by  a  wound  received  by  a 
knife,  which  happened  to  be  in  his  pocket,  when  he  fell 
from  the  mount  in  his  garden  at  Wigan.  He  published 
some  sermons,  and  a  treatise  entitled  "  The  Triumphs  of 
Rome  over  despised  Protestancy,"  Lond.  1655.  He  was 
a  considerable  benefactor  to  Exeter  college.2 

HALL  (RICHARD),  a  Roman  catholic  writer,  was  edu- 
cated at  Christ's  college,  Cambridge,  which  his  principles 
obliged  him  to  leave  about  1572.  He  then  went  to  Doway, 
and  thence  to  Italy,  where  he  resumed  his  studies  and  took 
his  degree  of  D.  D.  Returning  afterwards  to  Doway,  he 
obtained  a  professorship  and  some  preferment.  He  died 
in  1604-.  He  wrote  some  books  of  controversy;  but  is 
chiefly  worthy  of  notice  now,  as  the  author  of  that  "  Life 
of  bishop  Fisher"  which  goes  under  the  name  of  Bailey. 
He  left  it  in  manuscript  at  his  death,  and  it  was  long  pre- 

1  Life  by  himself  in  his  "  Specialities,"  &c.— Biog.  Brit.— Johnson  and  Chal- 
mers' English  Poets,  1810.— Warton's  Hist,  of  Poetry. 

2  Atji.  Ox.  vol.  II — Birch's  Life  of  Tillotson. 

S3  HALL. 

served  as  a  choice  rarity  in  the  library  of  the  English  Bene- 
dictines at  Dieuward  in  Lorraine ;  but  several  transcripts 
getting  abroad,  one  fell  into  the  hands  of  Thomas  Bailey, 
D.  D.  a  son  of  Bailey,  or  Bayly,  bishop  of  Bangor.  This 
Dr.  Bailey,  who  was  a  Roman  catholic,  sold  it  to  a  book- 
seller, by  whom  it  was  printed  at  London  in  1655,  under 
the  editor's  name.  In  1739  another  edition  was  published 
at  London,  12mo,  edited  by  Coxeter.  It  is  valued  as  a 
narrative  of  considerable  interest  and  authenticity.  ' 

HALL  (THOMAS),  a  learned  nonconformist,  was  born  at 
Worcester  July  22,  1610,  and  after  being  educated  in 
grammar  at  the  king's  school  there,  under  Mr.  Henry 
Bright,  was  entered  at  Baliol-college  in  1624,  whence  he 
soon  removed  to  Pembroke,  and  had  for  his  tutor  a  Mr. 
Thomas  Lushington,  a  man  eminent  for  learning.  After 
taking  his  first  degree  in  arts,  he  returned  home,  and  for 
a  while  taught  a  private  school,  and  preached  at  King's- 
Nortou.  About  this  time  Wood  says  he  began  to  adhere 
to  the  puritans,  but  he  adds,  "  was  so  rigid  in  his  persua- 
sion that  he  was  disliked  by  the  brethren.'*  This  perhaps 
may  he  gathered  from  his  works,  some  of  which  were  writ- 
ten in  opposition  to  unlicensed  preachers,  fifth-monarchy 
men,  and  other  extravagancies  of  the  times.  He  was  after- 
wards master  of  the  free-school  at  KingVNorton,  and  cu- 
rate of  the  place,  the  only  preferments  he  had.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  been  a  man  of  retired  and  studious  habits, 
and  although  averse  to  episcopacy  and  the  ceremonies,  free 
from  turbulence  or  open  interference  in  the  commotions  of 
the  times.  He  died  April  13,  1665,  and  was  buried  at 
KingVNorton,  to  the  school  of  which  he  was  a  bountiful 
benefactor  in  the  establishment  of  a  library  there,  as  well 
as  to  the  library  of  Birmingham  school.  Among  his  works 
are  many  controversial  tracts  enumerated  by  Wood,  com- 
mentaries on  some  parts  of  the  Scriptures,  and  some  trans- 
lations, adapted  apparently  for  the  use  of  schools,  from 
Ovid. = 

HALLE  (PETER),  professor  of  canon  law  in  the  univer- 
sity of  Paris,  was  born  at  Bayeux  in  Normandy,   Septem- 
ber 8,  1611.     He  studied   philosophy,  law,  arid  divinity, 
five  years  in  the  university  of  Caen  ;  and  also  applied 
himself  to  poetry,  under  the  direction  of  his  uncle  Anthony 

iSt'  V01'  "•~Cole's  MS  AthenjB  in  British  Museum, 

H  A  L  L  E.  59 

Halle,  who  was  a  Latin  poet  of  some  note,  with  such  suc- 
cess, that  he  gained  the  prizes  in  the  poetical  exercises 
that  are  performed  every  year  in  these  two  cities,   "  to  the 
honour  of  the  immaculate  conception  of  the  Virgin  Mary." 
This  procured  him  so  much  reputation,  that,  though  he 
was  still  very  young,  he   was  chosen  professor  of  rhetoric 
in  the  university  of  Caen.     Some  time  afier,  being  rector 
of  the  university,  he  made  an  oration  to  M.  Seguier,  chan- 
cellor  of   France,  then    in   Normandy,  to  -suppress    some 
popular  insurrections;  which   was  so   much  approved  by 
that  head  of  the  law,  that  he  received  a  doctor  of  law's  de- 
gree from  him  in  1640.      He  attended  M.  Seguier  to  Paris, 
and  gained  such  reputation  by  some  pieces  he  published, 
that  they  offered  him  the  mastership  of  five  different  col- 
leges ;  and  he  was  incorporated  in  his  absence  (a  very  un- 
usual thing)  into  the  body  of  the  university  in  1641.     He 
was  made  king's  poet,  and  reader  of  the  Latin  and  Greek 
tongues  in  the  royal  college  in  1646.      His  assiduous  appli- 
cation to  study  having  ruined  his  health,  he  was  obliged  to 
rest  for  two  years,  in  order  to  recover  it.     He  afterwards 
resolved  to  raise  the  glory  of  the  faculty  of  the  law,  which 
was  miserably  sunk;  and  in    1655  he  obtained  the  post 
of  regius  professor  of  the   canon   law,  when  he  vigorously 
began,  and,  though  he  met  with  great  difficulties,  success- 
fully executed  what  he  had  resolved.     Besides  "  Canoni- 
cal Institutions,"  which  he  published  in   1685,  he  wrote 
also  for  the  use  of  his  pupils  several  treatises  upon  the 
civil  and  canon  laws ;  as,  concerning  councils,  the  Pope's 
authority,  the  regale,  simony,  usury,  censures,  regular  per- 
sons, ecclesiastical    benefices,    matrimony,    last   wills   and 
testaments,  &c.     He  had  published  in  1G55,  8vo.  "A  Col- 
lection of  Latin  Poems  and  Orations."     He  died  Decem- 
ber 27,  1689.1 

HALLER  (ALBERT  DE),  one  of  the  most  eminent  phy- 
sicians and  philosophers  of  the  eighteenth  century,  was 
born  at  Berne,  Oct.  16,  1708.  He  was  the  son  of  Nicholas 
de  Haller,  an  advocate  of  considerable  distinction  in  his 
profession,  who  had  a  numerous  family.  Albert  was  the 
youngest  of  five  sons.  „  From  the  commencement  of  his 
education,  he  discovered  a  great  capacity  for  literature  of 
every  kind;  to  forward  the  progress  of  his  studies,  his 
father  took  into  his  family  a  private  tutor,  named  Abraham 

J  Gen.  Diet.— Niceron,  vol.  III. 

60  H  A  L  L  E  R. 

Billodz  ;  but  such  was  the  discipline  employed  by  this  pe- 
dagogue, that  the  accidental  sight  of  him  at  any  subse- 
quent period  of  life,  excited  in  Haller  those  painful  recol- 
lections, of  which  all  may  have  some  idea  who  have  been 
tutored  with  rigid  severity.  The  progress  of  Haller's 
studies,  however,  at  the  earliest  periods  of  life,  was  rapid 
almost  beyond  belief.  When  other  children  were  be- 
ginning only  to  read,  he  was  studying  Bayle  and  Moreri, 
and  at  nine  years  of  age  he  was  able  to  translate  Greek, 
and  was  beginning  to  learn  Hebrew.  Not  long  after  this, 
however,  the  course  of  his  education  was  somewhat  inter- 
rupted by  the  death  of  his  father,  which  happened  when 
he  was  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  his  age.  After  this  he  was 
sent  to  the  public  school  at  Berne,  where  he  exhibited 
many  specimens  of  early  and  uncommon  genius.  He  was 
distinguished  for  his  knowledge  in  the  Greek  and  Latin 
languages,  but  principally  for  his  poetical  genius;  and  his 
essays  of  this  kind,  which  were  published  in  the  German 
language,  were  read  and  admired  throughout  the  whole 

In  the  sixteenth  year  of  his  age  he  began  the  study  of 
medicine  at  Tubingen,  under  those  eminent  teachers  Du- 
vernoy  and  Camerarius  ;  and  continued  there  for  the  space 
of  two  years,  when  the  reputation  of  the  celebrated  Boer- 
haave  drew  him  to  Leyden.     Nor  was  this  distinguished 
teacher  the  only  man  from  whose  superior  abilities  he  had 
there  an  opportunity  of  profiting.     Ruysch  was  still  alive, 
and  Albinus  was  rising  into  fame.     Animated  by  such  ex- 
amples, he  spent  all  the  day,  and  the  greatest  part  of  the 
night,  in   the   most   intense  study ;    and  the  proficiency 
which  he  made  gained  him  universal  esteem,  both  from  his 
teachers  and  fellow-students.     From  Holland,  in  1727,  he 
came  to  England,  where,  however,  his  stay  was  but  short, 
t  being  his  intention  rather  to  visit  the  illustrious  men  of 
that  period  than  to  prosecute  his  studies  at  London,  and  he 
ormed  connections  with  some  of  the  most    eminent   of 
them.     He  was  honoured  with   the  friendship  of  Douglas 
and  Cheselden,  and  he  met  with  a  reception  proportioned 
nis  merit  from  sir  Hans  Sloane,  president  of  the  royal 
>ciety.     After  his  visit  to  Britain  he  went  to  France,  and 
ere,  under  those  eminent  masters,  Winslow  and  Le  Bran, 
with  the  latter  of  wbom  he  resided  during  his  stay  in  Paris, 
be  had  opportunities  of  prosecuting  anatomy   which  he 
bad  not  before  enjoyed.     But  the  zeal  of  our  youno-  ana. 

H  A  L  L  E  R.  61 

tomist  was  greater  than  the  prejudice*  of  the  people  at  that 
period,  even  in  the  enlightened  city  of  Paris,  could  admit 
of.  An  information  being  lodged  against  him  to  the  police, 
for  dissecting  dead  bodies,  he  was  obliged  to  make  a  pre- 
cipitate retreat  to  Basil,  where  he  became  a  pupil  to  the 
celebrated  Bernoulli!. 

Thus  improved  and  instructed  by  the  lectures  of  the  most 
distinguished  teachers  of  that  period,  by  uncommon  na- 
tural abilities,  and  by  unremitting  industry,  he  returned  to 
Berne  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  his  age.  Not  long  after 
this,  he  offered  himself  a  candidate,  first  for  the  office  of 
physician  to  an  hospital,  and  afterward  for  a  professorship. 
But  neither  the  character  which  he  acquired  before  he  left 
his  native  country,  nor  the  fame  which  he  had  accumulated 
abroad,  were  sufficient  to  combat  the  interest  opposed  to 
him.  He  was  disappointed  in  both  ;  and  it  was  even  with 
difficulty  that  he  obtained  in  the  following  year  the  ap- 
pointment of  keeper  to  a  public  library  at  Berne.  The 
exercise  of  this  office,  however,  although  ill  suited  to  his 
great  abilities,  was  agreeable  to  him,  as  it  afforded  him  an 
opportunity  for  that  extensive  reading  by  which  he  has 
been  so  justly  distinguished;  nor  did  this  neglect  of  his 
merit  diminish  his  ardour,  or  detract  from  his  reputation 
either  at  home  or  abroad.  He  was  soon  after  nominated 
a  professor  in  the  university  of  Gottingen,  by  king  George 
II.  The  duties  of  this  important  office,  which  he  dis- 
charged with  no  less  honour  to  himself  than  advantage  to 
the  public,  afforded  him  an  ample  field  for  the  exertion 
of  those  great  talents  he  possessed.  Extensively  acquainted 
with  the  sentiments  of  others  respecting  the  ceconomy  of 
the  human  body,  struck  with  the  diversity  of  opinions 
which  they  held,  and  sensible  that  the  only  means  of  in- 
vestigating truth  was  by  careful  and  candid  experiment,  he 
undertook  the  arduous  task  of  exploring  tbe  phenomena 
of  human  nature  from  the  original  source.  In  these  pur- 
suits he  was  no  less  industrious  than  successful,  and  there 
was  hardly  any  function  of  the  body  on  which  his  expe- 
riments did  not  reflect  either  a  new  or  a  stronger  light. 
Nor  was  it  long  necessary  for  him,  in  this  arduous  under- 
taking, to  labour  alone.  The  example  of  the  preceptor 
inspired  his  pupils  with  the  spirit  of  industrious  exertion. 
Zinn,  Zimmerman,  Caldani,  and  many  others,  laboured 
with  indefatigable  industry  to  prosecute  and  to  perfect  the 
discoveries  of  their  great  master.  And  the  mutual  exertions 

62  H  A  L  L  E  R. 

of  the  teacher  and  his  students  not  only  tended  to  for- 
ward the  progress  of  medical  science,  but  placed  the  phi- 
losophy of  the  human  body  on  a  more  sure,  and  an  almost 
entirely  new  basis. 

But  the  labours  of  Dr.  Haller  during  his  residence  at 
Gottingen,  were  by  no  means  confined  to  any  one  depart- 
ment of  science.  He  was  not  more  anxious  to  be  an  im- 
prover himself,  than  to  instigate  others  to  similar  pursuits. 
To  him,  the  anatomical  theatre,  the  school  of  midwifery, 
the  chirurgical  society,  and  the  royal  academy  of  sciences 
at  Gottingen,  owe  their  origin.  Such  distinguished  merit 
could  not  fail  to  meet  with  a  suitable  reward  from  the 
sovereign  under  whose  protection  he  then  taught.  The 
king  of  Great  Britain  not  only  honoured  him  with  every 
mark  of  attention  which  he  himself  could  bestow,  but  pro- 
cured him  also  letters  of  nobility  from  the  emperor.  The 
title,  however,  of  baron  de  Haller,  he  never  assumed, 
although  it  was  often  bestowed  on  him.  On  the  death  of 
Dillenius  he  had  an  offer  of  the  professorship  of  botany  at 
Oxford ;  the  states  of  Holland  invited  him  to  the  chair  of 
the  younger  Albinus  ;  and  the  king  of  Prussia  was  anxious 
that  he  should  be  the  successor  of  Maupertuis  at  Berlin. 
Marshal  Keith  wrote  to  him  in  the  name  of  his  sovereign, 
offering  him  the  chancellorship  of  the  university  of  Halle, 
vacant  by  the  death  of  the  celebrated  Wolff.  Count  Orlowr 
invited  him  to  Russia,  in  the  name  of  his  mistress,  the 
empress,  offering  him  a  distinguished  place  at  St.  Peters- 
burgh.  The  king  of  Sweden  conferred  on  him  an  unso- 
licited honour,  by  raising  him  to  the  rank  of  knighthood, 
of  the  order  of  the  polar  star;  and  the  late  Joseph  II.  em- 
peror of  Germany,  honoured  him  with  a  personal  visit. 

Thus  honoured  by  sovereigns,  revered  by  men  of  lite- 
rature, and  esteemed  by  all  Europe,  he  had  it  in  his  power 
to  have  held  the  highest  rank  in  the  republic  of  letters. 
Yet,  declining  all  the  tempting  offers  which  were  made  to 
him,  he  continued  at  Gottingen,  anxiously  endeavouring 
to  extend  the  rising  fame  of  that  medical  school.  But 
after  seventeen  years  residence  there,  an  ill  state  of  health 
rendering  him  less  fit  for  the  duties  of  the  important  of- 
fice which  he  held,  he  solicited  and  obtained  permission 
from  the  regency  of  Hanover  to  return  to  his  native  city  of 
Berne.  His  fellow-citizens,  who  might  at  first  have  fixed 
inm  among  themselves,  with  no  less  honour  than  advantage 
to  their  city,  were  now  as  sensible  as  others  of  his  superior 

H  A  L  L  E  R.  63 

merit.  A  pension  was  settled  upon  him  for  life,  and  he 
was  nominated  at  different  times  to  fill  the  most  important 
offices  in  the  state.  These  occupations,  however,  did  not 
diminish  his  ardour  for  useful  improvements.  He  was  the 
first  president,  as  well  as  the  greatest  promoter,  of  the 
economical  society  at  Bern  ;  and  may  he  considered  as  the 
father  and  founder  of  the  orphan  hospital  of  that  city. 
Declining  health  at  length  restrained  his  exertions  in  the 
more  active  scenes  of  life,  and  for  many  years  he  was 
confined  entirely  to  his  own  house.  But  even  this  could 
not  put  a  period  to  his  studies  ;  he  continued  his  favourite 
employment  of  writing  till  within  a  few  days  of  his  death, 
and  preserved  his  senses  and  composure  to  the  last  mo- 
ment, meeting  death  with  the  calmness  of  a  philosopher, 
and  what  is  transcendently  superior,  the  lively  faith  of  a 
Christian.  His  last  words  were  addressed  to  the  physician 
who  attended  him.  "  My  friend,"  said  he  to  M.  Rosselet, 
u  the  artery  no  longer  beats,"  and  immediately  he  ex- 
pired, at  the  age  of  sixty-nine  years,  on  the  12th  of  De- 
cember, 1777. 

The  personal  character  of  this  extraordinary  man  is  uni- 
versally acknowledged  to  deserve  the  highest  praise.  In 
conversation  he  was  most  agreeable.  His  elocution  was 
free,  strong,  and  concise ;  and  his  knowledge  remarkably 
diversified.  His  immense  reading,  fertile  and  faithful  me- 
mory, and  sound  judgment,  gave  satisfaction  to  men  of 
all  dispositions.  He  was  superior  to  the  affectation  of  wit, 
and  equally  disdained  to  make  a  parade  of  his  knowledge. 
His  disposition  was  gentle,  and  his  heart  replete  with  sen- 
sibility. All  his  writings  are  expressive  of  his  love  of  vir- 
tue. Ever  pure  in  his  own  morals,  he  beheld  with  regret 
the  neglect  of  them  in  others  ;  and  sincerely  lamented  the 
influence  which  irregularities  in  private  life  seemed  likely 
to  produce  on  the  manners  of  the  state. 

But  his  religious  principles  form  his  highest  honour. 
Religion  was  the  object  of  his  most  serious  inquiries,  even 
from  his  earliest  youth,  at  which  period  it  was  his  happiness 
to  enjoy  a  religions  education.  His  comprehensive  mind, 
ever  capable  of  a  just  mode  of  thinking,  had  beeo  happily 
impressed  with  the  grand  idea  of  a  God,  the  great  origin 
of  all  beings,  and  with  the  belief  of  eternity,  "  that  an- 
cient source  as  well  as  universal  sepulchre  of  worlds  and 
ages,  in  which  the  duration  of  this  globe  is  lost  as  that  of  a 
day,  and  the  life  of  map.  as  a  moment."  Persuaded  of  a 

64  H  A  L  L  E  R. 

future  life,  he  waited  with  confidence  for  that  consumma- 
tion which  shall  dissipate  the  mists  of  human  wisdom,  and 
display  to  us  the  universe  such  as  it  actually  is,  by  the 
light  of  a  new  luminary,  emanating  from  the  Divinity  him- 
self. It  was  impossible  that  a  spirit  thus  elevated,  and 
constantly  employed  in  researches  after  truth,  could  neglect 
to  inquire  into  that  most  important  one,  the  religion  of  his 
ancestors  and  of  his  country.  Convinced  of  the  reality  of 
revelation,  by  diligently  studying  the  scriptures,  he  could 
not  behold  with  indifference  any  attacks  on  this  funda- 
mental law,  this  strongest  bond  of  society  ;  and  at  a  time 
when  other  illustrious  men  prostituted  their  fame  and  ta- 
lents in  making  dangerous  attacks  upon  religion,  he  thought 
it  his  duty  to  enter  the  lists  as  her  avowed  champion  and 

It  has  been  usual  for  modern  infidels  to  associate  with 
themselves,  if  at  all  possible,  men  of  eminent  literary 
talents,  and  it  must  be  confessed,  they  have  been  often  too 
successful,  especially  with  medical  professors  and  prac- 
titioners, but  Haller  disdained  such  an  association.  Of 
this  we  have  a  remarkable  proof  which  occurred  soon  after 
he  had  published  his  discoveries  relative  to  irritability. 
On  this  property  of  animated  matter,  the  unprincipled  La 
Mettrie,  the  Dr.  Sangrado  of  his  day,  laid  the  foundation 
of  a  system  of  materialism  ;  and  he  had  the  impudence  to 
dedicate  it  to  Haller,  declaring  that  to  him  he  owed  the 
acquisition  of  the  great  truths  which  it  contained.  Haller 
considered  what  La  Mettrie  meant  for  jocularity,  as  a  se- 
rious insult ;  and  observed,  with  horror,  that  he  was  held 
up  to  Europe  as  a  favourer  of  materialism,  or  at  least  as 
the  inventor  of  principles  which  served  as  a  basis  for  that 
doctrine.  Neither  the  respect  which  he  had  constantly 
declared  for  Christianity,  in  all  his  works,  nor  his  mode  of 
life,  so  conformable  to  the  precepts  of  the  Gospel,  seemed 
sufficient  to  secure  him  against  this  imputation.  He  com- 
plained of  it  bitterly,  and  La  Mettrie,  in  his  answer,  as- 
sumed the  same  tone  ;  and  Haller  had  prepared  to  publish 
a  long  and  serious  refutation  of  the  charge,  when  he  was 
informed  of  the  death  of  his  antagonist,  and  discovered, 
that,  deceived  by  an  excess  of  delicacy,  which  was,  doubt- 
less, laudable,  he  alone  had  been  made  the  dupe  of  La 
Mettrie's  irony. 

Another  trait  of  his  character  may  here  be  introduced, 
which  is  of  more  importance  than  the  institutors  of  wanton 

H  A  L  L  £  R.  65 

experiments  are  disposed  to  allow.  His  humanity  must 
have  suffered  in  making  experiments  which  could  not  be 
conducted  without  subjecting  a  great  number 'of  animals  to 
most  excruciating  pains.  This  would  have  been  pur- 
chasing an  useless  fact  at  too  great  a  price.  Haller  per- 
ceived it,  and  the  compassion  he  felt  for  the  victims  of  his 
researches  is  often  apparent  in  the  narrative  of  his  expe- 
riments. We  behold  him  impressed  with  a  kind  of  re- 
morse, and  omitting  no  occasion  of  expatiating  on  the 
utility  which  may  be  derived  from  them  to  mankind.  He 
even  seems  desirous  to  believe  that  these  animals  suffer  no 
pain,  and  is  unwilling  to  renounce  the  opinion  of  Des- 
cartes. To  such  dilemmas  may  the  best  of  men  be  re- 
duced, when,  from  whatever  motive,  they  are  performing 
an  action  in  itself  wrong.  We  are  willing,  however,  to 
believe,  that  he  was  as  sparing  as  possible  in  such  ex- 

In  person  Haller  was  tall  and  majestic,  and  of  a  serious 
and  expressive  countenance ;  he  had  at  times  an  open 
smile,  always  a  pleasing  tone  of  voice,  usually  low,  and 
seldom  elevated,  even  when  he  was  most  agitated.  He 
was  fond  of  unbending  himself  in  society,  and  was  on  those 
occasions  remarkably  cheerful,  polite,  and  attentive ;  he 
would  converse  with  the  ladies  on  fashions,  modes  of  dress, 
and  other  trifles,  with  as  much  ease  as  if  he  had  never 
secluded  himself  from  the  world.  Mr.  Bonnet  informed 
Mr.  Coxe  that  Haller  wrote  with  equal  facility  the  German, 
French,  and  Latin  tongues ;  that  he  was  so  well  acquainted 
with  all  the  European  languages,  except  the  Russian,  Po- 
lish, and  Hungarian,  as  to  speak  with  the  natives  in  their 
respective  idioms.  When  he  conversed  on  any  science  or 
subject  of  literature,  his  knowledge  was  so  extensive,  that 
he  seemed  to  have  made  that  his  particular  study.  His 
profound  erudition  in  every  branch  of  science  is  well 
known  to  all  who  are  conversant  with  his  works :  but  the 
variety  of  his  information,  and  the  versatility  of  his  talents, 
are  thus  delineated  by  Tscharner  Lobrede,  who  was  his 
particular  friend  :  "  He  possessed  a  fundamental  knowledge 
of  natural  history  ;  was  well  read  in  history,  both  ancient 
and  modern,  universal  and  particular;  and  uncommonly 
versed  in  the  state  of  agriculture,  manufactures,  trade, 
population,  literature,  and  languages  of  the  respective 
nations  of  Europe  ;  he  had  read  with  attention  the  most 
remarkable  voyages  and  travels  :  and  was  particularly  con- 


€6  WALLER. 

versantin  the  late  discoveries  which  tend  to  illustrate  the 
geography  of  the  globe.  He  had  even  perused  many 
thousand  novels  and  plays ;  and  possessed  such  an  astonish- 
ing memory,  that  he  could  detail  their  contents  with  the 
utmost  precision.  As  it  was  his  custom  to  make  extracts, 
and  to  give  his  opinion  of  every  book  which  came  into  his 
hands,  as  well  for  his  own  private  use,  as  for  the  Gottin- 
gen  Review  (in  which  his  department  embraced  history, 
medicine,  anatomy,  natural  history,  and  several  miscel- 
laneous works,  especially  those  which  appeared  in  Italy), 
he  read  most  new  publications;  and  so  eager  was  he  usually 
in  the  perusal,  that  he  laid  them  upon  the  table  even  when 
he  was  at  dinner,  occasionally  looking  into  them,  and 
marking  those  parts  with  a  pencil  which  he  afterward  ex- 
tracted or  commented  upon.  He  was  accustomed  to  make 
his  remarks  on  small  pieces  of  paper,  of  different  sizes, 
which  he  placed  in  order  and  fastened  together ;  a  method 
he  learned  from  Leibnitz."  It  may  be  added,  as  one 
weakness  in  this  great  character,  that  he  was  always  im- 
patient under  sickness,  as  well  from  his  extreme  suscepti- 
bility of  pain,  as  because  he  was  precluded  in  that  situa- 
tion from  his  literary  occupations.  He  was  fond,  therefore, 
of  taking  violent  remedies,  more  calculated  to  remove  the 
immediate  effects  of  pain,  and  to  check  his  disorder,  than 
to  cure  it  radically.  In  his  latter  years  he  accustomed  him- 
self to  opium,  which,  Zimmerman  informs  us,  he  took  in 
so  large  a  dose  as  eight  grains,  aud  which  operated  as  a 
temporary  palliative,  but  increased  his  natural  impatience. 
This  restlessness  of  temper,  which  occasionally  disturbed 
his  tranquillity  even  in  his  younger  clays,  and  in  the  full 
flow  of  his  health  and  spirits,  was  considerably  heightened 
by  the  advances  of  age,  and  the  disorders  which  shattered 
his  frame  toward  the  close  of  his  days. 

In  his  youth,  during  a  residence  of  some  time  at  Bienne 
in  1723,  he  composed  several  pieces  in  the  epic,  dra- 
matic, and  lyric  styles,  his  genius  being  awakened  by  the 
romantic  scenery  of  the  country  to  poetical  enthusiasm. 
At  this  period  he  was  so  entirely  absorbed  in  his  favourite 
study,  that  on  a  fire  breaking  out  in  the  house  in  which  he 
lived,  he  rushed  into  his  apartment,  and  rescued  his  poetry 
from  the  flames,  leaving  his  other  papers,  with  little  regret, 
to  destruction.  Afterward,  when  a  more  mature  age  had 
ripened  his  judgment,  he  was  frequently  heard  to  say  that 
he  had  preserved  from  the  flames  those  composition^  which 

H  A  L  L  E  R.  67 

he  then  thought  the  finest  productions  of  human  genius, 
in  order  at  a  future  period  to  consign  them  to  destruction, 
as  unworthy  of  his  pen.  In  the  sequel,  however,  he  was 
more  successful  in  his  poetical  effusions.  In  1729  he 
composed  his  poem  "  On  the  Alps,"  on  which  critics  have 
been  highly  lavish  of  praise.  He  likewise  wrote  some 
ethic  epistles  on  the  "  The  Imperfection  of  human  Virtue, 
on  Superstition  and  Infidelity,  the  origin  of  Evil,  and  on 
the  vanity  of  Honour  ;"  also  various  "  Satires,"  "  Doris3" 
a  pastoral  on  his  first  wife,  and  his  much  admired  "  Elegy 
on  her  death*."  It  is  a  convincing  proof  of  Haller's  ver- 
satile genius  and  extraordinary  mental  powers,  that  be 
should  have  so  eminently  excelled  in  poetry,  which,  except 
in  his  early  youth,  he  never  considered  otherwise  than  as 
an  amusement,  either  to  soothe  him  under  afflictions,  or  to 
console  him  for  the  envy  and  neglect  of  his  contemporaries. 
The  soundest  German  critics  place  Haller  among  the  most 
eminent  of  their  poets  :  and  consider  sublimity  as  the  grand 
characteristic  of  his  writings.  They  acknowledge  that  he 
improved  the  harmony  and  richness  of  his  native  tongue  ; 
that  he  possessed  the  highest  powers  of  invention  and 
fancy;  great  originality  both  in  his  ideas  and  language; 
that  he  is  the  true  colourist  of  nature  ;  that  he  sounded  the 
depths  of  metaphysical  and  moral  science ;  and  that  he 
equally  excels  in  picturesque  descriptions,  in  soft  and 
delightful  imagery,  in  elevated  sentiments,  and  philoso- 
phical precision.  A  few  supercilious  critics  have  re- 
proached his  poetry  with  occasional  obscurities,  and  accuse 
him  of  having  introduced  a  new  language  affectedly  averse 
to  the  common  modes  of  diction  ;  but  twenty- two  succes- 
sive editions  of  his  German  poems,  and  the  translation  of 
them  into  the  principal  languages  of  Europe,  prove  that 
they  possess  the  great  aim  of  poetry,  that  of  pleasing  and 
interesting  the  reader. 

To  his  other  writings  he  added,  in  the  German  tongue, 
"  Letters  to  his  Daughter,  on  the  truth  of  the  Christian 
Revelation,"  which  have  been  translated  into  English.  He 
published  also  an  extract  from  Ditton's  "  Truth  of  the 
Resurrection  of  Jesus  Christ,"  which  he  acknowledges  to 
have  first  cleared  any  doubts  he  might  entertain  on  that 
subject.  He  avows  at  the  same  time  tflat  he  received  in- 

*  These  poems  were  translated  into  proae  and  verse  by  Mrs.  Haworth,  1794, 
.•  feno»     The  prosaic  versions  are  much  the  best. 

6S  HALLE  H. 

finite  satisfaction  from  the  study  of  the  New  Testament, 
because  he  was  never  more  certain  of  holding  converse 
with  the  Deity  than  when  he  read  his  will  in  that  divine 
book.  In  1775  he  published,  in  German,  "  Letters  con- 
cerning several  late  attempts  of  Free-thinkers  yet  living, 
against  Revelation."  His  own  religious  principles,  it  has 
been  already  remarked,  were  fixed  ;  and  having  imbibed 
the  system  of  Calvin,  this  was  supposed  to  have  occasioned 
some  uneasiness  and  anxiety  to  him  on  his  death,  but  he 
finally  obtained  consolation. 

His  scientific  works  form  an  imperishable  monument  to 
his  memory.     The  most  of  his  various  dissertations  on  ana- 
tomical  and   physiological  subjects,  published  during  hi* 
residence  at  Gottingen,  were  collected,  revised,   and  re- 
printed in  1751,  under  the  title  of"  Opuscula  Anatomica, 
de  respiratione,  de  rnonstris,  aliaque  minora,  quae  recensuit, 
emendavit,  auxit.     Addidit  alia  inedita,  et  novas  icones," 
Gottingae,  8vo.     The  principal  publications  within  the  pe- 
riod just  mentioned  were,  his  great  work  on  the  botany  of 
Switzerland,  the  first  edition  of  which  appeared  in  1742, 
under  the  title  of  "  Enurneratio  methodica  Stirpium  Helve- 
tise  indigenarum,  &c."  folio ;  which,  after  undergoing  con- 
siderable corrections  and  augmentations,  was  given  under 
its  perfect  form,  entitled  "  Historia  Stirpium  Helvetiae  in- 
digenarum," in  1768,  3  vols.  folio,  with  many  plates.    This 
admirable  work,  which  was  the  most  copious  then  published, 
was  remarkably  accurate  in  specific  distinctions,  and  very 
full  upon  the  economical  and  medicinal  uses  of  the  plants. 
The  arrangement  was  peculiar  to  himself,  and  he  shewed 
an  unwillingness  to  adopt  the  improvements  of  Linnaeus. 
His  "  Commentarii  ad  Hermanni  Boerhaave  Praelectiones 
Academicas,   &c."  appeared  in  seven  successive  volumes, 
8vo,  between  1739  and  1744.   Immediately  after  the  death 
of  his  venerable  preceptor  Boerhaave  in  1738,  Haller  un- 
dertook to  publish  his  "  Prelections,"  from  a  MS  copy  of 
his  own,  collated  with  others.     In  1743,  he  began  to  pub- 
lish fasciculi  of  anatomical  plates  in  folio,  particularly  re- 
lative to  the  blood-vessels  in  situ,  which  are  among  the 
most  valuable  of  these  helps  to  the  study  of  the  human 
frame.      They   were    entitled    "  Iconum    Anatomicarum, 
quibus  praecipuae  partes  corporis  humani  delineate  conti- 
nentur,  Fascic."     The  plates  amount  to  thirty-six  in  num- 
ber.    The  first  edition  of  his  excellent  little  work  "  PrimsB 
Lmese  Physiologic  in  usum  Praelectionum  Academicarum  " 

H  A  L  L  E  R.  69 

was  published  in  1747,  8vo.  It  passed  through  many  sub- 
sequent editions,  and  several  translations,  and  is  an  outline 
of  the  system  afterwards  developed  in  his  larger  work.  In 
1751  he  published  at  Amsterdam  another  work  of  great 
labour  and  research,  viz.  an  edition  of  Boerhaave's  "  Me- 
thodus  Studii  Medici,"  with  so  many  additions,  that  by 
much  the  greater  part  was  his  own ;  it  may  be  considered 
as  a  prelude  to  his  later  "  Bibliothecae."  He  delivered  two 
academical  discourses  in  1752,  in  which  he  proposed  his 
peculiar  opinions  respecting  the  properties  of  sensibility 
and  irritability  in  living  bodies ;  they  were  written  in 
French  (of  which  language  he  had  a  perfect  commarjd), 
under  the  title  of  "  Dissertation  sur  les  parties  sensibles  et 
irritables  des  Animaux,"  Lausanne,  12mo.  Besides  these 
works,  he  printed  a  catalogue  of  plants  growing  in  the 
botanic  garden,  and  in  the  district,  of  Gottingen  ;  obser- 
vations made  in  a  journey  to  the  Hercynian  forest  in  1738, 
and  an  "Iter  Helveticum,  anni  1739;"  and  likewise  a  num- 
ber of  botanical  papers,  which  were  collected  in  his 
"  Opuscula  Botanica,"  1749,  8vo,  or  contained  in  the 
memoirs  of  the  Gottingen  academy,  and  other  periodical 

In  1755  he  published  his  "  Opuscula  Pathologica,  quibus 
sectiones  cadaverum  morbosorum  potissimum  continentur," 
at  Lausanne,  8vo.  In  the  following  year  he  printed  "  Deux 
Memoires  sur  le  Mouvement  du  Sang,  et  sur  les  Effets  de 
la  Saignee,  &c. ;"  and  a  continuation  of  his  inquiries  re- 
specting irritability  and  sensibility,  entitled  "  Memoires  sur 
la  nature  sensible  et  irritable  des  partes  du  Corps  Animal," 
Lausanne,  4  vols.  I2mo.  He  likewise  sent  to  the  press  a 
collection  of  theses,  under  the  title  of  "  Disputationes  Chi- 
rurgicae  selects,"  ibid.  1755 — 6,  in  5  vols.  4to.  Soon  after- 
wards, his  great  work,  "  Elementa  Physiologiae  Corporis 
Humani,"  began  to  make  its  appearance :  the  first  volume, 
in  4 to,  having  been  published  at  Lausanne  in  1757,  and 
the  eighth  and  last  in  1766.  Such  a  vast  collection  of 
well- authenticated  facts,  with  so  much  accurate  descrip- 
tion and  truly  scientific  argumentation,  so  well  arranged, 
was  never  perhaps  brought  together  upon  any  subject;  and 
of  this  the  author's  own  discoveries  made  a  very  conspi- 
cuous part.  His  other  anatomical  writings  are  principally 
comprised  in  his  "  Opera  anatomica  minora,"  in  1762 — 68, 
3  vols.  4to.  He  had  published  in  1758,  "  Deux  Memoires 
sur  la  Formation  du  Cceur  dans  le  Poulet,  &c."  containing 

JO  H  A  L  L  E  R. 

the  result  of  three  years*  experiments  at  Berne,  in  which 
he  traced,  hour  after  hour,  the  developement  of  the  parts 
of  the  chick  in  ovo,  and  especially  of  the  heart.  There 
are  besides  many  separate  tracts,  which  it  would  be  tedious 
to  enumerate. 

But  before  we  complete  the  catalogue  of  the  labours  of 
Haller  in  favour  of  medical  science,  we  have  to  notice  a 
series  of  volumes,  which  alone  would  have  entitled  him  to 
the  praise  of  a  life  well  spent  in  the  service  of  his  profes- 
sion. These  were  his  (t  Bibliothecse,"  containing  a  chro- 
nological list  of  every  book,  of  every  age,  country,  and 
language,  respecting  subjects  connected  with  medicine, 
which  had  come  to  his  knowledge,  with  brief  analyses,  and 
opinions.  Of  these  he  published  the  "  Bibl.  Botanica," 
1777,  2  vols.  4to;  "  Bibl.  Chirurgica,"  1774,  2  vols.  4to  ; 
"Bibl.  Anatomica,"  1774,  2  vols.  4to  ;  "Bibl.  Medicine 
PracticED,"  1776  —  88,  4  vols.  4to.  The  third  and  fourth 
volumes  of  this  last  were  published  from  his  papers  by 
Drs.  Tribolet  and  Brandis. 

Haller  was  three  times  married  ;  first  to  Marianne  Wyt- 
*en,  in  1731,  who  died  in  1736;  secondly  to  Elizabeth 
Buchers,  in  1738,  who  died  in  childbed  the  same  or  the 
following  year  ;  both  natives  of  Berne  ;  and  lastly  in  1739, 
to  Amelia  Frederica  Teichmeyer,  a  German  lady,  who  sur- 
vived him.  He  left  eight  children,  four  sons  and  four 
daughters,  all  of  whom  he  lived  to  see  established.  —  His 
eldest  son,  GOTLIEB  EMMANUEL,  who  was  bom  in  1735, 
followed  his  father's  example  in  dedicating  himself  to  the 
service  of  his  country,  and  to  the  pursuits  of  literature, 
He  was  elected  member  of  the  great  council,  and  obtained 
various  employments  under  government,  particularly  the 
baillage  of  Nyon,  in  which  situation  he  died  in  1786.  He 
distinguished  himself  as  an  author  by  various  publications 
tending  to  illustrate  the  history  and  literature  of  Swisser- 
land,  and  particularly  by  his  "  Swiss  Library,"  in  6  vols. 
8vo,  of  which  he  lived  to  publish  only  the  first  Another 
valuable  work  of  his  was  entitled  "  Cabinet  of  Swiss  Coins 
and  Medals.1 

HALLET  (JOSEPH),  a  dissenting  clergyman,  was  born 
at  Exeter  in  1692,  and  educated  under  the  care  of  Mr. 
Pierce,  who  was  assistant  to  his  father  Mr.  Hallet,  minister 

.  s,A5adelmicieus'  ™l.  H—Coxe's  Travels  in  Swisserland,  to  which 

HaUe?  WHKMUiZ  thepgrefo  P?rt  °f  thc  above  "ticle.-Henry's  Memoirs  of 
Waller,  1783,  12mo.—  Kees's  Cyclopaedia, 

H  A  L  L  E  T.  71 

of  a  congregation  of  protestant  dissentars  in  that  city.  Jo- 
seph was  ordained  in  1713,  and  in  1722  he  succeeded  his 
father  as  joint-minister  with  Mdf.  Pierce.  Prior  to  this 
event  he  had  engaged  in  the  controversy,  then  warmly 
carried  on  in  the  west  of  England,  concerning  the  Trinity  ;; 
and  in  1720,  adopted  the  principles  of  Dr.  Clarke,  which 
he  demonstrated  in  a  treatise  entitled  "  The  Unity  of  God 
not  inconsistent  with  the  Divinity  of  Christ;  being  remarks 
upon  Dr.  Waterland's  Vindication,  relating  to  the  Unity  of 
God,  and  the  Object  of  Worship."  He  published  other 
pieces  on  the  same  subject ;  but  his  reputation  is  chiefly 
founded  on  his  work  entitled  "  A  free  and  impartial  Study 
of  the  Holy  Scriptures  recommended,  being  notes  on  some 
peculiar  texts,  with  discourses  and  observations,"  1729 — 
1736,  3  vols.  published  at  different  times.  Our  author 
published  many  other  works,  which  being  of  the  contro- 
versial kind,  are  now  forgotten.  Those  which  merited 
most  general  approbation  were  his  "  Discourse  of  the  na- 
ture, kinds,  and  numbers  of  our  Saviour's  Miracles ;"  his 
"  Immorality  of  the  Moral  Philosopher,"  and  his  "  Con- 
sistent Christian,"  against  the  infidel  writers,  Woolston, 
Morgan,  and  Chubb.  Mr.  Hallet  died  in  1744.1 

HALLEY  (EDMUND),  an  eminent  English  philosopher 
and  astronomer,  was  born  at  Haggerston,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Leonard,  Shoreditch,  near  London,  October  29,  1656. 
His  father,  a  wealthy  soap-boiler  in  Winchester-street, 
put  him  to  St.  Paul's  school,  under  the  learned  Dr.  Tho- 
mas Gale,  but  his  h'rst  tutor  is  said  to  have  been  his  fa- 
ther's apprentice,  who  taught  him  writing  and  arithmetic 
at  nine  years  old.  At  school  he  not  only  excelled  in  all 
parts  of  classical  learning,  but  made  such  uncommon  pro- 
gress in  mathematics,  that,  as  Wood  says,  he  had  perfectly 
learnt  the  use  of  the  celestial  globe,  and  could  make  a 
complete  dial ;  and  we  are  informed  by  Halley  himself, 
that  he  observed  the  change  of  the  variation  of  the  mag- 
netic needle  at  London,  in  1672,  that  is,  one  year  before 
he  left  school.  In  1673  he  was  entered  a  commoner  of 
Queers-college,  in  Oxford,  where  he  applied  himself  to 
practical  and  geometrical  astronomy,  in  which  he  was 
greatly  assisted  by  a  curious  apparatus  of  instruments 
which  his  father,  willing  to  encourage  his  son's  genius, 
had  purchased  for  him.  At  nineteen  he  began  to  publish 

'  British  Biography,  vol.  X. 

72  H  A  L  L  E  Y. 

new  observations  and  discoveries,  and  continued  to  do  so 
to  the  end  of  a  very  long  life;  nor  did  he  distinguish  him- 
self less  in  the  practical  part  of  the  science.  Several  ob- 
servations made  by  him  concerning  a  spot  in  the  sun,  seen 
at  Oxford  in  July  and  August  1676,  were  published,  with 
others  by  Flamsteed  upon  the  same  subject,  in  the  Philo- 
sophical Transactions.  By  these  the  motion  of  the  sun 
round  its  own  axis,  a  phenomenon  till  then  not  well  ascer- 
tained, was  finally  determined.  The  same  year  he  like- 
wise observed  there,  on  Aug.  21,  a.n  occultation  of  Mars 
by  the  Moon,  which  he  made  use  of  afterwards,  with  others, 
in  settling  the  longitude  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  against 
the  objections  of  the  French  astronomers. 

He  had  from  his  first  admission  into  college,  pursued  a 
general  scheme  for  ascertaining  the  true  places  of  the  fixed 
stars,  and  thereby  correcting  the  errors  of  Tycho  Brahe. 
His  original  view  was  to  carry  on  the  design  of  that  first 
restorer  of  astronomy,  by  completing  the  catalogue  of 
those  stars  from  his  own  observations ;  but  upon  farther 
inquiry,  finding  this  province  taken  up  by  Hevelius  and 
Flamsteed,  he  dropped  that  pursuit,  and  formed  another ; 
which  was,  to  perfect  the  whole  scheme  of  the  heavens  by 
the  addition  of  the  stars  which  lie  so  near  the  south  pole 
that  they  could  not  be  observed  by  those  astronomers,  as 
never  rising  above  the  horizon  either  at  Dantzick  or  Green- 
wich. With  this  view  he  left  the  university,  before  he  had 
taken  a  degree,  and  applied  himself  to  sir  Joseph  William- 
son, then  secretary  of  state,  and  to  sir  Jonas  Moore,  sur- 
veyor of  the  ordnance,  both  encouragers  of  these  studies  ; 
who,  applauding  his  purpose,  mentioned  it  to  Charles  II. 
The  king  was  much  pleased  with  the  plan,  and  immediately 
recommended  him  to  the  East  India  Company,  who  readily 
promised  to  supply  him  with  every  convenience,  and  to 
carry  him  to  St.  Helena,  then  in  their  possession  by  a  grant 
from  the  crown,  which  he  had  been  told  was  a  proper  situa- 
tion for  his  design.  Accordingly  he  embarked  for  that  island 
November  1676,  and  arriving  there  safely  in  three  months, 
began  his  task  ;  but  the  frequent  fogs  which  hover  over  the 
island  made  it  much  more  difficult  than  he  expected,  and 
it  was  only  by  embracing  every  opportunity  which  offered 
during  his  abode  on  the  island,  that  he  was  enabled  to  exe- 
cute his  purpose.  He  ascertained  the  position  of  350 
Stars,  and  published  an  account  of  his  labours  in  1676, 
under  the  title  of"  Catalogus  Stellarum  Australian."  In 

H  A  L  L  E  Y.  73 

honour  of  his  royal  patron,  he  formed  a  new  southern  con- 
stellation, to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  Kobur  Carolinum," 
or  the  "  Royal  Oak."  During  his  stay  at  St.  Helena,  he 
had  an  opportunity  of  observing  the  transit  of  Mercury 
over  the  sun's  disk  ;  an  observation  of  some  importance, 
because  it  could  not  be  completely  made  in  Europe,  the 
sun  not  being  risen  in  that  country  at  the  beginning  of  the 
transit.  Having  returned  to  England  November  1678,  the 
king,  greatly  satisfied,  gave  him,  at  his  own  request,  a  let- 
ter of  mandamus  to  the  university  of  Oxford  for  the  degree 
of  M.  A.  the  words  of  which  are,  that  "  his  majesty  has 
received  a  good  account  of  his  learning  as  to  the  mathe- 
matics and  astronomy,  whereof  he  has  gotten  a  good  tes- 
timony by  the  observations  he  has  made  during  his  abode 
in  the  island  of  St.  Helena."  This  letter  was  dated  No- 
vember 18,  and  the  same  month  he  was  also  chosen  fellow 
of  the  royal  society.  Indeed  his  catalogue  of  these  south- 
ern stars  merited  particular  honour;  it  was  an  entirely 
new  acquisition  to  the  astronomical  world,  and  might  not 
unaptly  be  called  "  Ccelum  Australe  eo  usque  incogni- 
tum  ;"  and  thence  he  acquired  a  just  claim  to  the  title, 
which  by  Flamsteed  was  not  long  after  given  him,  the 
Southern  Tycho. 

In  1679  he  was  appointed  by  the  royal  society  to  go  to 
Dantzick,  for  the  satisfaction  of  Hevelius  the  consul,  to 
adjust  a  dispute  between  him  and  our  Hooke,  about  the 
preference  of  plain  or  glass  sights  in  astroscopical  instru- 
ments. He  set  out  May  14  of  this  year,  with  a  letter  re- 
commendatory from  the  society,  and  arrived  at  that  city 
on  the  26th.  He  waited  on  the  consul  immediately,  and 
after  some  conversation,  agreed  to  enter  upon  the  business 
of  his  visit  that  same  night ;  on  which,  and  every  night 
afterwards,  when  the  sky  permitted,  the  two  astronomers 
made  their  observations  together  till  July  18,  when  Halley 
left  Dantzick,  and  returned  to  England.  Here  he  con- 
tinued till  the  latter  end  of  the  following  year,  1680  ;  when 
he  set  out  upon  what  is  usually  called  the  grand  tour,  ac- 
companied by  the  celebrated  Mr.  Nelson,  who  had  been 
his  school-fellow,  and  was  his  friend.  They  crossed  the 
water  in  December  to  Calais  ;  and  in  the  mid-way  thence 
to  Paris,  Haliey  had,  first  of  any  one,  a  sight  of  the  re- 
markable comet  as  it  then  appeared  a  second  time  that 
year  in  its  return  from  the  sun.  He  had  the  November 
before  seen  it  in  its  descent,  and  now  hastened  to  complete 

7*  HALLEY. 

his  observations  upon  it,  in  viewing  it  from  the  royal 
observatory  of  France.  That  building  had  been  finished 
not  many  years  before;  and  Halley's  design  in  this  part 
of  his  tour  was  to  settle  a  friendly  correspondence  between 
the  two  royal  astronomers  of  Greenwich  and  Paris  ;  em- 
bracing in  the  mean  time  every  opportunity  of  improving 
himself  under  so  great  a  master  as  Cassini,  as  he  had  done 
before  under  Hevelius.  From  Paris  he  went  with  his  fel- 
low-traveller, b}'  the  way  of  Lyons,  to  Italy,  where  he 
spent  a  great  part  of  the  year  1681  ;  but  his  affairs  then 
calling  him  home,  he  left  Mr.  Nelson  at  Rome,  and  re- 
turned to  England,  after  making  some  stay  a  second  time 
at  Paris. 

Soon  after  his  return  to  England,  he  married  the  daugh- 
ter of  Mr.  Tooke,  auditor  of  the  Exchequer ;  and  took  a 
house  at  Islington,  where  he  immediately  set  up  his  tube 
and  sextant,  and  eagerly  pursued  his  favourite  study.  In 
1683  he  published  his  "Theory  of  the  Variation  of  the 
Magnetical  Compass,"  in  which  he  supposes  the  whole 
globe  of  the  earth  to  be  one  great  magnet,  having  four 
rnagnetical  poles  or  points  of  attraction,  two  near  the  north 
and  two  near  the  south  pole.  The  same  year  also  he  en- 
tered early  upon  a  new  method  of  finding  out  the  longitude 
by  a  most  accurate  observation  of  the  moon's  motion.  His 
pursuits  are  said  to  have  been  interrupted  about  this  time 
by  the  death  of  his  father,  who  having  suffered  greatly  by 
the  fire  of  London,  as  well  as  by  a  second  marriage,  into 
which  he  had  imprudently  entered,  was  found  to  have 
wasted  his  fortune.  He  soon,  however,  resumed  his  usual 
occupations;  for,  January  1684,  he  turned  his  thoughts  to 
the  theory  of  the  planetary  motions  ;  and  gravity  occurred 
to  him,  as  it  bad  done  to  Dr.  Hooke,  as  the  probable  cause. 
But  he  could  not  satisfy  himself  as  to  the  law  according  to 
which  this  power  diminishes,  and  therefore  first  applied  to 
Dr.  Hooke  and  sir  Christopher  Wren  ;  who  not  affording  him 
any  assistance,  he  went  to  Cambridge  to  Newton,  who 
supplied  him  fully  with  what  he  had  so  ardently  sought. 
But  Halley  having  now  found  an  immense  treasure,  could 
not  rest  till  he  had  prevailed  with  the  owner  to  enrich  the 
public  with  it,  and  to  this  interview  the  world  is  in  some 
measure  indebted  for  the  celebrated  "  Principia"  of  New- 
ton, which  were  published  in  1686  ;  and  Halley,  who  had 
the  whole  care  of  the  impression  by  the  direction  of  the 
royal  society,  presented  it  to  James  II,  with  a  discourse  of 

HALLEY.  75 

his  own,  giving  a  general  account  of  the  astronomical  part 
of  that  book.  He  also  wrote  some  very  elegant  verses  in 
Latin,  which  are  prefixed  to  the  "  Principia." 

In  1685  he  became  clerk  to  the  royal  society,  and  seems, 
for  several  years  about  that  period,  to  have  been  the  prin- 
cipal person  employed  in  drawing  up  the  "  Philosophical 
Transactions."  In  1687  he  undertook  to  explain  the  cause 
of  a  natural  phenomenon,  which  had  till  then  baffled  the 
researches  of  the  ablest  geographers.  The  Mediterranean 
Sea  is  observed  not  to  swell  in  the  least,  although  there  is 
no  visible  discharge  of  the  prodigious  quantity  of  water 
which  runs  into  it  from  nine  large  rivers,  besides  several 
small  ones,  and  the  constant  setting-in  of  the  current  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Streights.  His  solution  of  this  difficulty 
gave  so  much  satisfaction  to  the  society,  that  he  received 
orders  to  prosecute  these  inquiries,  in  the  course  of  which, 
having  shewn  by  the  most  accurate  experiments,  how  that 
great  increase  of  water  was  actually  carried  off  in  vapours 
raised  by  the  action  of  the  sun  and  wind  upon  the  surface, 
he  proceeded  with  the  like  success  to  point  out  the  method 
used  by  nature  to  return  the  said  vapours  into  the  sea. 
This  circulation  he  supposes  to  be  carried  on  by  the  winds 
driving  these  vapours  to  the  mountains  ;  where,  being  col- 
lected, they  form  springs,  which  uniting,  becomte  rivulets 
or  brooks,  and  many  of  these  again  meeting  in  the  valleys, 
grow  into  large  rivers,  emptying  themselves  at  last  into  the 
sea ;  thus  demonstrating  in  the  most  beautiful  manner  the 
way  in  which  the  equilibrium  of  receipt  and  expence  is 
continually  preserved  in  the  universal  ocean.  In  1698  he 
was  candidate  for  the  Savilian  professorship  at  Oxford,  but 
lost  it  by  the  intervention  of  bishop  Stillingtteet,  who  re- 
fused to  recommend  him,  on  account  of  his  opinions,  which 
were  considered  as  unfavourable  to  Christianity.  We  shall 
find,  however,  that  he  was  afterwards  elected*. 

Halley  published  his  "  Theory  of  the  Variation  of  the 
Magnetical  Compass,"  as  already  observed,  in  1683; 

*  Whiston,  in  the  Memoirs  of  his  ley  should  talk  with  him  about  it,  which 
own  Life,  tells  us  from  Dr.  Bentlev,  he  did.  But  Halley  was  so  sincere  in 
that  Halley  "  being  thought  of  for  sue-  his  infidelity,  that  he  would  not  so 
cessor  to  the  mathematical  chair  at  Ox-  much  as  pretend  to  believe  the  Chris- 
ford,  bishop  Stilling&eet  was  desired  tiau  religiou,  though  he  thereby  was 
to  recommend  him  at  courti;  but,  hear-  likely  to  lose  a  professorship;  which 
ing  that  he  was  a  sceptic  and  a  ban-  he  did  accordingly,  and  it  was  the» 
terer  of  religion,  the  bishop  scrupled  given  to  Dr.  Gregory." 
fco  be  concerned,  till  his  chaplain  Bent. 

76  H  A  L  L  E  Y. 

which,  though  it  was  well  received  both  at  home  and 
abroad,  he  found  upon  a  review  liable  to  great  and  insu- 
perable objections.  Yet  the  phenomena  of  the  variation 
of  the  needle,  upon  which  it  is  raised,  being  so  many  cer- 
tain and  indisputed  facts,  he  spared  no  pains  to  possess 
himself  of  all  the  observations  relating  to  it,  he  could  pos- 
sibly come  at.  To  this  end  he  procured  an  application  to 
be  made  to  king  William,  who  appointed  him  commander 
of  the  Paramour  Pink,  August  19,  169S;  with  express 
orders  to  seek  by  observations  the  discovery  of  the  rule  of 
the  variations,  and,  as  the  words  of  his  commission  run, 
"  to  call  at  his  majesty's  settlements  in  America,  and  make 
such  farther  observations  as  are  necessary  for  the  better 
laying  down  the  longitude  and  latitude  of  those  places,  and 
to  attempt  the  discovery  of  what  land  lies  to  the  south  of 
the  Western  ocean."  He  set  out  on  this  attempt  Novem- 
ber 24th  following,  and  proceeded  so  far  as  to  cross  the 
line ;  but  his  men  growing  sickly  and  untractable,  and  his 
first  lieutenant  mutinying,  he  returned  home  in  June  1699. 
After  getting  his  lieutenant  tried  and  cashiered,  he  sailed 
September  following,  a  second  time,  having  the  same  ship 
with  another  of  less  bulk,  of  which  he  had  also  the  com- 
mand. He  traversed  the  vast  Atlantic  Ocean  from  one 
hemisphere  to  another,  as  far  as  the  ice  would  permit  him 
to  go ;  and,  in  his  way  back  touched  at  St.  Helena,  the 
coast  of  Brazil,  Cape  Verd,  Barbadoes,  Madeiras,  the  Ca- 
naries, the  coast  of  Barbary,  and  many  other  latitudes, 
arriving  in  England  in  September  1700.  Having  thus  fur- 
nished himself  with  a  competent  number  of  observations, 
he  published  in  1701,  "A  General  Chart,  shewing  at  one 
view  the  Variation  of  the  Compass  in  all  those  seas  where 
the  English  navigators  were  acquainted  ;"  and  was  the  first 
who  laid  a  sure  foundation  for  the  discovery  of  the  law  or 
rule  whereby  the  said  variation  changes  all  over  the  world. 
In  1775  the  original  journals  of  Dr.  Halley's  two  voyages 
were  published  by  Mr.  Alexander  Dalrymple,  in  a  thin 
quarto  volume,  but  they  are  not  of  much  value,  and  were 
obviously  never  intended  for  publication  by  Dr.  Halley 

Halley  had  been  at  home  little  more  than  half  a  year, 
•en  he  went  in  the  same  ship  with  another  express  com- 
mission from  the  king,  to  observe  the  course  of  the  tides  in 
•cry  part  of  the  British  channel  at  home,  and  to  take  the 
wigitude  and  latitude  of  the  principal  head-lands,  in  order 

H  A  L  L  E  Y.  77 

to  lay  down  the  coast  truly.  These  orders  were  executed 
with  his  usual  expedition  and  accuracy  ;  and  soon  after  his 
return  he  published,  in  1702,  a  large  map  of  the  Britisli 
channel.  The  emperor  of  Germany  having  resolved  to 
make  a  convenient  and  safe  harbour  for  shipping  in  that 
part  of  his  dominions  which  borders  upon  the  Adriatic, 
Halley  was  sent  this  year  by  queen  Anne  to  view  the  two 
ports  on  the  Dalmatian  coast,,  lying  to  that  sea.  He  em- 
barked November  27,  went  over  to  Holland,  and  passing 
thence  through  Germany  to  Vienna,  proceeded  to  Istria, 
with  a  view  of  entering  upon  the  execution  of  the  emperor's 
design  ;  but,  some  opposition  being  given  to  it  by  the 
Dutch,  it  was  laid  aside.  The  emperor,  however,  pre- 
sented him  with  a  rich  diamond  ring  from  his  finger,  and 
gave  him  a  letter  of  high  commendation,  written  with  his 
own  hand,  to  queen  Anne.  He  was  likewise  received  with 
great  respect  by  the  king  of  the  Romans,  by  prince  Eugene, 
and  the  principal  officers  of  that  court.  Presently  after  his 
arrival  in  England,  he  was  dispatched  again  upon  the  same 
business;  and,  passing  through  Osnaburgh  and  Hanover, 
arrived  at  Vienna,  and  was  presented  the  same  evening  to 
the  emperor,  who  directly  sent  his  chief  engineer  to  attend 
him  to  Istria. 

He  returned  to  England  November  1703;  and,  Wallis 
being  deceased  a  few  weeks  before,  Halley  was  appointed 
Savilian  professor  of  geometry  at  Oxford  in  his  room,  and 
had  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  conferred  upon  him  by   that 
university.     He  was  scarcely  settled  at  Oxford  when  Aid- 
rich,  dean  of  Christ  Church,  engaged  him  to  translate  into 
Latin  from  the  Arabic  "Apollonius  de  Sectione  llationis." 
At  the    same  time,  from   the   account  given   of  them  by 
Pappus,  he  restored  the  two  books,  which  are  lost,  of  the 
same  author,   "  De   Sectione  Spatii ;"  and  the  whole  was 
published   by  him  in  one.  volume,   8vo,   at  Oxford,  1706. 
Afterwards  he   took  a  share  with  his  colleague,  Dr.  David 
Gregory,  in  preparing  for  the  press  the  same  Apollonius's 
"  Conies ;"  and   ventured  to   supply  the  whole  8th  book, 
which  is  lost,  of  the  original.     He  likewise  added  Serenus 
on  the  "  Section  of  the  Cylinder  and  Cone,"  printed  from 
the  original  Greek,  with  a  Latin  translation,  and  published 
the   whole,  1710,    in   folio;    not   to   mention,   that  in    the 
midst  of  all  these  publications  the  "  Miscellanea  Curiosa," 
in  3  vols.  8vo,   had  come  out  under  his  direction  in  1708. 
Jn  1713  he  succeeded  Dr.  (afterwards  sir)  Haas  Sloane,  in 

78  H  A  L  L  E  T. 

the  post  of  secretary  to  the  royal  society;  and,  upon  the 
death  of  Flamsteed  in  1719,  was  appointed  to  succeed  him 
at  Greenwich  by  George  I.  which  made  Halley,  that  he 
might  be  more  at  liberty  for  the  proper  business  of  his 
situation,  resign  the  post  of  secretary  to  the  royal  society 
in  1721. 

Upon  the  accession  of  king  George  II.  his  consort  queen 
Caroline  thought  proper  to  make  a  visit  at  the  royal  obser- 
vatory ;  and,  being  pleased  with  every  thing  she  saw,  took 
notice  that  Dr.  Halley  had  formerly  served  the  crown  as  a 
captain  in  the  navy  ;  and  she  soon  after  obtained  a  grant  of 
his  half-pay  for  that  commission,  which  he  enjoyed  from 
that  time  during  his  life.  An  offer  was  also  made  him  of 
being  appointed  mathematical  preceptor  to  the  duke  of 
Cumberland  ;  but  he  declined  that  honour  in  consideration 
of  his  advanced  age,  and  because  he  deemed  the  ordinary 
attendance  upon  that  employment  not  consistent  with  the 
performance  of  his  duty  at  Greenwich.  In  August  1729 
he  was  admitted  as  a  foreign  member  of  the  academy  of 
sciences  at  Paris.  About  1737  he  was  seized  with  a  pa- 
ralytic disorder  in  his  right  hand,  which,  it  is  said,  was  the 
first  attack  he  ever  felt  upon  his  constitution  :  however, 
he  came  as  usual  once  a  week  till  within  a  little  while  be-» 
fore  his  death,  to  see  his  friends  in  town  on  Thursday,  be- 
fore the  meeting  of  the  royal  society.  His  paralytic  disor- 
der increasing,  his  strength  gradually  wore  away,  and  he 
came  at  length  to  be  wholly  supported  by  such  cordials  as 
were  ordered  by  his  physician  Dr.  Mead.  He  expired  as 
he  sat  in  his  chair,  without  a  groan,  January  14,  1741-2, 
in  his  eighty-sixth  year,  and  was  interred  at  Lee,  near 

Halley's  astronomical  tables,  on  which  he  laboured  from 
1725  till  his  death,  were  published  in  1749,  and  were  for 
many  years  the  best  and  most  complete  with  which  astro- 
nomers were  furnished,  though  of  late  years  other  tables 
have  been  constructed  still  more  perfect,  and  entitled  to  a 
greater  degree  of  confidence. 

Dr.  Halley  was  of  a  middle  stature,  inclining  to  tallness, 
of  a  thin  habit  of  body,  and  fair  complexion,  and  always 
spoke  and  acted  with  an  uncommon  degree  of  sprightliness 
and  vivacity.  He  was  of  an  ardent  and  glowing  temper,  of 
a  generous  and  friendly  disposition,  and  of  great  candour, 
He  retained  his  good  spirits  to  the  last,  and  used  to  say 
"  that  9.  studious  life  generally  contributes  to  make  a  long 

H  A  L  L  E  Y.  79 

•ne,  by  keeping  a  man  out  of  harm's  way."  That  he  was, 
with  all  his  learning  and  amiable  qualifications,  an  infidel 
in  religions  matters,  seems  as  generally  allowed  as  it  ap- 
pears unaccountable.  It  must,  however,  be  deeply  re- 
gretted that  he  cannot  be  numbered  with  those  illustrious 
characters  who  thought  it  not  beneath  them  to  be  Chris- 
tians, with  Bacon  and  Milton,  Boyle,  Locke,  and  Newton.  * 

HALLIER  (FRANCIS),  a  celebrated  French  bishop,  was 
born  in  1595.  He  rose  to  be  doctor  and  professor  of  the 
Sorboune,  archdeacon  of  Dinan,  prebendary  of  Chartres, 
syndic  of  the  faculty  of  divinity  at  Paris,  and,  at  length, 
bishop  of  Cavaillon  in  1656.  He  travelled  into  Greece, 
Italy,  and  England.  Urban  VIII.  had  so  great  a  value  for 
him,  that  he  twice  nominated  him  to  the  bishopric  of  Toul; 
and  wishing  to  create  two  cardinals,  one  of  which  should 
be  a  Frenchman,  the  other  a  Spaniard,  proposed  him,  with 
father  de  Lugo,  for  that  dignity;  but  a  strong  faction,  and 
some  reasons  of  state,  placed  the  hat  designed  for  M.  Hal- 
lier  on  the  head  of  the  commander  of  Valencey.  M.  Hal- 
lier  appeared  with  great  distinction,  as  proctor,  at  the 
assembly  of  the  French  clergy,  1645,  in  which  the  rules 
concerning  the  regulars  were  revived,  which  he  explained 
by  a  learned  "  Commentary."  On  his  second  visit  to 
Kome  in  1652,  he  solicited,  both  by  personal  application 
and  by  writing,  the  condemnation  of  the  five  famous  pro- 
positions of  Jansenius,  and  obtained  the  bull  "  Cum  occa- 
sione"  against  them.  He  died  in  1659,  worn  out  with  sick- 
ness and  infirmities,  aged  sixty -four.  His  principal  works 
are,  "  Defence  of  a  censure  of  the  faculty  of  theology  at 
Paris  respecting  the  Bishops  of  England  against  the  Je- 
suits ;"  "  Treatise  on  the  Hierarchy  ;"  and  a  "  Treatise 
on  Elections  and  Ordinations,"  1636,  folio;  by  which  he 
acquired  great  reputation,  both  at  Rome  and  in  France. 
He  wrote  also  various  pieces  against  the  five  propositions 
of  Jansenius,  which,  in  the  estimation  of  his  church,  dis- 
cover profound  learning,  and  abound  with  very  strong  and 
solid  reasoning.  They  are  all  in  Latin.2 

HALLIFAX  (SAMUEL),  a  learned  English  prelate,  was 
born  at  Mansfield  in  Derbyshire,  Jan.  18,  1733.  He  was 
the  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Samuel  Hallifax,  apothecary,  by 
Hannah,  daughter  of  Mr.  Jebb,  of  Mansfield,  by  which 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Birch's  Life  of  Tillotson.— Whiston's  IJfV.—  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. 
— Thompson'^  Hist,  of  the  Royal  Society. 
*  Morw, — Diet.  Hist.. 

$0  H  A  L  L  I  F  A  X. 

alliance  our  author  became  first  cousin  of  the  late  sir 
Richard,  and  Dr.  John  Jebb.  He  was  admitted  of  Jesus 
college,  Cambridge,  where  he  distinguished  himself  in  his 
academical  exercises,  and  he  was  in  the  list  of  wranglers, 
as  they  are  called,  and  obtained  the  chancellor's  gold  medal 
forclassical  learning,  and  some  prize  dissertations.  He  pro- 
ceeded A.  B.  in  1744,  and  A.M.  in  1747,  and  afterwards  re- 
moved to  Trinity  Hall  (where  are  only  two  fellowships  in  di- 
vinity), and  proceeded  LL.D.  in  1761.  In  Nov.  1 7 65  he  was 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  Chaddington,  in  Buckingham- 
shire, and  in  1768  was  elected  professor  of  Arabic  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Cambridge,  which  he  resigned  in  1770  on  being 
made  regius  professor  of  civil  law.  In  February  1774  he  was 
appointed  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  his  majesty;  in  1775  was 
created  D.  D.  by  royal  mandate,  and  on  the  death  of  Dr. 
Topham  succeeded  him  as  master  of  the  faculties  in  Doc- 
tors Commons.  Galley,  relict  of  Dr.  Galley, 
prebendary  of  Gloucester,  he  received,  without  any  soli- 
citation on  his  part,  but  merely  as  a  reward  for  his  eminent 
services  in  the  cause  of  religion,  the  valuable  rectory  of 
Warsop,  in  Nottinghamshire,  in  1778.  In  1781  he  was 
advanced  to  the  see  of  Gloucester,  and  thence  was  trans- 
lated to  the  see  of  St.  Asaph  in  1787,  being  the  first  Eng- 
lish bishop  that  was  translated  to  that  see,  and  the  second 
that  was  translated  to  a  bishopric  in  North  Wales.  He 
died  of  the  stone,  March  4,  1790,  when  only  fifty-seven 
years  of  age.  He  married  one  of  the  daughters  of  Dr. 
Cooke,  provost  of  King's  college,  Cambridge,  who  wrote 
the  elegant  epitaph  on  his  monument  in  the  church  of 
Warsop,  where  bishop  Hallifax  was  buried  at  his  own  de- 
sire, near  a  favourite  son  who  was  interred  there.  By  his 
wife  he  left  another  son  and  six  daughters. 

Bishop  Hallifax  published  at  various  times,  fourteen  • 
sermons,  preached  on  occasional  subjects ;  an  "  Analysis 
of  the  Roman  Civil  Law  compared  with  the  Laws  of  Eng- 
land, being  the  heads  of  a  course  of  lectures  publicly  read 
in  the  university  of  Cambridge,"  1774,  8vo ;  «  Twelve 
Sermons  on  the  Prophecies  concerning  the  Christian  Reli- 
gion, and  in  particular  concerning  the  church  of  Papal 
Home,  preached  in  Lincoln's  Inn  chapel,  at  bishop  War- 
burton's  lecture,"  1776,  8vo.  He  published  also  an  ex- 
cellent analysis  of  bishop  Butler's  Analogy  annexed  to  a 
charge  of  that  prelate  ;  and  Wi,s  tjie  etutor  of  j)r.  Ogden'* 

H  A  L  L  O  I  X.  *T 

Sermons.  He  was  a  man  of  great  ability,  an  excellent 
civilian,  and  a  very  acute  and  elegant  public  speaker.  * 

HALLOIX  (PETER),  a  learned  Jesuit,  born  at  Liege  in 
1572,  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  critical  knowledge 
of  the  learned  languages,  and  of  ecclesiastical  history.  He 
was  also  an  admired  preacher  in  his  day.  He  died  in  1656. 
His  principal  works  are;  1.  "  Anthologia  poetica,  Gr.  Lat." 
Douay,  1617,  12mo;  and  2.  "  Illustrium  ecclesiae  orientalis 
Scriptorum  Vitae  et  documenta,"  Douay,  1633,  and  1636, 
2  vols.  fol.  comprising  the  lives  of  the  eminent  men  of  the 
first  and  second  age  of  the  Eastern  church.  He  wrote  the 
lives  of  some  other  eminent  ecclesiastics  and  saints,  which 
are  inserted  in  the  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  and  other  col- 
lections. 2 

HALS  (FRANCIS),  a  portrait  painter  of  great  celebrity, 
was  born  at  Mechlin  in  1584.  He  was  a  pupil  of  C.  Van 
Mander,  and  by  a  careful  observation  of  nature  obtained 
that  accurate  knowledge  of  the  structure  of  the  human 
frame,  which  is  so  useful  in  his  art.  No  man  ever  set  the 
features  of  a  face  together  with  more  truth  than  Frank 
Hals,  or  with  a  readier  pencil ;  and  he  did  it  with  great 
truth  and  spirit  also  of  colour,  as  well  as  of  execution.  He 
avoided  the  laboured  mode  of  finish  so  much  admired 
•among  his  countrymen  at  the  time,  and  gave  his  portraits 
much  expression  and  animation  of  countenance,  particu- 
larly of  a  gay  and  humourous  nature.  A  decided  charac- 
ter of  individual  nature  is  remarkable  in  his  portraits,  and 
is  not  found  in  an  equal  degree  in  any  other  painter.  If 
he  had  joined  to  this  most  difficult  part  of  the  art,  a  pa- 
tience in  finishing  what  he  had  so  correctly  planned,  he 
might  justly  have  claimed  the  place  which  Vandyke,  all 
things  considered,  so  justly  holds  as  the  first  of  portrait 
painters.  This  last  mentioned  artist  was  so  delighted  with 
his  works,  that  he  went  to  Haerlem,  where  he  resided,  for 
no  other  purpose  than  to  pay  him  a  visit.  He  introduced 
himself  as  a  gentleman  on  his  travels,  who  wished  in  haste 
to  have  his  portrait  painted.  Hals  was  hurried  from  the 
tavern,  where  he  usually  passed  his  leisure  time,  seized 
the  first  canvas  he  could  find,  and  began  his  labour.  In  a 
short  time  he  had  proceeded  so  far,  that  he  asked  Vandyke 
to  look  at  what  he  had  done,  who  expressed  himself  as  very 

1  Edwards's  new  edition  of  Willis's  Survey  of  St.  Asaph. — Nichols'*  Bowyer. 
*  Alegambe. — Foppen  Bibl.  Eelg. — Saxii  Onomast. 




well  pleased  with  it,  at  the  same  time  saying  that  he 
thought  such  work  so  easy,  he  was  persuaded  he  could  do 
it  himself.  Taking  the  palette  and  pencils,  he  desired  F. 
Hals  to  sit  down,  and  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour  shewed  him 
the  portrait.  The  moment  he  saw  it  he  recognized  his 
visitor,  and  embraced  him  with  transport.  Vandyke  en- 
deavoured to  prevail  upon  Hals  to  accompany  him  to  Eng- 
land, engaging  to  enrich  him  ;  but  he  was  not  able  to  suc- 
ceed ;  Hals  declaring  that  his  happiness  consisted  in  the 
enjoyment  of  his  friends  and  his  bottle,  and  while  he  pos- 
sessed these  he  was  satisfied  with  his  condition.  For  his 
treatment  of  Brouwer,  see  our  account  of  that  artist.  He 
died  in  1666,  at  the  age  of  eighty-two.  He  had  a  brother, 
Dirk  Hals,  a  painter  of  animals,  merry-makings,  conver- 
sations, feasts,  and  subjects  of  drollery,  to  whom,  however, 
as  an  artist,  he  was  far  superior  in  all  the  better  qualities 
of  art:  yet  Dirk's  works  gained  him  much  reputation,  and 
he  practised  with  great  success  till  he  was  sixty-seven 
years  old,  when  he  died  in  1656. ' 

HALYBURTON  (THOMAS),  a  pious  Scotch  divine,  and 
professor  of  divinity  in  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  was 
born  at  Duplin  in  the  parish  of  Aberdalgy,  near  Perth, 
Dec.  25,  1674.  His  father  had  been  minister  of  that 
parish,  from  which  he  was  ejected  after  the  restoration,  for 
nonconformity.  He  died  in  1682,  and  as  the  country  was 
still  unsafe  for  those  who  professed  the  presbyterian  reli- 
gion, his  mother  went  over  to  Holland  with  her  son,  then 
about  eight  years  old.  During  their  stay  there,  he  was 
educated  at  Erasmus's  school,  and  made  great  proficiency 
in  classical  literature.  On  his  return  to  Scotland  in  1687, 
he  resumed  his  studies,  and  was  also  sent  to  the  university. 
When  he  had  finished  his  philosophical  course  there,  he 
entered  upon  the  study  of  divinity;  and  being,  in  June 
1699,  licensed  to  preach,  he  was  in  May  1700,  appointed 
minister  of  the  parish  of  Ceres,  in  which  he  performed  the 
part  of  a  zealous  and  pious  pastor;  but  his  labours  proving 
too  many  for  his  health,  the  latter  became  gradually  im- 
paired. In  April  1710,  he  was  appointed  by  patent  from 
queen  Anne,  professor  of  divinity  in  the  college  of  St. 
Leonard  at  St.  Andrew's,  through  the  mediation  of  the 
.synod  of  Fife.  On  this  occasion  he  entered  on  his  office 
an  inaugural  oration,  «  in  qua,  post  exhibitam  ra~ 

1  Pilkiugton.— Sir  J.  Reynolds's  Work?. 


tionem  suscepti  muneris,  examinatur  schedula  nupera,  cui 
titulus  '  Epistola  Archimedis  ad  Regem  Gelonem  Albae 
Graecae  reperta  anno  serae  Christianas  1688,  A.  Pitcarnio, 
M.  D.  ut  vulgo  creditur,  auctoreV  Pitcairn's  reputation 
as  a  deist  was  at  that  time  very  common  in  Scotland,  how- 
ever justly  he  may  have  deserved  it;  and  Mr.  Halyburton's 
attention  had  been  much  called  to  the  subject  of  deism  as 
revived  in  the  preceding  century.  He  did  not,  however, 
enjoy  his  professorship  long,  dying  Sept.  23,  1712,  aged 
only  thirty-eight.  It  does  not  appear  that  he  published 
any  thing  in  his  life-time ;  but  soon  after  his  death  two 
works  were  published,  which  still  preserve  his  memory  in 
Scotland.  1.  "The  Great  Concern  of  Salvation,"  1721, 
8vo.  2.  "  Ten  Sermons  preached  before  and  after  the 
celebration  of  the  Lord's  Supper,"  1722.  But  the  work 
which  proves  his  ability  as  a  controversial  writer,  and  the 
great  extent  of  his  reading,  although  it  is  less  known  than 
the  preceding,  is  his  "  Natural  Religion  insufficient ;  and 
Revealed  necessary  to  man's  happiness,"  Edinburgh,  1714, 
4to.  This  was  written  in  confutation  of  the  deism  of  lord 
Herbert  and  Mr.  Blount.  In  this  elaborate  performance 
he  largely  and  distinctly  shews  that  the  light  of  nature  is 
greatly  defective,  even  with  respect  to  the  discoveries  of  a 
Deity,  and  the  worship  that  is  to  be  rendered  to  him  ;  with 
respect  to  the  inquiry  concerning  man's  true  happiness ; 
with  respect  to  the  rule  of  duty,  and  the  motives  for  en- 
forcing obedience,  &c.  Dr.  Leland  says  that  "  whosoever 
carefully  examines  what  this  learned  and  pious  author  has 
offered  on  these  several  heads,  will  find  many  excellent 
things ;  though  the  narrowness  of  his  notions  in  some  points 
has  prejudiced  some  persons  against  his  work,  and  hin- 
dered them  from  regarding  and  considering  it  so  much  as 
it  deserves."1 

HAMBERGER  (GEORGE  EDWARD),  professor  of  che- 
mistry and  of  the  practice  of  medicine  in  the  university  of 
Jena,  was  born  in  that  city,  December  21,  1697,  his  father 
being  professor  of  mathematics  in  the  same  university. 
From  his  earliest  years  he  had  evinced  a  disposition  to  the 
study  of  anatomy,  and  was  accustomed  to  steal  from  his 
parents,  whf>  destined  him  for  the  church,  to  attend  the 
lectures  of  Slevoight  on  that  subject.  After  the  death  of 
his  father  he  relinquished  even  the  study  of  the  mathe- 

1  Life  written  partly  by  himself,  12rao. — Leland's  View  of  Deistical  Writers 

G    2 

St  H  A  M  B  E  R  G  E  R. 

matics,  to  which  he  had  applied  himself  during  several 
years,  and  gave  up  his  attention  exclusively  to  medical 
pursuits.  In  17-21  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  D.  and  in  1726 
was  appointed  professor;  and  he  held  the  chair  of  the 
practice  of  medicine  at  the  time  of  his  death,  which  oc- 
curred June '22,  1755. 

Hamberger  is  entitled  to  the  merit  of  having  illustrated 
physiology  by  the  doctrines  of  philosophy,  and  of  having 
rendered  both  more  popular  than  they  had  ever  before 
been  in  Germany ;  but  in  the  dispute  with  the  celebrated 
Haller,  in  which  the  publication  of  his  hypothesis  concern- 
ing respiration  involved  him,  and  which  was  carried  on 
with  considerable  asperity,  he  was  altogether  in  error;  he 
lived  long  enough,  indeed,  to  be  convinced  of  the  weak- 
ness of  his  hypothesis,  which  he  avowed  to  his  friends.  Jt 
was  contained  in  a  dissertation,  "  De  Respirationis  me- 
chanismo  et  usu  genuino,"  published  in  1727.  His  other 
principal  works  are,  1.  "  Elementa  Physices,  methodo  Ma- 
thematica  in  usum  auditorum  conscripta,"  Jense,  1727,  8vo. 
2.  "  Disputatio  de  Venaesectione,  quatenus  motum  san- 
guinis  mutat,"  ibid.  1729.  3.  "  Dissertation  stir  la  me- 
chanique  des  Secretions  dans  le  corps  humain,"  Bour- 
deaux,  1746.  This  dissertation  obtained  a  prize  from  the 
academy  of  that  city.  4.  "  Physiologia  Medica,  seu  do 
actionibus  corporis  humani  sani  doctrina,"  Jense,  1751, 
4to.  5.  "  Elementa  Physiologiae  Medicse,  &c."  1757,  an 
abridgment  of  the  preceding  for  students  :  and  6.  "  Me- 
tfiodus  medendi  Morbos,  cum  prafatione  de  prsestantia 
Theorise  Hambergeri,  prae  ceteris,"  ibid.  1763,  published 
by  professor  Baldinger.  * 

HAMEL  (JOHN  BAPTISTS  DU),  a  very  learned  French 
philosopher  and  divine,  was  born  at  Vire  in  Lower  Nor- 
mandy, 1624.  He  passed  through  his  first  studies  at  Caen, 
and  his  course  of  rhetoric  and  philosophy  at  Paris.  At 
eighteen  he  wrote  a  treatise,  in  which  he  explained,  in  a, 
very  simple  manner,  and  by  one  or  two  figures,  Theodo- 
sius's  three  books  upon  spherics  ;  to  which  he  added  a  tract 
upon  trigonometry,  extremely  short,  yet  perspicuous,  and 
designed  as  an  introduction  to  astronomy.  In  one  of  his 
latter  works  he  observes,  that  he  was  prompted  by  the  va- 
nity natural  to  a  young  man  to  publish  this  book  :  but,  as 
Fontenelle  remarks,  there  are  few  persons  of  that  age 

1  Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  from  Eloy,  &,c. 

H  A  M  E  L.  85 

capable  of  such  an  instance  of  vanity.     At  nineteen  he  en- 
tered himself  in  the  congregation  of  the  oratory,  where  he 
continued  ten   years,  and   left  it  in  order  to  be  curate  of 
Neuilli  upon  the  Marne.     He  applied  in  the  mean  time  in- 
tensely to  study,  and  acquired  much  reputation' by  pub- 
lishing works  upon  astronomy  and  philosophy.     In  1666, 
Colbert  proposed  to  Lewis  XIV.  a  scheme,  which  was  ap- 
proved by  his  majesty,  for  establishing  a  royal  academy  of 
sciences  ;  and  appointed   our   author  secretary  of  it.     In 
1668,  he  attended  M.  Colbert  de  Croissy,  plenipotentiary 
for  the  peace  at  Aix  la  Chapelle  ;  and,  upon  the  conclu- 
sion of  it,  accompanied   him  in  his  embassy  to  England, 
where  he   formed   an  acquaintance  with  the  most  eminent 
persons  of  this  nation,  particularly  with   Boyle,  Hay,   and 
Willis.     Thence  he  went  over  to  Holland,  and  returned  to 
France,  having  made  a  great  number  of  useful  observations 
in  his  travels.    In  1678  his  "Philosophia  Vetus  etNova,  ad 
usum  scholae  aceommodatain  regia  Burgundia  pertractata," 
was  printed  at  Paris  in  4  vols.  12mo;  and,  in  1681,  en- 
larged and   reprinted  there  in  six.     This  work,   which  was 
done  by  the  order  of  M.  Colbert,  contains  a  judicious  col- 
lection of  the  ancient  and  modern  opinions  in  philosophy. 
Several   years   after  its  publication,  the  Jesuits  carried  it 
to  the  East-Indies,  and  taught  it  with  success ;  and  father 
Bovet,  a  missionary  in  China,  wrote  to  Europe,  that  when 
his  brethren  and  himself  engaged  in  drawing  up  a  system  of 
philosophy  in  the  Tartarian  language  for  the  emperor,  one 
of  their  chief  aids  was  Du  Hamel's  "  Philosophia  e't  Astro- 
nomia ;"  and   they   were  then   highly  valued,  though   the 
improvements  in  philosophy  since  his  time  have  rendered 
them  of  little  use.     In  1697  he  resigned  his  place  of  secre- 
tary of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences,  which  by  his  recom- 
mendation  he  procured  for  M.  de  Fontenelle.     He  had 
some  years  before  this  devoted   himself  to  divinity,  and 
published  various  works  in  that  science.     However,  he  did 
not  entirely  resign   his   former  studies,  but  published  at 
Paris,  in  1698,  "  Regiae  Scientiarum  Academiae  Historia," 
4to,  in  four  books ;  which,  being  much   liked,  he  after- 
wards augmented   with  two  books  more.     It  contains  an 
account  of  the  foundation  of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences, 
and  its  transactions,  from  1666  to  1700,  and   is  now  the 
most  useful  of  any  of  his  works  relating  to  philosophy  ;  as 
perhaps  the  most  useful  which  he  published  in  theology  is 
his  last  work  printed  at  Paris,   1706,  in  folio,  and  entitled 

86  H  A  M  E  L. 

"  Biblia  Sacra  Vulgatae  editionis,  una  cum  selectis  ex  op- 
timis  quib usque  interpretibus  notis,  prolegomenis,  novis 
tabulis  chronologicis  et  geographicis." 

He  died  at  Paris  August  6,  1706,  without  any  sickness, 
and  of  mere  old  age,  being  almost  eighty-three.  Though 
he  had  quitted  his  cure  at  Neuilli  in  1663,  yet  he  went 
every  year  to  visit  his  old  flock  ;  and  the  day  he  spent  there 
was  kept  as  an  holy- day  by  the  whole  village.  He  was 
highly  esteemed  by  the  most  eminent  prelates  of  France, 
though  he  enjoyed  but  very  small  preferments.  He  was  a 
man  of  great  modesty,  affability,  piety,  and  integrity  ;  he 
was  disinterested,  averse  to  all  contests,  and  exempt  from 
jealousy  and  affectation.  He  wrote  Latin  with  remarkable 
purity  and  elegance.1 

HA  MEL  DU  MONCEAU  (HENRY  LEWIS  DU),    an  emi- 
nent French  writer  on  rural  ceconomy  and  vegetable  phy- 
siology, was  born   at  Paris  in  1700.     Being  a  member  of 
the  academy  of  sciences,  he  published  in  the  memoirs  of 
that  body  in  1728,  "his  first  ceconomical  essay,  on  a  kind  of 
parasitical  fungus  which  infests  the  roots  of  the  cultivated 
saffron,  and  is  fatal  to  them.     In  the  same  year  he  pub- 
lished in  that  work  his  first  treatise  on  a  much  more  im- 
portant subject,    the    propagation   of   trees    by   grafting, 
where  he  hazarded  some  physiological  opinions,  and  en- 
tered on  a  course  of  experiment  and  observation,  subse- 
quently pursued  to  an  extent  which  has  been  of  great  ser- 
vice to  science,  and  has  justly  rendered  his  name  famous. 
He  continued  from  time  to  time  to  communicate  to  the 
academy  various  papers  relative  to  these  matters.     In  1750 
he  began  to  publish  in   12mo,  his  "  Traite  de  la  Culture 
des  Terres,"  which  was  continued  in  following  years  till 
1761,    when  the  sixth   volume  came  out.     Our   English 
writer  Tull  was  his  first  guide,  but  he  subsequently  pro- 
fited widely  by  the  experience  of  himself  and   of  various 
other  people,  aided  by  his  physiological  sagacity,  of  which 
he  made  a  far  more  cautious  use  than  is  general  with  farm- 
ing philosophers,  and  deserves  to  be  reckoned  the  father 
of  intelligent  agriculture  in  France.    His  "  Elements  d'Agri- 
culture,"  in  2  vols.  12mo,  published  in  1764,  may  be  con- 
sidered as  a  sequel  to  the  preceding  work.     These  two 
volumes  have  been  translated  into  German,  Spanish,  and 

1  Hen.  Diet.— Moreri.— Niceron,  vol.  I.  and  X.— Saxii  Onoma^t.—  Hutton'* 

II  A  M  E  L.  87 

English.  Du.  Hamel  wrote  also  on  the  cultivation  and  pre- 
paration of  Madder,  in  1757,  4to. 

A  more  splendid  and  extensive  work  of  our  author  was 
published  in  1755,  making  2  vols.  4to,  entitled  "  Trait6 
des  Arbres  et  Arbustes  qui  se  cultiventen  France  en  pleine 
terre."  Having  been  made  inspector  of  the  marine,  he 
undertook  to  investigate  all  that  concerned  the  cultivation 
and  preservation  of  timber,  and  in  this  work  extended  his 
views  to  the  treatment  and  botanical  discrimination  of  all 
trees  and  shrubs  capable  of  bearing  the  climate  of  France. 
Hence  a  number  of  American  species  became  first  known 
to  his  countrymen,  and  even  to  other  nations  by  his  means. 
Haller  reckons  that  this  work  treats  of  a  thousand  species 
and  varieties.  They  are  arranged  alphabetically,  according 
to  their  Latin  generic  names,  and  he  took  for  the  basis  of 
the  work  the  nomenclature  of  Tournefort.  It  is  to  be  regret- 
ted  that  he  did  not  regularly  adopt  the  Linnaean  nomencla- 
ture as  to  species,  which  had  appeared  two  years  before  in 
the  '*  Species  Plautarum,"  a  work  he  occasionally  cites  ;  but 
he  was  not  enough  of  a  practical  botanist  to  feel  its  tran- 
scendant  utility.  His  most  eminent  and  important  work, 
the  "  Physique  des  Arbres,"  came  out  in  1758,  in  2  vols. 
4to,  with  numerous  copper-plates ;  and  on  this  his  merit 
as  a  physiologist  securely  rests.  In  it  he  has  collected  and 
revised  all  that  had  been  done  before  him,  especially  by 
Malpighi,  Grew,  Hales,  and  Bonnet,  as  well  as  his  own 
preceding  experiments  and  remarks.  The  great  merit  of 
this  work  consists  in  its  details  respecting  the  structure  and 
anatomy  of  plants,  and  the  physiology  of  their  different 

In  1760  he  published  another  valuable  practical  volume 
in  4to,  with  plates,  entitled  "  Des  Semis  et  Plantations 
des  Arbres,  et  de  leur  Culture."  This  had  an  especial 
view  to  the  great  national  object  of  improving  the  forests 
of  the  kingdom,  highly  important  in  a  country  where  so 
much  wood  is  continually  used  for  fuel,  and  so  little,  in 
proportion  to  some  other  countries,  naturally  produced. 
The  author  laudably  takes  advantage  of  the  panic  with 
which  his  countrymen  are  every  now  and  then  seized,  of 
a  scarcity  of  fuel,  to  excite  their  attention  to  the  means  he 
would  recommend  for  the  prevention  of  so  dreadful  an 
evil,  and  his  book  is  a  mine  of  practical  information  for 
the  woodman,  the  planter,  and  the  gardener,  of  the  first 
authority  and  value.  The  same  subject  is  followed  up  in 

S3  HA  M  E  L. 

2  vols.  4to,  published  in  1764,  under  the  title  of  "  De 
1'exploitation  des  Bois,  ou  moyen  de  tirer  parti  des  taillis 
demi  futayes  et  hautes  futayes ;"  and  in  1767  appeared 
another  4to  volume,  "  Du  transport,  de  la  conservation, 
et  de  la  force  du  Bois,"  full  of  practical  information  re- 
lative to  the  properties,  qualities,  and  uses  of  different 
woods,  intermixed  with  physiological  remarks,  as  in  the 
preceding  performances  of  this  excellent  writer,  who  pub- 
lished also  in  1764,  upon  the  art  of  refining  sugar,  in  folio, 
and  in  1765,  on  the  preservation  of  grain,  in  12mo.  His 
most  splendid  work  was  printed  at  Paris  in  1768,  in  2  vols. 
4to,  with  fine  coloured  plates.  Its  title  is  "  Traite  des 
Arbres  fruitiers."  In  this  the  varieties  of  fruit-trees  are  ele- 
gantly distinguished  by  figures  and  descriptions,  and  their 
treatment  illustrated  with  the  usual  science  of  the  author. 

Du  Hamel  was  associated  to  the  chief  learned  societies 
of  Europe,  lived  in  high  respect  and  esteem,  and  died  at 
Paris  in  1782,  when  he  was  dean  of  the  academy  of  sciences. 
Besides  the  above  works,  he  wrote  on  the  management  of 
rope-yards  and  fisheries,  and  on  naval  architecture.1 

HAMELMANNE  (HERMAN),  a  learned  Lutheran  di- 
vine, was  born  at  Osnabrug,  in  1525,  and  began  to  pub- 
lish his  opinions  at  Camen ;  but  being  driven  from  thence, 
was  received  by  the  canons  at  Bilefeldt,~  and  taught  the 
youth  there  according  to  Luther's  catechism.  His  enemies 
having  obliged  him  to  retire  to  Rostock,  he  took  a  doctor 
of  divinity's  degree,  and  attended  the  conference  at  Ant- 
werp in  1567,  by  desire  of  the  prince  of  Orange.  He  was 
appointed  superintendant  of  the  churches  in  the  duchy  of 
Brunswick,  that  they  might  be  regulated  according  to  the 
confession  of  Augsburg  ;  and  at  last,  superintendant-ge- 
neral  of  the  county  of  Oldenburg,  1593;  where  he  died 
June  27,  15L»5.  His  principal  works  are,  4*  Commentaria 
in  Pentateuchum,"  Dilingae,  1563,  fol. ;  «  Cbronicum 
Dldenburgicum,".&c.  and  "Opera  Genealogico-Historica 
de  M -estphalia  et  Saxonia  inferiori,"  1711,  4to,  new  edit.* 

HAMILTON  (ANTONY  COUNT),  of  whom  some  notice 

has  been  taken  in  our  account  of  GRAMMONT,  was  of  an 

ancient  Scotch  family,  but  born  in   Ireland,  whence  with 

his  family  he  passed  over  to  France,  as  followers  of  the 

Charles  the  Second.     At  the  Restoration  he  agaia 



returned  to  England,  but  was  a  second  time  compelled  to 
leave  this  country  at  the  revolution.  He  was  an  elegant 
and  accomplished  character,  and  was  for  many  years  the 
delight  and  ornament  of  the  most  splendid  circles  of  so- 
ciety, by  his  wit,  his  taste,  and  above  all,  his  writings. 
His  works  have  been  often  published,  particularly  in  6 
vols.  12mo,  1749,  and  in  3  vols.  8vo,  1805,  and  consist  of 
pieces  of  poetry,  fairy-tales,  and  "  Memoirs  of  the  Count 
de  Grammont,"  all  of  which  are  excellent  in  their  kind. 
The  Fairy  Tales  were  intended  as  a  refined  piece  of  ridi- 
cule on  the  passion  for  the  marvellous,  which  made  the 
Arabian  Nights  Entertainments  so  eagerly  read  at  their 
first  appearance.  The  "  Memoirs  of  Grammont"  will 
always  excite  curiosity,  as  giving  a  striking  and  too  faith- 
ful detail  of  the  dissolute  manners  of  Charles  II. 's  court. 
Count  Hamilton  died  at  St.  Germain's,  in  1720,  aged  se- 
venty-four. l 

HAMILTON  (GAVIN),  an  excellent  painter,  descended 
from  the  ancient  family  of  the  Hamiltons  of  Murdieston, 
originally  of  Fife,  but  now  of  Lanarkshire,  in  Scotland, 
was  born  at  Lanark,  and  having  discovered  from  his  in- 
fancy a  great  predilection  for  historic  painting,  went  young 
to  Rome,  where  he  became  the  scholar  of  Augustine  Mas- 
suchi.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  occasional  visits  to 
Britain,  he  resided  the  whole  of  his  life  at  Rome,  where 
he  died  in  1797.  He  had  not  perhaps  the  genius  of  an 
inventor;  but  the  advantages  of  liberal  education,  and  of 
a  classic  taste  in  the  choice  of  his  subjects,  and  the  style 
at  which  he  always,  and  often  successfully,  aimed,  made 
him  at  least  equal  to  his  most  celebrated  contemporaries. 
Some  of  the  subjects  which  he  painted  from  the  Iliad  bear 
ample  evidence  of  this.  Achilles  grasping  the  body  of 
Patroclus,  and  rejecting  the  consolation  of  the  Grecian 
chiefs,  and  Hector  tied  to  his  chariot,  have  something  of 
Homeric  sublimity  and  pathos  ;  the  moment  chosen  is  the 
crisis  of  the  fact,  and  the  test  of  the  hero's  character. 
But  in  this  last  he  is  not  always  happy,  as  in  Achilles  dis- 
missing Briseis,  where  the  gesticulation  of  an  actor  sup- 
plants the  expression  of  the  man.  Of  his  women  the  Bri- 
seis in  the  same  subject  is  the  most  attractive.  Neither 
his  Andromache  mourning  over  Hector,  nor  the  Helen  in 
the  same,  or  the  scene  with  Paris,  reach  our  ideas  of  the 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist, 


former's  dignity  and  anguish,  or  the  form  and  graces  of 
the  latter.  Indeed,  what  idea  can  be  supposed  to  reach 
that  beauty,  which,  in  the  confession  of  age  itself,  de- 
served the  ten  years'  struggle  of  two  nations  ?  And  yet,  in 
the  subject  of  Paris,  those  graces  and  that  form  are  to  be 
subordinate  to  the  superior  ones  of  Venus.  He  would 
rank  with  the  first  names  in  art,  who  from  such  a  combi- 
nation should  escape  without  having  provoked  the  indig- 
nation, contempt,  or  pity  of  disappointed  expectation. 

Though  he  was  familiar  with  the  antique,  the  forms  of 
Hamilton  have  neither  its  correctness  nor  characteristic 
purity  ;  something  of  the  modern  eclectic  principle  prevails 
in  his  works,  and  his  composition  is  not  seldom  as  much 
beholden  to  common-place  ornamental  conceits  and  ha- 
bits, as  to  propriety.  Though  solicitous  about  colour,  he 
was  no  colourist ;  he  should  have  disdained  what  the  gran- 
deur of  his  subjects  rejected,  and  contented  himself  with 
negative  hues,  and  grave  and  simple  tones,  instead  of  the 
clammy  greys,  harsh  blues,  and  sordid  reds,  the  refuse  of 
the  Roman  and  Bolognese  schools,  that  cut  his  breadth 
and  dim  his  chiaroscuro. 

A  considerable  part  of  the  latter  periods  of  this  artist's 
life  was  dedicated  to  the  discovery  of  antique  monuments. 
He  opened  scavos  in  various  places  of  ttye  Roman  state,  at 
Centumcellue,  Velletri,  Ostia*  and  above  all  at  Tivoli, 
among  the  ruins  of  Adrian's  Villa  ;  and  it  must  be  owned 
that  the  success  which  attended  most  of  his  researches  made 
amply  up  to  art  in  general  for  the  loss  which  painting  per- 
haps may  have  suffered  by  the  intermission  of  his  practice 
and  example.  In  the  collection  of  the  Museo  Clementino, 
next  to  the  treasures  of  Belvedere,  the  contributions  of 
Hamilton  in  statues,  busts,  and  basso  relievos,  were  by  far 
the  most  important  to  the  progress  of  art  and  classic  learn- 
ing ;  and  the  best  collections  scattered  over  Russia,  Ger- 
many, and  this  country,  owe  many  of  their  principal  or- 
naments to  his  discoveries.  Nor  was  he  less  attentive  to 
modern  art;  he  published  his  "  Schola  Italica  Picture" 
to  trace  the  progress  of  its  styles  from  Lionardo  da  Vinci 
to  the  successors  of  the  Caracci.  It  yet  remains  to  be  said 
Hamilton,  that  however  eminent  his  talents  or  other 
.qualities  were,  they  were  excelled  by  the  liberality,  bene- 
volence, and  humanity  of  his  character.1 

to  Lor^OrTord  ^  ^  XVI— Pilk'»Ston,  by  Fuseli.—Edwards's  Supplement 


HAMILTON  (GEORGE),  earl  of  Orkney,  a  brave  offi- 
cer, was  the  fifth  son  of  William  earl  of  Selkirk,  and  very 
early  embraced  the  profession  of  arms.     In  March  1689-90 
he  was  made  a  colonel,    and   distinguished  himself  with 
particular  bravery  at  the  battle  of  the  Boyne,  under  king 
William,  July  1,    1690;    and  those  of  Aghrim,    July   12, 
1691;  of  Steinkirk,  Aug.   3,    1692,  and  of  Lauden,  July 
19,   1693.     Nor  did  he  appear  to  less  advantage  at  the 
sieges  of  Athlone,   Limerick,  and  Namur.     His   eminent 
services    in    Ireland    and    Flanders    through    the    whole 
course   of  the   war,    recommended  him   so  highly  to  the 
favour  of  William  III.  that  on  Jan.   10,   1695-6,  he  was 
advanced  to  the  dignity  of  a  peer  of  Scotland,  by  the  title 
of  earl  of  Orkney.     His  lady,  likewise,  whom  he  married 
in  1695,  and  who  was  the  daughter  of  sir  Edward  Villiers, 
knight-marshal,  and  a  special  favourite  with  the  king,  re- 
ceived a  grant  under  the  great  seal  of  Ireland,  of  almost  all 
the  private  estates  of  the  abdicated  king  James,  of  very 
considerable  value.     Upon  the  accession   of  queen  Anne, 
the  earl  of  Orkney  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major- 
general  March  9,    1701-2,  to  that  of  lieutenant-general 
Jan.  1,  1703-4,  and  in  February  following  was  made  knight 
of  the  thistle.     In  1 704  his  lordship  was  at  the  battle  of 
Blenheim,  which  was  crowned  with  so  important  a  victory 
in  favour  of  the  allies  ;  and  he  made  prisoners  of  war  a 
body  of  1300  French  officers  and  12,000  common  soldiers, 
who  had  been  posted  in  the  village  of  Blenheim.     In  July 
1705,  he  was  detached  with  1200  men  to  march  before  the 
main  body  of  the  army,  and   to  observe  the  march  of  a 
great   detachment   of  the   enemy,   which  marshal  Villars 
had  sent  off  to  the  Netherlands,  as  soon  as  he  found  the 
march  of  the  allies  was  directed  thither  ;  and  his  lordship 
used  such  expedition,  that  he  seasonably  reinforced  the 
Dutch,  and  prevented  marshal  Villeroy-'s  taking  the  citadel 
of  Liege,  about  which  his  troops  were  then  formed.     The 
next  month  his  lordship  marched  with  fourteen  battalions- 
of  foot,  and  twenty-four  squadrons  of  horse,  to  support 
the  passage  over  the  Dyle,  which  was  immediately  effected. 
In  July  1706,  he  assisted  at  the  siege  of  Menin  ;  and  on 
Feb.  12,  1706-7,  was  elected  one  of  the  sixteen  peers  for 
Scotland,  to  sit  in  the  first  parliament  of  Great  Britain 
after  the  union.     The  same  year  he  again  served  under  the 
duke  of  Marlborough  in  Flanders;  being  in  the  latter  end 
of  May  detached  with  seven  battalions  of  foot  from  Mel- 

92  HA  M  I  L  T  0  N. 

dart  to  the  pass  of  Louvain,  in  order  to  preserve  the  com- 
munication with  it,  and  on  that  side  of  Flanders;   which 
his  lordship  did,  and  abode  there   during  the  time  of  the 
allied  army's  encamping  at  Meldart.    When  they  decamped 
on  Aug.  1,  to  Nivelle,  within  two  leagues  of  the  French 
army,  and  a  battle  was  expected,  the  earl,  with  twelve  bat- 
talions of  foot,  and  thirty  squadrons  of  horse  and  dragoons, 
and  all  the  grenadiers  of  the  army,  advanced  a  little  out 
of  the  front  of  it,  and  lay  all  night  within  cannon-shot  of 
the  enemy ;  and  the  next  morning  charged  their  rear  in 
their  retreat  for  above  a  league  and  a  half,  and  killed,  dis- 
abled, and  caused  to  desert,  above  4000  of  them.     In  the 
beginning  of  September  following  his  lordship  was  again 
detached  with  another  considerable  body  of  troops  to  Tur- 
quony,  under  a  pretence  of  foraging  by  the  Scheld,  but 
really  with  the  design  of  drawing  the  enemy  thither  from 
Tournay  to  battle,  and  getting  between  them  and  the  city. 
In  November  1708,  the  earl  commanded   the  van  of  the 
army  at  the  passing  of  the  Scheld  ;  and  in  June  the  year 
following,  assisted  at  the  siege  of  Tournay,  and  took   St. 
Amand  and  St.  Martin's  Sconce;  and  on  Aug.  20,  was  de- 
tached from  the  camp  at  Orchies  towards  St.  Guilliampass, 
on  the  river  Heine,  towards  the  northward  of  MOMS,  in 
order  to  attack  and  take  it,  for  the  better   passage  of  the 
army  to  Mons ;  and  on  the  30th  of  that  month,  was  pre- 
sent at  the  battle  of  Malplaquet.     In  1710  he  was  sworn 
of  the  privy-council;  and  made  general  of  foot  in  Flanders, 
and  in  1712  colonel  of  the  royal  regiment  of  foot-guards 
called   the   fuzileers,   and   served  in  Flanders   under  the 
duke  of  Ormond.     In  October,  1714,   his  lordship  was  ap- 
pointed gentleman  extraordinary  of  the  bed-chamber  to 
king  George   I.  and  on   Dec.   17  following,    governor  of 
Virginia.     He  was  likewise  afterwards  constable,  governor 
and  captain  of  Edinburgh  castle,    lord-lieutenant  of  the 
county    of  Clydesdale,    and  field-marshal.     He    died    in 
London,  at  his  house  in  Albemarle-street,  Jan,  29,  1736-7. 1 
HAMILTON  (HUGH),  bishop  of  Ossory,  and  an  emi- 
nent mathematician,  was  born  in  the  county  of  Dublin, 
March  26,  1729.     He  entered  of  Trinity-college,  Dublin, 
Dublin,   Nov.  17,  1742,  and  in  1751  was  elected  a  fellow 
that  college.     In  1758  he  published  his  treatise  on  conic 
ions,  <    De  Sectionibus  Conicis,"    and  in   1759    was 

1  Birch's  Lives. — Scotch  Peerage. 


elected  Erasmus  Smith's  professor  of  natural  philosophy. 
In  1764  he  resigned  his  fellowship,  having  accepted  a  col- 
lege living  ;  and  in  1767  obtained  the  living  of  St.  Anne's, 
Dublin,  which  in  the  following  year  he  resigned  at  the 
proposal  of  the  primate  Robinson,  for  the  deanery  of  Ar- 
magh. In  1772  he  married  an  Irish  lady  of  good  family 
of  the  name  of  Wood.  In  1796  he  was  consecrated 'bishop 
of  Clonfert,  having  been  recommended  to  that  dignity 
without  his  solicitation  or  knowledge  ;  and  in  1799  was 
removed  to  the  see  of  Ossory,  where  he  continued  till  his 
death,  Dec.  1,  1805. 

Dr.  Hamilton's  works  have  lately  been  collected  and 
published  by  his  son,  in  1809,  2  vols.  8vo.  The  first  con- 
tains his  treatise  on  conic  sections  already  mentioned  ;  the 
second,  "  An  Essay  on  the  existence  and  attributes  of  the 
Supreme  Being;"  u  An  Essay  on  the  permission  of  Evil;" 
three  philosophical  essays  on  the  ascent  of  vapours,  the 
aurora  borealis,  and  the  principles  of  mechanics  ;  "  Re- 
marks and  hints  on  the  improvement  of  Barometers  ;"  "  On 
the  power  of  fixed  alkaline  salts  to  preserve  flesh  from  pu- 
trefaction ;"  and  "  Four  introductory  Lectures  on  Natural 
Philosophy,'"  written  originally  in  discharge  of  his  duty  as 
professor  of  natural  philosophy  ;  and  received  at  their  first 
publication,  as  the  work  of  an  acute  and  sound  philosopher. 
In  every  office,  whether  ecclesiastical  or  otherwise,  he 
seems  to  have  been  anxious  to  perform  all  the  duties  it 
imposed  with  fidelity  and  care.1 

HAMILTON  (PATRICK),  usually  reckoned  the  first 
Scotch  reformer,  is  said  by  all  the  Scotch  ecclesiastical 
writers  to  have  been  of  royal  descent,  as  by  his  father,  he 
was  nephew  to  James  Hamilton,  earl  of  Arran,  and  by 
his  mother,  nephew  to  John  Stewart,  duke  of  Albany  : 
Mackenzie,  however,  who  cannot  be  suspected  of  any 
wish  to  degrade  his  countryman,  maintains  that  his  fa- 
ther was  only  a  bastard  brother  of  the  earl  of  Arran,  and 
his  mother  a  bastard  sister  of  the  duke  of  Albany.  What- 
ever truth  there  may  be  in  this,  it  appears  that  he  had 
great  family  interest,  and  being  possessed  of  uncommon 
abilities,  was  intended  for  the  higher  offices  in  the  church, 
had  he  not  become  its  decided  enemy.  He  was  born  in 
1503,  and  after  completing  the  usual  course  of  studies  at 
the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  went  to  Germany,  where 

1  Life  prefixed  to  his  Works. 

9*  H  A  M  I  L  T  O  N. 

he  was,  according  to  Dempster,  made  a  professor  in  the 
university  of  Marpurg,  which  was  newly  erected  by  Phi- 
lip, Landgrave  of  Hesse.  During  his  residence  abroad  he 
imbibed  the  opinions  of  Luther,  Melanchthon,  and  other 
reformers  ;  and  on  his  return  to  his  own  country,  where  he 
had  been  made  abbot  of  Ferme,  or  Feme,  in  Ross-shire, 
he  spared  no  pains  in  exposing  what  he  considered  as  the 
corruptions  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  and  the  many  errors, 
both  in  doctrine  and  practice,  that  had  crept  into  the  Chris- 
tian religion. 

In  this  employment  he  was  both  zealous  and  successful^ 
for  he  was  a  young  man  of  great  learning,  of  a  courteous 
disposition,  and  unblameable  in  private  life.  This  alarmed 
the  clergy,  who,  under  pretence  of  conferring  with  him, 
enticed  him  to  St.  Andrew's,  at  that  time  the  principal 
seat  of  the  dignified  clergy,  where  after  repeated  disputa- 
tion, in  which  some  of  the  clergy  appeared  to  lean  to  his 
opinions,  he  was  one  night  suddenly  apprehended  in  his 
bed,  and  carried  prisoner  to  the  castle.  The  next  day  he 
was  presented  before  the  archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's,  James 
Beton,  assisted  by  the  archbishop  of  Glasgow,  the  bishops 
of  Brechin,  Dunkeld,  and  Dumblaine,  with  a  number  of 
abbots,  priors,  and  doctors,  before  whom  he  was  accused  of 
the  following  articles:  1.  That  the  corruption  of  sin  re- 
mains in  children  after  baptism.  2.  That  no  man  by  the 
power  of  his  free-will  can  do  any  thing  that  is  truly  good. 
3.  That  no  man  is  without  sin  altogether,  so  long  as  he 
liveth.  4.  That  every  true  Christian  may  know  himself 
to  be  in  a  state  of  grace.  5.  That  a  man  is  not  justified 
by  works,  but  by  faith  only.  6.  That  good  works  make 
not  a  good  man,  but  that  a  good  man  doeth  good  works, 
as  it  is  the  good  tree  which  bringeth  forth  good  fruit,  not 
the  fruit  that  maketh  the  tree  good.  7.  That  faith,  hope, 
and  charity,  are  so  linked  together,  that  he  who  hath  one 
hath  all,  and  he  who  lacketh  one  lacketh  all.  8,  That 
remission  of  sin  is  not  purchased  by  any  actual  penance. 

9.  That  auricular  confession  is  not  necessary  to  salvation. 

10.  That  there  is  no  purgatory.     H.  That  the  holy  pa- 
triarchs were  in  heaven  before  Christ's  passion.      12.  That 
the  pope  is  Antichrist,  and  that  every  priest  has  as  much 
power  as  the  pope. 

In  his  defence  he  maintained  the  first  seven  of  these  ar- 

:les  to  be  undoubtedly  true,  and  sound  doctrine,  and  as 

such  they  appear  to  have  been  afterwards  adopted  by  Cal- 


vin,  and,  in  substance,  make  part  of  that  system  known  by 
his  name,  and  incorporated  in  the  national  creed  of  Scot- 
land. The  rest  of  the  articles,  Mr.  Hamilton  allowed,  were 
disputable  points,  but  such  as  he  could  not  condemn,  un- 
less he  saw  better  reasons  than  had  been  offered.  They 
were  all  condemned,  however,  as  heretical,  and  on  the 
1st  of  March,  1527,  sentence  was  pronounced  against  him, 
declaring  him  a  heretic,  and  giving  him  over  to  the  se- 
cular power,  to  suffer  the  punishment  due  to  heretics, 
which  was  burning  alive.  On  the  same  day  the  secular 
power  pronounced  its  sentence,  which  was  immediately 
executed  with  every  circumstance  of  savage  barbarity, 
which,  all  historians  agree,  he  bore  with  firmness  and  in- 
vincible constancy  to  the  principles  he  had  professed.  The 
place  of  execution  was  the  gate  of  St.  Salvador's  college. 

A  circumstance  accompanied  his  execution  which  made 
a  deep  impression  on  the  people.     One  friar  Campbell, 
who  had  often  conferred  with  him,  and  appeared  to  be 
convinced  by  his  arguments,  now  molested  him  much  when 
tied   to  the  stake.     Hamilton  exclaimed   "  Wicked  man, 
thou  knowest  that  I  am  not  an  heretic,  and  that  it  is  the 
truth  of  God  for  which  I  suffer.     So  much  thou  didst  con- 
fess to  me  in  private,  and  thereupon  I  appeal  thee  to  an- 
swer before  the  judgment-seat  of  Christ."     This  Campbell 
died  raving  mad  a  short  time  after,  when  the  people  be- 
gan to  compare  his  end  with   that  of  the  martyr's,  and 
upon  inquiring  more  closely  into  the  cause  of  the  latter's 
death,  became  many  of  them  converts  to  his  doctrines. 
One  Lindsay,  an  intimate  friend  of  the  archbishop,  said, 
"  My  lord,  if  ye  burn   any  more,  except  ye  follow  my 
counsel,  ye  will  utterly  destroy  yourselves  ;  if  ye  will  burn 
them,  let  them  be  burned  in  hollow  cellars,  for  the  smoke 
of  Mr.  Patrick  Hamilton  hath  infected  as  many  as  it  blew 
upon."     It  is  certain  that  his  unjust  and  precipitate  exe- 
cution raised  a  general  clamour  against  the  churchmen, 
for  condemning  such  a  man  because  he  maintained  doc- 
trines some  of  which  they  could  not  prove  to  be  heretical, 
and   others    of   them   were  proposed  only   as  theological 
problems  to  be  disputed  among   divines.      He  was  only 
twenty-three  years  of  age  when  he  suffered,  and  his  youth 
and  excellent  character  undoubtedly  weighed  much  with 
the  people. 

A  treatise  of  his,  entitled  "  Patrick's  Places,"  or  "  Com- 
mon Places,"  was  translated  into  English   by  John  Firth, 


and  is  published  in  Fox's  "  Acts  and  Monuments."  It  is 
a  very  ingenious  explanation  and  defence  of  the  doctrines 
of  justification,  free-will,  election,  &c.  and  has  not  in 
closeness  of  reasoning  and  aptness  of  quotation  been  ex- 
ceeded by  any  divines  of  the  Calvinistic  persuasion  in  later 
times.  If  we  consider  his  extreme  youth  and  the  age  in 
which  he  wrote,  it  will  yet  appear  a  more  extraordinary 

HAMILTON  (ROBERT), "a  skilful  physician,  was  born 
at  Edinburgh,  Dec.  6,  1721,  and  educated  at  the  high 
school  there.  He  was  afterwards  apprenticed  to  Mr.  Wil- 
liam Edmonston,  a  surgeon  and  apothecary  at  Leith,  and 
after  continuing  in  that  station  three  years,  studied*  medi- 
cine at  the  university  of  Edinburgh.  In  1741,  he  went  as 
surgeon's  mate  on  board  the  Somerset,  and  for  some  time 
had  the  care  of  the  military  hospital  at  Port  Mahon.  In 
1744,  he  was  appointed  surgeon  to  the  Wolf  sloop  of  war. 
The  four  following  years  were  divided  between  his  occu- 
pations at  sea,  and  his  attendance  upon  the  lectures  of 
Drs.  Hunter  and  Smellie  in  London.  In  1748,  he  went 
to  Lynn  in  Norfolk,  invited  thither  by  his  brother,  a  mer- 
chant in  that  town.  He  afterwards  accepted  an  offer  of 
settling  at  Lynn ;  and  in  1766,  having  received  the  degree 
of  M.  D.  from  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  he  succeeded 
to  the  practice  of  Dr.  Lidderdale,  who  died  about  that  time. 
In  this  situation  he  continued  to  the  time  of  his  death, 
which  happened  Nov.  9,  1793.  As  he  was  of  an  inquisi- 
tive and  industrious  turn  of  mind,  the  time  that  could  be 
spared  from  his  practice  he  employed  in  endeavouring  to 
make  improvements  in  his  profession,  and  of  his  success 
several  valuable  monuments  remain.  He  was  a  frequent, 
correspondent  of  the  royal  societies  of  London  and  Edin- 
burgh. In  1791,  he  published  a  "  Treatise  on  the  Scro- 
fula," which  has  been  well  received.  He  invented  a  ma- 
chine for  reducing  dislocated  shoulders,  and  an  apparatus 
for  keepiug  the  ends  of  fractured  bones  together,  to  pre- 
vent lameness  and  deformity  from  those  accidents.  In 
801,  was  published  a  posthumous  work,  entitled  "  Ob- 
servations on  the  marsh  remittent  fever  ;  also  on  the  water 
canker,  or  cancer  aquaticus  of  Van  Swieten,  with  some  re- 
marks on  the  leprosy,"  8vo.  Prefixed  to  this  volume  is  an 

»  Keith's,  Spottiswood's,  and  Knox's  Histories.— Cook's  Hist,  of  the  Reforma- 
tion.—Mackenzie's  Scots  Writers.— Fox,  &c. 


account  of  the  author,  from  which  we  have  extracted  the 
preceding  sketch.1 

HAMILTON  (WILLIAM),  of  Bangour,  an  ingenious 
poet,  was  the  son  of  a  man  of  fortune  and  family  in  Airshire, 
where  he  was  born  in  1704.  He  received  a  liberal  educa- 
tion, to  which  he  joined  the  accomplishments  of  the  man 
of  the  world,  and  amidst  the  lighter  dissipations  of  society, 
cultivated  a  taste  for  poetry,  of  which  he  exhibited  fre- 
quent specimens  for  the  amusement  of  his  friends.  In 
1745  he  joined  the  unfortunate  cause  of  the  Pretender, 
and  conceived  great  hopes  from  the  temporary  success  of 
the  rebels  at  Preston-pans  ;  but  after  the  battle  of  Culloden, 
which  terminated  the  struggle,  was  obliged  to  provide  for 
his  safety  in  flight,  and  after  many  narrow  escapes,  reached 
the  continent,  where  he  remained  until  he  received  a  par- 
don, and  was  enabled  to  visit  his  native  land.  To  recruit 
his  health,  however,  he  was  obliged  to  return  to  the  more 
genial  climate  of  France,  where  he  died  in  1754. 

Among  the  revivers  of  his  fame,  professor  Richardson, 
and  lord  Woodhouslee,  are  entitled  to  the  highest  respect. 
The  latter,  in  his  elaborate  life  of  lord  Kames,  says,  "With 
the  elegant  and  accomplished  William  Hamilton  of  Ban- 
gour, whose  amiable  manners  were  long  remembered  with 
the  tenderest  recollection  by  all  who  knew  him,  Mr.  Home 
(lord  Kames)  lived  in  the  closest  habits  of  friendship.  The 
writer  of  these  memoirs  has  heard  him  dwell  with  delight 
on  the  scenes  of  their  youthful  days  ;  and  he  has  to  regret, 
that  many  an  anecdote  to  which  he  listened  with  pleasure, 
was  not  committed  to  a  better  record  than  a  treacherous 
memory.  Hamilton's  mind  is  pictured  in  his  verses.  They 
are  the  easy  and  careless  effusions  of  an  elegant,  fancy  and 
a  chastened  taste  ;  and  the  sentiments  they  convey  are  the 
genuine  feelings  of  a  tender  and  susceptible  heart,  which 
perpetually  owned  the  dominion  of  some  favourite  mistress  ; 
but  whose  passion  generally  evaporated  in  song,  and  made 
no  serious  or  permanent  impression.  His  poems  had  an 
additional  charm  to  his  contemporaries,  from  being  com- 
monly addressed  to  his  familiar  friends  of  either  sex,  by 

It  appears  from  Hamilton's  letters,  that  he  communi- 
cated his  poems  to  his  friends  for  their  critical  remarks,  and 
was  easily  induced  to  alter  or  amend  them  by  their  advice. 

*  Life  a?  above. 



He  had  sent  the  piece  entitled  "  Contemplation*"  one  of 
the  most  laboured  of  his  productions,  to  Mr.  Home,  who 
suggested  some  alterations.  In  a  letter  from  Hamilton,  in 
July  1739,  he  says,  "  I  have  made  the  corrections  on  the 
moral  part  of  Contemplation,  and  in  a  post  will  send  it  to 
Will.  Crawford,  who  has  the  rest,  and  will  transmit  it  to 
you.  I  shall  write  to  him  fully  on  the  subject."  It  is 
pleasing  ^to  remark,  that  the  Will.  Crawford  here  men- 
tioned, was  the  author  of  the  beautiful  pastoral  ballad  of 
Tweed-side,  which,  with  the  aid  of  its  charming  melody, 
will  probably  live  as  long  as  the  language  is  understood. 
Hamilton  may  be  reckoned  among  the  earliest  of  the  Scotch 
poets  who  wrote  English  verse  with  propriety  and  taste, 
and  with  any  considerable  portion  of  the  poetic  spirit. 
Thomson,  Mallet,  and  he,  were  contemporaries. — "  The 
poems  of  Hamilton,"  says  professor  Richardson,  "  display 
regular  design,  just  sentiments,  fanciful  invention,  pleas- 
ing sensibility,  elegant  diction,  and  smooth  versification, 
His  genius  was  aided  by  taste,  and  his  taste  was  improved 
by  knowledge.  He  was  not  only  well  acquainted  with  the 
most  elegant  modern  writers,  but  with  those  of  antiquity. 
Of  these  remarks,  his  poem  entitled  c  Contemplation,  or 
the  Triumph  of  Love,'  affords  sufficient  illustration." 

Some  of  Hamilton's  poems  were  first  published  at  Glas- 
gow in  1748,  and  afterwards  reprinted,  not  only  without 
the  author's  name,  but  without  his  consent,  and  even  with- 
out his  knowledge.  He  corrected,  however,  many  errors 
of  that  copy,  and  enlarged  some  of  the  poems,  though  he 
did  not  live  to  make  a  new  and  complete  publication.  The 
improvements  he  made  were  carefully  inserted  in  the  edi- 
tion published  at  Edinburgh  in  1760,  with  the  addition  of 
many  pieces  taken  from  his  original  manuscripts.  Since 
that  time,  although  they  have  been  inserted  in  the  new 
edition  of  the  English  Poets,  there  has  been  no  demand 
for  a  separate  edition.  It  would  be  of  importance,  but  it 
is  seldom  easy,  to  account  for  the  various  fates  of  poets. 
Hamilton,  if  not  of  the  first  class,  and  in  whom  we  find  only 
those  secondary  qualities  which  professor  Richardson  has 
so  ably  pointed  out  in  the  "  Lounger,"  surely  excels  some 
whose  works  are  better  known  and  more  current.  The 
neglect  which  he  has  experienced  naay  be  partly  attributed 
to  his  political  principles,  and  partly  to  the  local  interest 
which  his  effusions  excited,  and  to  which  they  were  long 
confined.  Verses  of  compliment  and  personal  addresses 


tnust  have  extraordinary  merit,  if  they  attract  the  notice  of 
distant  strangers.  Prejudice,  however,  is  now  at  an  end, 
ami  the  friends  of  Scottish  genius,  who  have  lately  called 
the  attention  of  the  puhlic  to  this  writer,  have  proved  that 
he  deserves  a  higher  rank  than  has  yet  been  assigned  to 
him.  He  is  perhaps  very  unequal,  and  the  blemishes  in 
his  verse  and  diction  to  which  professor  Richardson  has 
alluded  are  frequent,  yet  it  is  no  inconsiderable  merit  to 
have  been  one  of  the  first  of  his  countrymen  who  culti- 
vated the  purity  and  harmony  of  the  English  language, 
and  exhibited  a  variety  of  composition  and  fertility  of  sen- 
timent that  are  rarely  to  be  found  in  the  writings  of  those 
whose  poetical  genius  is  of  the  second  degree.1 

HAMILTON  (WILLIAM  GERARD),  a  statesman  of  some 
note,  was  the  only  son  of  William  Hamilton,  esq.  an  advo- 
cate of  the  court  of  session  in  Scotland,  who  after  the  union 
came  to  London,  and  was  admitted  to  the  English  bar. 
His  son  was  born  in  Lincoln's-inn  Jan.  28,  1728-9,  and 
was  educated  at  Winchester  school,  and  at  Oriel  college, 
Oxford,  where  he  was  admitted  a  gentleman  commoner, 
March  1,  1744-5.  During  his  residence  at  Oxford,  it  is 
supposed  he  wrote  those  poems  which  were  printed  in 
1750,  4to>  for  private  distribution  only,  but  have  lately 
been  published  by  Mr.  Malone.  On  leaving  Oxford,  he 
became  a  member  of  Lincoln's-inn,  with  a  view  to  study 
the  law  ;  but  on  his  father's  death  in  1754,  he  betook  hifn- 
self  to  a  political  life,  and  in  the  same  year  was  chosen, 
member  of  parliament  for  Petersfield  in  Hampshire.  Hi$ 
first  effort  at  parliamentary  eloquence  was  made  Nov.  1 3, 
1755,  when,  to  use  the  words  of  Waller  respecting  Den- 
ham,  "  he  broke  out,  like  the  Irish  rebellion,  threescore 
thousand  strong-,  when  nobody  was  aware,  or  in  the  least 
suspected  it."  Certainly  no  first  speech  in  parliament 
ever  produced  such  an  effect,  or  acquired  such  eulogies, 
both  within  and  without  the  house  of  commons.  Of  this 
speech,  however,  no  copy  remains.  For  many  years  it  was 
supposed  to  have  been  his  only  attempt,  and  hence  the 
familiar  name  of  Single -speech  was  fixed  upon  him  ;  but  he 
spoke  a  second  time,  Feb.  1756,  and  such  was  the  admira- 
tion which  followed  this  display  of  his  talents,  that  Mr, 
P\>jc,  then  one  of  the  principal  secretaries  of  state,  pro- 
cured him  to  be  appointed,  in  April  of  the  same  year,  one 

1  Johnson  and    Chalmers's   English   Poet?. — Lor4   Woodhouslee's   Lif«   «f 
Kaaics. — The  Louoger. 

H    2 


of  the  lords  of  trade.     At  this  board  he  sat  five  years  with- 
out ever  exerting  his  oratorical  talents;  and   in  1761  ac- 
cepted the  office  of  principal  secretary  to  George  earl  of 
Halifax,  then  appointed  lord-lieutenant  of  Ireland.     In  the 
Irish  parliament,  as  he  filled  an  office  of  responsibility,  it 
was  necessary  for  him  to  support  the  measures  of  adminis- 
tration ;  and  accordingly  in  1761   and  1762,  he  made  five 
speeches  on  various  occasions,  which  fully   gratified   the 
expectations  of  his  auditors.     Mr.  Hamilton  continued  se- 
cretary to  the  succeeding  lord  lieutenant,   Hugh  earl  of 
Northumberland,  in  1763,  but  it  is  believed  his  exertions 
in  that  session  were  less  splendid  and  less  frequent;  and 
before  it  concluded,  on  some  disgust  he  resigned  his  office. 
On  his  return  to  England,  and  for  a  long  time  after- 
wards, he  meditated  taking  an  active  part  in  the  political 
warfare  of  the  house  of  commons,  but  he  never  again  ad- 
dressed the  chair,  though  he  was   chosen   into  every  new 
parliament  that  was  summoned  from  that  time  till  May  1796, 
a  little  before  his  death.     In  this  period,  the  only  office  hg 
filled  was  that  of  chancellor  of  the  exchequer  in    Ireland, 
which  he  held  from  Sept.  1763   to  April  1784.     During 
this  interval  he  was  one  of  those  on  whom  common  rumour 
bestowed  the  authorship  of  Junius's  letters,  and  perhaps 
never  was  any  rumour  so  completely  devoid  of  a  probable 
foundation.     He  died  at  his  house  in  Upper  Brook-street, 
July  16,  1796,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  vault  of  the 
church  of  St.  Martin  in  the  Fields.     In  1803,  Mr.  Malona 
published  his  works  under  the  title  of  "  Parliamentary 
Logic  ;  to  which  are  subjoined  two  Speeches  delivered  in 
the  House  of  Commons  in  Ireland,  and  other  pieces,*'  8vof 
with  a  life  of  the  author  prefixed.     These  speeches  give 
us  but  a  faint  idea  of  the  splendid  abilities  which  once  so 
enraptured  his  hearers,  nor  does  his  poetry  entitle  him  to 
rank  above  the  elegant  versifiers  of  his  time.     His  ««  Par^ 
liamentary  Logic"  is  a  performance  of  a  more  singular  cast. 
It  consists  of  a  string  of  maxims,  or  rules,  for  managing  a 
debate  in  parliament,  in  which  the  author  appears  serious, 
else  we  should  have  supposed  «  parliamentary  logic"  to 
imply  a  ridicule  on  the  language  of  that  house.     These 
maxims,  however,  seem  admirably  qualified  to  make  a  par- 
tizan;  although  we  much  doubt  whether  they  have  a  ten- 
dency to  make  that  more  valuable  character,  an  honest  man.1 

th6  ab°Ve  *°*—  Bosw.ll'g  Life  of  Johnson.- 
.—  Lord  Orford'»  Works,  vol.  V.  pp.  42,  47. 


HAMILTON  (Sir  WILLIAM),  a  gentleman  of  great  emi- 
nence in  the  literary  and  political  world,  was  born  in  Scot- 
land in  1730.  He  was  of  a  branch  of  the  family  of  Hamil- 
ton, which  was  considerably  reduced  in  circumstances  at 
the  time  of  his  birth  ;  he  himself  having  repeatedly  de- 
clared to  his  friends  in  Naples,  that  "  he  was  condemned 
to  make  his  way  in  the  world  with  an  illustrious  name  and 
a  thousand  pounds."  He  was  not,  however,  doomed  to 
spend  many  years  of  his  youth  in  such  narrow  circum- 
stances ;  as  in  1755  he  married  a  young  lady  of  amiable 
character,  with  whom  he  received  a  fortune  of  5000/.  a 
year.  The  active  and  important  part  of  his  life  began 
from  the  moment  in  which  he  entered  the  diplomatic  line ; 
and  we  may  consider  it  as  a  circumstance  peculiarly  for- 
tunate for  the  literary  world,  that  he  was  destined  to  re- 
main nearly  the  rest  of  his  life  in  a  country  truly  classical, 
in  regard  to  the  fine  arts  and  natural  history ;  pursuits  for 
which  he  had  early  evinced  the  greatest  predilection. 

Mr.  Hamilton  was  appointed  ambassador  to  the  court  of 
Naples  in  1764;  and  from  that  time  to  1800,  in  which  he 
was  recalled,  it  may  be  said,  with  the  strictest  justice,  that 
he  did  much  more  for  the  advancementof  the  fine  arts,  natural 
history,  and  antiquities,  than  any  individual  or  corporation 
in  that  metropolis  ;  perhaps,  or  even  the  government  it- 
self. In  Naples  the  state  of  those  branches  of  knowledge, 
which  constituted  Mr.  Hamilton's  pursuits,  was  at  this  time 
very  low,  and  as  far  as  early  and  intense  application  may 
be  considered  proofs  of  a  predominant  passion,  it  appears 
that  the  objects  of  natural  history  chiefly  engaged  his  at- 
tention. In  a  short  period  from  his  arrival,  he  had  already 
collected  a  vast  number  of  articles  connected  with  this 
science,  and  had  thus  formed  a  valuable  cabinet,  of  which, 
according  to  the  expression  of  one  of  his  friends,  "  he 
could  be  himself  the  ablest  demonstrator."  Between  1764, 
and  the  middle  of  1767,  he  visited  Vesuvius  no  less  than 
twenty-two  times,  and  had  as  often  observed  the  different 
spots  around  Naples  affected  by  volcanic  eruptions;  and 
it  was  universally  remarked  by  those  who  had  the  pleasure, 
to  accompany  him  in  these  excursions,  that  he  was  the* 
best  and  most  instructive  "  Cicerone1*  that  could  possibly' 
be  found  for  such  occasions.  He  also  visited  Mount  Etua,; 
and  the  Eolian  islands,  places  which  had  not  been  exa- 
mined with  such  attention  before.  The  phenomena  which 
their  surface  presented  to  his  view  did  not  satisfy  his  cu- 


riosity  :  he  observed  the  interior  parts  of  the  soil,  and  every 
minute  circumstance  that  attended  the  operations  of  na- 
ture :  not  one  of  the  different  substances  which  had  ever 
issued  from  these  volcanoes  was  left  unnoticed.  In  all  his 
excursions  he  was  constantly  accompanied  by  an  artist  of 
great  merit,  Mr.  Fabris,  who  drew  plans  and  delineated 
such  objects  as  were  most  interesting  and  striking. 

These  observations,  though  since  reduced  to  systematic, 
works,  were  first  communicated  in  partial  letters  to  the 
royal  society,  from  1766  to  1779;  in  whose  Transactions 
for  the  above  years,  and  also  in  the  Annual  Register,  these 
letters  are  preserved ;  the  perusal  of  which  will  amply 
gratify  those  who  are  fond  of  curious  incidents,  and  per- 
sonal anecdotes  relating  to  the  subject  of  this  memoir, 
The  works  themselves  were  two  :  viz.  "  Observations  on 
Mount  Vesuvius,  Mount  Etna,  and  other  Volcanoes  of  the 
Two  Sicilies,"  which  appeared  in  1772,  London,  8vo,  and 
the  "  Campi  PhJegraei,"  published  at  Naples  in  1776,  in 
2  vols  folio.  In  the  former  his  chief  position  was,  "that 
volcanoes  lie  dormant  for  several  years,  nay  even  for  cen- 
turies." "  When  1  arrived,"  says  he,  "  at  Naples,  Vesu- 
vius was  quiet,  very  seldom  was  smoke  visible  on  its  top  ;  in 
the  year  1766,  it  seemed  to  take  fire,  and  has  never  since  been, 
three  months  without  either  throwing  up  red  hot  stones,  or 
disgorging  streams  of  lava ;  nor  has  its  crater  been  ever 
free  from  smoke.  At  Naples,  when  a  lava  appears,  and 
not  till  then,  it  is  styled  an  eruption;  whereas  I  look  upon 
the  five  nominal  eruptions  I  have  been  witness  to,  from 
March  1766  to  May  1771,  as  in  effect  but  one  continued 
eruption. — It  is  certain,  that  by  constant  attention  to  the 
smoke  that  issues  from  the  crater,  a  very  good  guess  may 
be  given  as  to  the  degree  of  fermentation  within  the  vol- 
cano. By  this  alone  1  foretold  the  two  last  eruptions  ;  and 
by  another  very  simple  observation,  I  pointed  out,  some 
time  before,  the  very  spot  from  whence  the  lava  has  is- 
sued. When  the  cone  of  Vesuvius  was  covered  with  snow, 
I  remarked  a  spot  on  which  it  would  not  lie." 

The  "  Campi  Phlegraei"  were  chiefly  calculated  to  ex- 
hibit the  view  of  the  several  spots  already  described.  The 
drawings,  by  Mr.  Fabris,  were  coloured  with  surprising 
art  and  great  force  of  expression,  and  represented  nature 
with  the  utmost  accuracy  and  truth.  Each  plate  was  ac- 
companied by  concise  and  perspicuous  explanations  in 
English,  and  French.  In  the  first  volume,  a  large  map  was 


Also  exhibited  of  the  gulph  of  Naples  and  the  country 
contiguous,  which  is  unrivalled  for  its  beauty  and  splen- 
dour. And  in  the  author's  letter  to  sir  John  Pringle,  dated 
Naples,  May  2,  1776  (which  may  be  considered  as  a  dedi- 
cation of  the  \Vork  to  the  royal  society),  some  additional 
observations  on  the  subject  were  communicated,  which  had 
not  been  inserted  either  in  the  partial  letters  to  the  late 
Mr.  Maty,  or  in  the  8vo  edition  of  them  in  1772.  In  short, 
the  publication  was  so  accurate,  so  splendid,  and  so  mag- 
nificent, as  to  have  excited  a  surprise  how  such  an  invalu- 
able performance  could  make  its  appearance  in  the  south 
of  Italy. 

A  new  phenomenon,  however,  occurred  after  this  pub- 
lication, which  was  too  striking  not  to  excite  a  peculiar 
attention  in  our  ingenious  naturalist,  and  not  to  engage 
him  in  a  new  work. — We  allude  to  the  great  eruption  of 
Mount  Vesuvius,  on  the  8th  of  August,  1779,  and  to  the 
"  Supplement"  to  the  "  Campi  Phiegraei,"  to  which  it 
gave  rise.  As  was  his  custom,  Mr.  Hamilton  had  commu- 
nicated  a  description  of  that  wonderful  event  to  the  royal 
society,  which  was  printed  in  the  first  part  of  the  Philoso- 
phical Transactions  for  the  year  1780.  He  afterwards, 
however,  as  he  had  done  with  his  former  ones,  collected 
these  observations,  and  formed  of  them  a  regular  work.  In 
the  year  of  the  great  eruption,  he  published  in  Naples,  a 
fine  edition  of  the  above-mentioned  book,  beautifully  il- 
lustrated by  coloured  prints,  from  the  drawings  of  the 
same  artist,  Peter  Fabris  ;  the  drawings  and  illuminations 
being  likewise  copied  from  nature,  under  his  own  inspection. 

In  the  science  of  antiquities,  so  early  as  1765,  he  had 
promoted  the  publication  of  the  magnificent  and  elegant 
ttrork,  "Antiquites  Etrusques,  Grecques,etRomaines,  tire*es 
du  Cabinet  de  Mr.  Hamilton  ;"  a  fine  collection  of  designs 
from  Etruscan,  Greek,  and  Roman  vases,  which  was  received 
with  the  greatest  satisfaction  by  the  lovers  of  antiquity  and 
the  arts.  The  design  of  this  work  was  professedly  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  arts.  It  was  intended  to  shew  on  what 
system  the  ancients  gave  their  vases  that  elegance  so  gene- 
rally acknowledged  and  admired,  and  how  they  were  able 
to  assign  the  exact  measures  of  their  proportion  ;  and  to 
establish  certain  principles  for  the  artist  who  would  per- 
form something  in  the  same  way.  It  was,  in  short,  a  most 
valuable  present  to  the  learned  and  to  artists,  and  above 
all  to  manufacturers  of  earthen  ware  and  china,  and  of  vase» 



in  silver,  glass,  &c.  who  found  here  an  infinite  variety  of 
beautiful  models,  most  of  which  had  been  until  then  un- 
known ;  and  indeed  it  may  be  observed,  that  since  that 
period  our  articles  of  the  above  description  are  universally 
formed  with  more  beauty,  taste,  and  elegance;  qualities  in 
which  we  as  yet  remain  unequalled  by  any  other  country. 

We  are  informed  in  the  abbe  Winkelman's  Letters,  that 
the  above-mentioned  work  was  intended  to  be  comprised 
in  four  large  folio  volumes.  Of  these,  the  two  former  only 
appeared  at  the  stated  time.  The  two  latter  volumes  (as  we 
are  informed  by  a  note  in  the  last  edition  of  the  Letters  of 
Winkelnian)  were  published  in  Naples  in  1775;  but  the 
writer  of  this  article  has  never  been  able  to  procure  a  sight 
of  them,  or  even  to  gain  the  least  information  on  the  sub- 
ject. The  two  former  volumes  were  reduced  to  a  smaller 
size,  and  republished  at  Paris,  by  Mr.  David,  in  1787,  in 
five  8vo  volumes.  The  adventurer  D'Hancarville,  editor 
of  the  work,  as  we  are  told  by  Winkelman,  expected,  by 
that  publication,  to  acquire  a  fortune  of  twenty  thousand 
pounds.  It  is  not  probable  that  he  ever  realized  this  ex- 
pectation, but  we  know  from  D'Hancarville  himself,  that 
Mr.  Hamilton  allowed  him  to  reap  the  emolument  which 
might  arise  from  the  work.  Of  the  particulars  of  which, 
he  himself  says,  that  "  long  since  Mr.  Hamilton  had  taken 
pleasure  in  collecting  those  precious  monuments,  and  had 
afterwards  trusted  them  to  him  for  publication,  requiring 
only  some  elegance  in  the  execution  ;  and  the  condition, 
that  the  work  should  appear  under  the  auspices  of  his  Bri- 
tannic majesty." — "  It  answers  no  purpose  to  have  of  the 
ancient  vases  that  general  and  vague  idea  which  is  given 
of  them  by  the  books  of  Caylus,  or  Montfaucon. — There 
are  few  antiquaries  and  scholars  who  have  not  entertained 
a  wish  to  see  such  a  collection  executed  with  care  and 
precision. — They  can  now  compare  the  present  with  that 
of  cardinal  Gualtieri,  reported  by  Montfaucon,  and  with 
all  the  others  which  have  hitherto  appeared. — Mr.  Hamil- 
ton, justly  apprehensive  that  the  vases,  already  destined 
for  England,  might  be  damaged  in  their  way,  has  resolved 
to  have  them  engraved  at  Naples." 

Part  of  the  vases  which  gave  rise  to  D'Hancarville's 
work,  is  that  precious  collection  which  is  now  seen  in  one 
of  the  rooms  of  the  British  Museum,  and  which  formerly 
belonged  to  the  senatorial  house  of  Porcinari,  in  Naples. 
Mr.  Hamilton  purchased  it  from  the  proprietors  in.  1765, 

HAMILTON.  ^105 

and  it  still  is  a  matter  of  surprise  with  the  greatest  of  our 
artists,  that  it  was  ever  suffered  to  go  out  of  its  native  land. 
In  Naples,  however,  it  never  occasioned  any  surprise ;  as 
it  is  there  known,  that  full  rive  years  before  the  purchase, 
the  same  valuable  property,  through  the  means  of  the 
famous  Theatin  lather  Paciaudi,  had  been  offered  to  the 
count  of  Caylus;  and,  in  fact,  the  best-informed  Neapo- 
litans were  fully  convinced  that  it  was  much  better  that 
such  precious  monuments  should  be  in  the  power  of  some 
active  nation,  in  which  they  might  be  put  to  the  best  use, 
than  to  remain  in  their  own  country,  where  they  would 
have  been  forever  useless.  About  the  same  time  (in  1767), 
the  British  Museum  received  from  Mr.  Hamilton  two  other 
valuable  presents: — 1st.  A  complete  collection  of  every 
sort  of  matter  produced  by  Mount  Vesuvius,  by  which  he 
thought  it  might  be  proved  that  "  many  variegated  marbles 
and  many  precious  stones  are  the  produce  of  volcanos, 
and  that  there  have  been  volcanos  in  many  parts  of  the 
world,  where  at  present  there  are  no  traces  of  them  visible." 
2.  Two  very  scarce  and  interesting  books,  respecting  the 
formation  of  the  celebrated  new  mountain  at  Pozzuolt, 
published  at  Naples,  a  few  months  after  the  event,  in  1538: 
the  one  written  by  Marc  Antony  delli  Falconi ;  and  the 
other  by  Peter  James  di  Toledo. 

Among  the  several  persons  whom  Mr.  Hamilton  honour- 
ed with  his  patronage  at  Naples,  we  shall  only  mention  the 
celebrated  engraver,  Morghen  ;  as  it  was  owing  to  his  en- 
couragement that  this  eminent  artist,  in  1769,  published 
that  elegant  collection  of  views  at  Pozzuoli  and  other  spots 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Naples.  It  is  pleasing  to  say  that 
Mr.  Morghen  soon  evinced  his  gratitude  towards  his  patron, 
and  the  nation  to  which  the  latter  belonged  :  the  collection 
was  dedicated  to  the  Society  of  arts  in  London  ;  and  the 
greatest  part  of  the  views  were  inscribed  to  some  indivi- 
duals of  our  nobility  who  then  happened  to  be  in  Naples. 
Ever  since  the  year  1770,  Mr.  Hamilton  had  established  a 
regular  correspondence  with  various  intelligent  persons  4n 
the  several  provinces  of  the  kingdom,  concerning  such  mo- 
numents of  arts  or  antiquities  as  might  happen  to  be  found 
near  their  respective  residences,  and  which  might  answer 
his  further  purposes.  This  correspondence  was  carried  on 
with  a  peculiar  activity  in  the  province  of  Campania,  that 
province  being  indeed  the  spot  in  which  the  greatest  num- 
ber of  ancient  vases  .has  been  found,  and  which  for  this 

106  H  A  M  I  L  T  O  N. 

reason  is  thought  to  have  possessed  the  chief  manufactures 
•  /.  ihat  article. 

Whilst  at  this  period  Mr.  Hamilton  so  successfully  in- 
dulged in  scientific  and  literary  pursuits,  he  had  no  op- 
portunity of  exerting  himself  to  any  advantage  in  his  pub- 
lic and  diplomatic  capacity,  nothing  of  importance  being 
then  in  agitation  in  the  political  world  ;  and,  with  regard 
to  private  connexions,  it  is  still  in  the  remembrance  of  his 
old  friends,  that,  till  he  became  acquainted  with  some  con- 
genial characters,  he  found  himself,  in  the  midst  of  an 
immense  metropolis,  as  insulated  as  if  he  had  been  in  a 
village.  Of  his  domestic  life,  about  this  period,  we  fortu- 
nately have  an  account  from  the  celebrated  secretary  of 
the  French  academy,  Duclos,  from  which  we  shall  here 
give  an  extract,  the  more  properly,  as,  with  the  alteration 
of  time  and  place,  it  is  his  characteristic  picture  in  every 
part  of  his  life.  "  Mr.  Hamilton,"  says  he,  "  was  in  the 
habit  of  taking  his  dinner  at  home  with  a  select  number  of 
friends,  among  whom  I  had  the  honour  of  being  admitted. 
He  had  also  a  weekly  party  of  the  most  distinguished  per- 
sons of  Naples.  In  these  parties,  a  concert  was  sometimes 
given,  in  which  Miss  Hamilton  played  on  the  harpsichord 
so  eminently,  that  her  talents  were  acknowledged  in  a  town 
decidedly  superior  in  musical  science  to  the  rest  of  Italy. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hamilton  are  the  happiest  couple  I  ever  saw. 
Both  still  in  the  vigour  of  youth,  with  good  hearts  and 
cultivated  minds,  and  tenderly  attached  to  each  other,  they 
presented  to  me  the  image  of  a  patriarchal  life.  The  lady, 
mistress  of  a  considerable  fortune,  enjoys  the  pleasure  of 
making  that  of  her  husband,  who  had  nothing  of  his  own 
but  an  illustrious  name.  The  gentleman,  duly  sensible  of 
what  he  owes  to  a  beloved  wife,  is  highly  pleased  to  ac- 
knowledge it,  and  the  sentiment  of  his  gratitude  increases 
the  happiness  of  his  situation." 

The  twelve  years  which  elapsed  from  1772  to  1784, 
formed  a  remarkable  epoch  in  Mr.  Hamilton's  life,  with 
respect  to  his  advancement  and  domestic  affairs.  On  the 
SAU  °f  Januar>">  1772>  he  was  created  knight  of  the  bath. 
About  1775,  he  lost  his  only  daughter.  In  1782,  he  like- 
wise lost  his  lady.  And  in  1784,  after  twenty  years'  ab- 
sence, he  visited  his  native  country.  He  had  been  made 
a  tellow  of  the  royal  society  in  1766. 

This  time,  however,  was  equally  well  employed  in  the 
service  of  the  sciences;  for,  in  1779,  he  repeated  his 


visits  to  Mount  Vesuvius,  and  published  the  Supplement 
already  mentioned;  in  February  1783,  he  undertook  the 
journey  to  Calabria,  to  observe  the  phenomena  produced 
by  the  dreadful  earthquake  which  just  before  had  desolated 
that  beautiful  province,  and  of  which  he  subsequently  gave 
an  account,  in  a  letter  to  sir  Joseph  Banks,  inserted  in  the 
«  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  ;"  and,  so  early  as 
1777,  he  wrote  an  excellent  memoir  on  the  discoveries 
until  then  made  in  Pompeii ;  which  memoir,  accompanied 
with  13  beautiful  plates,  was  inserted  in  the  fourth  volume 
of  the  "  Archaeologia,"  and  by  which  we  are  informed, 
**  that  the  city  was  supposed  to  have  been  a  mile  in  length, 
and  about  three  miles  and  a  half  round  ;  that  only  one  hun- 
dred yards  of  a  principal  street,  supposed  to  run  through 
the  whole  city,  had  then  been  cleared ;  that  the  width  of 
the  horse-way  was  said  to  be  in  general  ten  feet  eight 
inches  English,  and  the  elevated  foot- way  on  each  side, 
about  three  feet  wide ;  that  the  plan  of  most  of  the  houses 
was  a  square  court,  with  a  fountain  in  the  middle,  and 
small  rooms  round,  communicating  with  that  court ;  and 
that  fragments  of  large  panes  of  glass  were  found  there, 
shewing  that  the  ancients  of  this  period  knew  well  the  use 
of  glass  for  windows." 

His  most  truly  meritorious  labours,  however,  at  the  close 
of  the  above  mentioned  period,  were  those  which  had  in 
view  the  unrivalled  museum  of  Portici ;  an  object  which 
lad  not  yet  been  accessible  to  his  researches.  The  history 
of  the  discovery  of  Herculaneum,  and  of  the  Royal  mu- 
seum to  which  it  gave  rise,  is  too  well  known  to  require  any 
detailed  notice  in  this  place  :  it  is  equally  alien  to  our  pur- 
pose to  relate  the  several  tardy  and  unsuccessful  measures 
which  the  government  took  to  illustrate  that  unrivalled 
establishment ;  and  we  shall  only  notice  the  ancient  manu- 
scripts in  the  Museum,  which  are  immediately  connected 
with  our  subject.  It  is  known  that  about  eight  hundred 
objects  of  this  kind  had  been  found  in  the  several  excava- 
tions of  Herculaneum  ;  and  that  on  application  being  made 
to  Mr.  Assemanni  of  the  Vatican,  on  the  subject,  this 
learned  man  had  recommended  an  able,  industrious,  and 
indefatigable  Piarist  monk,  named  Father  Anthony  Piaggi, 
who  possessed  the  art  of  completely  unfolding  the'deca3ed 
manuscripts.  Some  successful  trials  were  made  :  a  work 
on  the  philosophy  of  Epicurus,  another  on  morals,  a  third 
«>a  rhetoric,  and  a  fourth  on  music,  were  brought  to  light ; 

log  H  A  M  I  L  T  O  N. 

and  of  the  last,  the  author  of  which  was  a  Greek  named 
Philodemus,  thirty-eight  full  columns  were  happily  copied. 
Father  Anthony's  services  were  still  more  beneficial ;  he 
instructed  in  his  art  a  pupil  named  Merli,  afterwards  as 
able  as  himself.  Neither  of  them,  however,  persevered 
in  their  tasks  :  they  complained  of  the  supineness  of  the 
ministry,  and  of  their  own  scanty  allowance. 

Among  the  papers  left  by  sir  William  at  his  death,  are 
found  more  than  fifty  memoirs  directed  by  Father  Anthony 
to  the  marquis  of  Sambuca,  soliciting  his  patronage  for  the 
great  work  of  the  manuscripts,  to  which  solicitations  that 
minister  seemed  to  be  deaf.  Numberless  other  memoirs  of 
the  kind  were  also  presented  to  several  persons  in  the 
royal  service,  and  they  met  with  no  better  success. — The 
consequence  was,  that  Father  Anthony  at  last  put  himself 
under  the  protection  of  sir  William,  and  tendered  his  ser- 
vices for  any  information  which  the  latter  might  wish  con- 
cerning the  Museum.  The  propriety  of  accepting  this 
offer  may  be  questioned.  It  was  considered,  however,  by 
one  who  was  not  particularly  acquainted  with  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  establishment,  as  too  important  not  to  meet 
with  an  immediate  compliance:  a  treaty  was  concluded, 
that  sir  William  should  grant  to  Father  Anthony  a  pension 
of  600  ducats  a  year  (100/.),  and  the  latter  should  regu- 
larly send  to  him  every  week  a  sheet  of  original  informa- 
tion; and  in  order  to  elude  any  ministerial  inquisition,  it 
was  also  agreed  that  the  correspondence  should  be  carried 
on  in  cyphers.  This  correspondence  lasted  till  the  death 
of  Father  Anthony  in  1798;  and,  if  we  except  a  want  of 
delicacy,  and  perhaps  also  a  breach  of  trust  in  the  monk, 
we  may  presume  that,  in  the  main  object,  it  proved  satis- 
factory to  both  parties:  sir  William  was  indeed  so  satisfied, 
that,  some  years  after  the  commencement  of  the  treaty, 
he  procured  for  Father  Anthony  an  additional  pension,  of 
the  same  sum  of  600  ducats  a  year  (100/.),  from  his  royal 
highness  the  Prince  of  Wales ;  and  Father  Anthony,  on 
his  side,  seemed  also  so  sensible  of  the  favours  he  had  re- 
ceived, that  on  his  death,  he  bequeathed  all  his  manuscripts 
and  papers  of  every  kind  to  his  patron. 

In  1791,  sir  William  was  appointed  a  privy  counsellor; 
and  in  the  same  year  he  married  Miss  Harte,  the  present 
lady  Hamilton.  About  the  same  time  also,  in  order  to 
give  a  further  illustration  to  his  favourite  doctrine  respect- 
ing the  constant  state  of  eruption  of  Mount  Vesuvius,  he 


charged  a  Dominican  friar  at  Resina,  to  compile  for  hit 
use,  a  daily  calendar  of  the  several  phenomena  of  that 
mountain  ;  a  compilation  which,  most  probably,  will  also 
be  found  among  his  papers. 

In  December  1798,  when  the  French  attacked  the  king- 
dom of  Naples,  he  accompanied  his  Sicilian  majesty  to 
Palermo,  from  whence,  towards  the  close  of  1800,  he  was 
recalled  to  England:  where  he  died  April  6,  1803,  in  the 
72d  year  of  his  age. 

During  the  short  interval  between  his  arrival  in  England 
and  his  death,  this  respectable  philosopher  and  naturalist 
was  occupied  in  ordering  and  classifying  his  numerous 
manuscripts,  which  had  been  conveyed  from  Naples  to 
Palermo,  at  the  time  of  his  removal ;  and  from  the  latter 
place  to  London,  on  his  return  to  England.  These  manu- 
scripts consisted  of  eight  large  boxes ;  four  of  which  con- 
tained his  correspondence  with  Father  Anthony,  and  the 
other  four,  the  valuable  papers  which  the  latter  had  be- 
queathed to  him.  Jt  was  his  intention,  alter  a  due  ar- 
rangement, to  favour  the  public  with  two  works  collected 
from  their  contents,  one  of  which  was  to  exhibit  a  series 
of  original  observations  on  the  best  monuments  of  art  in 
the  Museum  of  Portici ;  and  the  other,  a  series  of  histori- 
cal anecdotes  concerning  its  literary  and  economical  ad- 
ministration, from  its  first  establishment,  of  both  which 
there  is  a  prospect  of  publication. 

With  regard  to  his  diplomatic  exertions,  which  naturally 
constituted  the  immediate  duties  of  his  station,  we  may 
notice,  1.  the  explanations,  which,  in  1772,  he  had  with 
the  first  minister,  marquis  Tanucci,  on  account  of  Michael 
Torcia,  who,  in  his  performance,  "The  Political  Sketch 
of  Europe,"  had  used  some  improper  expressions :  2.  the 
negotiations  whichjbe  successfully  concluded  for  the  neu- 
trality of  his  Sicilian  majesty  in  the  American  war:  3.  his 
excellent  conduct  during  the  family  misunderstanding  be- 
tween Spain  and  Naples,  from  1784  to  1786:  but  these 
are  matters  which  belong  to  political  history.  The  fame 
of  sir  William  Hamilton  will  ultimately  rest  on  his  talents, 
learning,  and  patriotic  spirit. l 

HAMILTON  (WILLIAM),  an  historical  painter,  the  son 
of  a  Scotch  gentleman  who  resided  many  years  at  Chelsea, 
4s  deputy  to  Mr.  Robert  Adams,  the  celebrated  architect, 

1  Baldwin's  Literary  Journal  for  180i. 

110  H  A  M  I  L  t  O  N. 

when  clerk  of  the  works  to  that  college,  was  born  in  1750*, 
and  sent  to  Italy,  when  very  young,  under  the  patronage 
of  Mr.  Adams.  He  was  there  some  time  under  the  tuition 
of  Zucchi,  the  painter  of  arabesque  ornaments  at  Rome, 
and  although  Mr.  Edwards  thinks  he  was  then  too  young  to 
receive  any  material  benefit  from  this  tour,  it  served  at 
least  to  increase  his  early  taste  for  the  art,  and  he  caught 
a  pleasant  manner  of  painting,  much  in  the  style  of  his 
master.  When  he  returned  to  England  he  became  a  pupil 
in  the  royal  academy,  and  by  attention  to  his  studies,  ac- 
quired considerable  employment.  He  practised  in  many 
different  ways,  mostly  history,  and  frequently  arabesque, 
of  which  latter  kind  he  executed  some  decorations  at  the 
seat  of  the  late  earl  of  Bute  at  High  Cliff,  Hampshire.  He 
sometimes  painted  portraits,  but  his  manner  was  not  well 
adapted  to  that  branch,  yet  his  portrait  of  Mrs.  Siddons  in 
the  character  of  lady  Randolph  (now  in  the  possession  of 
Samuel  Whitbread,  esq.)  was  allowed  to  have  great  merit. 
He  was  much  employed  by  the  late  alderman  Boydell,  for 
his  Shakspeare,  and  by  Macklin  for  his  edition  of  the  Bible 
and  of  the  Poets.  In  the  former  his  "  Woman  of  Samaria7' 
deserves  much  praise.  One  of  his  most  capital  works  was 
a  picture  of  the  "Queen  of  Sheba  entertained  at  a  banquet 
by  Solomon,"  a  design  for  a  window  in  Arundel  castle. 
His  manner  of  painting  was  light,  airy,  and  pleasant,  and 
he  excelled  in  ornaments  to  which  he  gave  a  propriety, 
richness,  and  a  classic  air.  His  coloured  drawings  imitate 
the  fulness  of  his  oil-paintings  with  more  freshness,  and, 
without  much  labour,  are  finished  with  taste.  He  was 
elected  associate  of  the  royal  academy  Nov.  8,  1784,  and 
royal  academician,  February  10,  1789.  He  died  in  the 
vigour  though  not  in  the  bloom  of  life,  Dec.  2,  1801,  of  a 
violent  fever  of  only  three  days1  duration,  deeply  lamented 
by  his  friends,  and  regretted  by  the  public.  He  was  a 
man  of  great  affability  and  gentle  manners ;  his  politeness 
covered  no  insincerity,  nor  his  emulation  envy.  He  was 
one  of  the  few  artists  we  have  personally  known  who  spoke 
with  high  respect  of  his  brethren,  and  was  equally  re- 
spected by  them  for  his  amiable  temper.  * 

HAMMOND  (ANTHONY,  esq.),  descended  from  a  family 
long  situated  at  Somersham-place,  in  Huntingdonshire, 
was  born  in  16u3,  and  educated  at  St.  John's  college, 

1  Edwards's  Supplement  to  Lord  Orford.— Pilkington  by  Fuseli. 


Cambridge.  He  was  a  commissioner  of  the  navy,  a  good 
speaker  in  parliament,  had  the  name  of  "  silver-tongued 
Hammond"  given  him  by  lord  Bolingbroke,  and  was  a 
man  of  note  among  the  wits,  poets,  and  parliamentary 
writers,  in  the  beginning  of  the  last  century.  A  volume  of 
"  Miscellany  Poems,"  was  inscribed  to  him,  in  1694,  by 
his  friend  Mr.  Hopkins;  and  in  1720  he  was  the  editor  of 
"  A  new  Miscellany  of  Original  Poems,"  in  which  he  had 
himself  no  small  share.  His  own  pieces,  he  observes  in 
his  preface,  "  were  written  at  very  different  times,  and 
were  owned  by  him,  lest  in  a  future  day  they  should  be 
ascribed  to  other  persons  to  their  prejudice,  as  the  '  Ode 
on  Solitude'  has  been,  in  wrong,  to  the  earl  of  Roscom- 
mon,  and  as  some  of  the  rest  have  been  to  others."  He 
was  the  intimate  friend  of  Mr.  Moyle,  and  wrote  the  "Ac- 
count of  his  Life  and  Writings,"  prefixed  to  his  works  in 
1727.  Their  acquaintance  began,  through  sir  Robert 
Marsham,  in  the  latter  end  of  1690,  soon  after  Hammond's 
return  from  a  short  tour  into  Holland  and  some  parts  of 
Flanders.  The  places  of  resort  for  wits  at  that  period  were 
May  n  waring' s  coifee-house  in  Fleet-street,  and  the  Grecian 
near  the  Temple;  where  Moyle,  having  taken  a  disgust 
against  the  clergy,  had  several  friendly  disputes  with  Ham- 
mond, and  at  the  same  place  had  a  share  with  Trenchard 
in  writing  the  argument  against  a  standing  army.  In 
Moyle's  works  are  three  valuable  letters  to  Hammond;  a 
copy  of  verses,  by  Hammond,  to  Moyle ;  another,  by 
Hopkins,  to  the  same;  and  a  third,  by  Hopkins,  to  Ham- 
mond. Mr.  Hammond  is  said  to  have  married  Susanna,  a 
sister  of  Mr.  Walpole,  afterwards  the  celebrated  minister 
of  state ;  but  that  Mr.  Hammond  was  a  different  person. 
Our  author  married  a  Miss  Clarges,  and  died  in  1738,  as 
Winston  informs  us,  in  the  Fleet-prison,  where  he  was  con- 
fined for  debt,  and  so  preserved  what  he  had  not  spent  of 
his  estate  for  his  eldest  son.  His  second  son  is  the  subject 
of  the  following  article.1 

HAMMOND  (JAMES),  well  remembered  as  a  man 
esteemed  and  caressed  by  the  elegant  and  great,  was  the 
second  son  of  Anthony  Hammond  mentioned  above:  he  was 
born  about  1710,  and  educated  at  Westminster-school; 
but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  was  of  any  university,  ai- 

1  Gibber's  Lives.— Gent.  Mag.  LXI.  1090,  LXXIX.  1 1?!.— Nichols's  Poems. 
— Chesterfield's  Meflaairs,  p.  47, — Whiiton'a  MS  notes  on  a  copy  of  this  Did 

112  H  A  M  M  O  N  D. 

though  Mr.  Cole  claims  him  for  Cambridge,  but  without 
specifying  his  college.  When  about  eighteen,  he  was  in- 
troduced to  the  earl  of  Chesterfield,  and  from  a  con- 
formity of  character,  manners,  and  inclinations,  soon  be- 
came particularly  attached  to  his  lordship.  He  was  equerry 
to  the  prince  of  Wales,  and  seems  to  ha\ne  come  very  early 
into  public  notice,  and  to  have  been  distinguished  by  those 
whose  patronage  and  friendship  prejudiced  mankind  at  that 
time  in  favour  of  those  on  whom  they  were  bestowed ;  for 
he  was  the  companion  of  Cobham,  Lyttelton,  and  Chester- 
field. He  is  said  to  have  divided  his  life  between  pleasure 
and  books;  in  his  retirement  forgetting  the  town,  and  in 
his  gaiety  losing  the  student.  Of  his  literary  hours  all  the 
effects  are  exhibited  in  his  memorable  "  Love  Elegies," 
which  were  written  very  early,  and  his  "  Prologue"  not 
long  before  his  death.  In  1733,  he  obtained  an  income  of 
400/.  a  year  by  the  will  of  Nicholas  Hammond,  esq.  a  near 
relation.  In  1741  he  was  chosen  into  parliament  for  Truro 
in  Cornwall,  probably  one  of  those  who  were  elected  by 
the  prince's  influence;  and  died  June  2,  1742,  at  Stowe, 
the  famous  seat  of  the  lord  Cobham.  His  mistress  long 
outlived  him,  and,  in  177D,  died  unmarried,  bed-chamber 
woman  to  the  queen.  The  character  which  her  lover  be- 
queathed her  was,  indeed,  not  likely  to  attract  courtship, 
yet  it  was  her  own  fault  that  she  remained  single,  having 
had  another  very  honourable  offer.  The  "  Elegies"  were 
published  after  his  death  ;  and  while  the  writer's  name  was 
remembered  with  fondness,  they  were  read  with  a  resolu- 
tion to  admire  them.  The  recommendatory  preface  of  the 
editor,  who  was  then  believed,  and  is  affirmed  by  Dr. 
Maty,  to  be  the  earl  of  Chesterfield,  raised  strong  preju- 
dices in  their  favour ;  but  Dr.  Johnson  is  of  opinion  that 
they  have  neither  passion,  nature,  nor  manners,  and  Dr. 
Beattie  was  informed  on  very  good  authority  that  Hammond 
was  not  in  love  when  he  wrote  his  "  Elegies."  » 

HAMMOND  (Dr.  HENRY),  a  learned  English  divine, 
was  born  at  Chertsey  in  Surrey,  August  18,  1605;  and 
was  the  youngest  son  of  Dr.  John  Hammond,  physician  to 
Henry  prince  of  Wales,  svho  was  his  godfather,  and  gave 
him  his  own  name.  In  his  infancy  he  was  remarkable  for 
sweetness  of  temper,  the  love  of  privacy,  and  a  devotional 
turn.  He  was  educated  at  Eton-school,  and  sent  to  Mag- 

1  Johnson  and    Chalmers's   English  Poets. — Gent.    Mag.  LVII.  LXV.   and 
LXV  I.— Seattle's  Dissertations,  p.  554,  4to. 

HAMMOND.  113 

dalen-college,  Oxford,  in  1618;  of  which,  after  taking  his 
degrees  in  a  regular  way,  he  was  elected  fellow  in  July 
1625.  During  the  whole  of  his  residence  here,  he  gene- 
rally spent  thirteen  hours  every  day  in  study  ;  in  the  course 
of  which  he  not  only  went  through  the  usual  academic 
studies,  but  read  almost  all  the  classics,  writing  emenda- 
tions, critical  remarks,  &c.  as  he  proceeded.  Having  ap- 
plied himself  also  with  great  diligence  to  the  study  of  di- 
vinity, he  was  admitted  to  holy  orders  in  1629,  and  soon, 
after  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity.  In  1633  he 
was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Penshurst  in  Kent,  by 
Robert  Sidney  earl  of  Leicester.  That  nobleman,  happen- 
ing to  be  one  of  his  auditors  while  he  was  supplying  a  turn 
at  court  for  Dr.  Frewen,  the  president  of  his  college,  and 
one  of  his  majesty's  chaplains,  was-so  deeply  affected  with 
the  sermon,  and  conceived  so  high  an  opinion  of  the 
preacher's  merit,  that  he  conferred  on  him  this  living,  then 
void,  and  in  his  gift.  Upon  this  he  quitted  his  college, 
and  went  to  his  cure,  where  he  resided  as  long  as  the  times 
permitted  him,  punctually  performing  every  branch  of  the 
ministerial  function  in  the  most  diligent  and  exemplary 
manner.  In  1639  he  took  the  degree  of  D.  D. ;  in  1640, 
was  chosen  one  of  the  members  of  the  convocation,  called 
with  the  long  parliament,  which  began  that  year ;  and,  in. 
1643,  made  archdeacon  of  Chichester  by  the  unsolicited 
favour  of  Dr.  Brian  Duppa,  then  bishop  of  Chichester,  and 
afterwards  of  Winchester.  The  same  year  also  he  was 
named  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  but  never  sat 
amongst  them. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  national  troubles  he  continued 
undisturbed  at  his  living  till  the  middle  of  July  1643  ;  but, 
joining  in  the  fruitless  attempt  then  made  atTunbridge  in 
favour  of  the  king,  and  a  reward  of  100/.  being  soon  after 
promised  to  the  person  that  should  produce  him,  he  was 
forced  to  retire  privily  and  in  disguise  to  Oxford.  Having 
procured  an  apartment  in  his  owu  college,  he  sought  that 
peace  in  retirement  and  study  which  was  no  where  else  to 
be  found.  Among  the  few  friends  he  conversed  with  was 
Dr.  Christopher  Potter,  provost  of  Queen's  college ;  by 
whose  persuasion  it  was,  that  he  published  his  "  Practical 
Catechism,"  in  1644.  This  was  one  of  the  most  valuable 
books  published  at  that  time ;  but  great  objections  were 
raised  against  it  by  fifty-two  ministers  within  the  provincQ, 
of  London  ;  and  especially  by  the  famous  Francis  Chey- 


ii4  HAMMOND. 

iiell,  on  account  of  its  containing  Arminian  tenets.  Ham- 
mond, however,  defended  his  book,  and  the  same  year 
and  the  following,  published  several  useful  pieces,  adapted 
to  the  times.  In  December  of  the  same  year  he  attended 
as  chaplain  the  duke  of  Richmond  and  earl  of  Southamp- 
ton ;  who  were  sent  to  London  by  Charles  I.  with  terms  of 
peace  and  accommodation  to  the  parliament;  and  when 
a  treaty  was  appointed  at  Uxbridge,  he  appeared  there  as 
one  of  the  divines  on  the  king's  side,  where  he  managed, 
greatly  to  his  honour,  a  dispute  with  Richard  Vines,  one 
of  the  presbyterian  ministers  sent  by  the  parliament. 

A  few  days  after  the  breaking  of  this  treaty,  a  canonry 
of  Christ  Church  in  Oxford  becoming  vacant,  the  king 
bestowed  it  upon  him  about  March  1645  ;  and  the  univer- 
sity chose  him  their  public  orator.  His  majesty  also, 
coming  to  reside  in  that  city,  made  him  one  of  his  chap- 
lains in  ordinary  :  notwithstanding  all  which  employments, 
he  did  not  remit  from  his  studies,  or  cease  to  publish  books, 
principally  contrived  to  do  service  in  the  times  when  they 
were  written.  When  Oxford  surrendered,  his  attendance 
as  cbaplain  was  superseded;  but  when  the  king  came  into 
the  power  of  the  army,  he  was  permitted  to  attend  him 
again,  in  his  several  confinements  and  removes  of  Woburn, 
Caversham,  Hampton-court,  and  the  Isle  of  Wight :  at 
which  last  place  he  continued  till  Christmas,  1647,  when  all 
his  majesty's  servants  were  removed  from  him.  He  then 
returned  again  to  Oxford,  where  he  was  chosen  sub- dean 
of  Christ  Church  ;  in  which  office  he  continued  till  March 
30,  1648,  and  was  then  forcibly  turned  out  of  it  by  the 
parliamentary  visitors.  The  accusations  against  him  were, 
his  refusing  to  submit  to  the  visitors'  power;  his  being 
concerned  in  drawing  up  the  reasons  which  were  presented 
to  the  convocation  against  the  authority  of  that  visitation  ; 
and  his  refusing  to  publish  the  visitors'  orders  for  the  ex- 
pulsion of  several  of  the  members  of  Christ  Church.  In- 
stead,  however,  of  being  commanded  immediately  to  quit 
Oxford,  as  others  were,  a  committee  of  parliament  voted 
him  and  Dr.  Sheldon  to  be  prisoners  in  that  place,  where 
they  continued  in  restraint  for  about  ten  weeks.  During 
this  confinement  he  began  his  "  Paraphrase  and  Annota- 
tions on  the  New  Testament;"  the  ground- work  of  which 
is  said  to  be  this.  Having  written  in  Latin  two  large  vo- 
lumes of  the  way  of  interpreting  the  New  Testament,  with 
inference  to  the  customs  of  the  Jews,  and  of  the  first  here- 

HAMMOND.  115 

tics  in  the  Christian  church,  and  also  of  the  heathens, 
especially  in  the  Grecian  games  ;  and,  above  all,  of  the 
importance  of  the  Hellenistical  dialect ;  he  began  to  con- 
sider, that  it  might  be  more  useful  to  the  English  render, 
to  write  in  our  vulgar  language,  and  set  every  observation 
in  its  natural  order,  according  to  the  direction  of  the  text. 
And  having  some  years  before  collated  several  Greek  copies 
of  the  New  Testament,  and  observed  the  variation  of  our 
English  from  the  original,  and  made  an  entire  translation 
of  the  whole  for  his  own  private  use,  he  cast  his  work  into 
that  form  in  which  it  now  appears.  It  came  out  first  in 
1653;  in  1656,  with  additions  and  alterations;  and,  in 
1698,  Le  Clerc  put  out  a  Latin  translation  of  it,  viz.  of 
the  "  Paraphrase  and  Annotations,"  with  the  text  of  the 
Vulgate,  in  which  he  has  intermixed  many  of  his  own  ani- 
madversions, explained  those  points  which  Dr.  Hammond 
had  but  slightly  touched,  and  corrected  many  of  his 

From  Oxford  he  was  removed  to  the  house  of  sir  Philip 
Warwick  at  Clapham  in  Bedford  shire.  The  trial  of  king 
Charles  drawing  on,  and  Dr.  Hammond  being  in  no  other 
capacity  to  interpose  than  by  writing,  he  drew  up  an  ad- 
dress to  the  general  and  council  of  officers,  which  he  pub- 
lished under  this  title  :  "  To  the  right  honourable  the  lord 
Fairfax,  and  his  council  of  war,  the  humble  Address  of 
Henry  Hammond.1'  It  is  unnecessary  to  add  that  this  pro- 
duced no  effect,  as  his  majesty's  doom  was  fixed.  Dr. 
Hammond's  grief  for  the  death  of  his  royal  master  was 
extreme ;  but,  as  soon  as  he  had  in  some  measure  recovered 
his  spirits,  he  resumed  his  studies,  and  published  several 
pieces.  The  rigour  of  his  restraint  being  taken  off  in  the 
beginning  of  1649,  he  removed  to  Westwood  in  Worces- 
tershire, the  seat  of  the  loyal  sir  John  Packington,  from 
whom  he  received  a  kind  invitation  ;  and  here  spent  the 
remainder  of  his  days.  In  1651,  when  Charles  II.  came 
into  those  parts,  he  waited  upon  him,  and  received  a  letter 
from  his  own  hand  of  great  importance,  to  satisfy  his  loyal 
subjects  concerning  his  adherence  to  the  religion  of  the 
church  of  England.  In  1653  he  published,  as  already  ob- 
served, his  great  work  on  the  New  Testament,  and  went 
on  applying  antidotes  to  the  distempers  of  the  church  and 
state,  and  opposing  the  absurd  tenets  of  the  sectaries, 
particularly  those  of  the  anabaptists.  Afterwards  he  un- 
dertook a  "Paraphrase  and  Commentary  on  all  the  books 

I  2 

116  HAMMOND. 

of  the  Old  Testament;"  of  which  he  published  the  Psalms, 
and  went  through  a  third  part  of  the  book  of  Proverbs. 
His  want  of  health  only  hindered  him  from  .proceeding 
farther:  for  that  strength  of  body  which  had  hitherto 
attended  his  indefatigable  mind,  beginning  to  fail  him 
about  1654,  he  was  attacked  by  a  complication  of  disor- 
ders, the  stone,  the  gout,  the  colic,  and  the  cramp  ;  but 
the  stone  put  an  end  to  his  life.  While  Charles  II.  was 
designing  him  for  the  bishopric  of  Worcester,  and  he  was 
preparing  to  go  to  London,  whither  he  had  been  invited 
by  the  most  eminent  divines,  he  was  seized  with  a  sharp  fit 
of  the  stone  the  4th  of  April,  of  which  he  died  the  25th  of 
the  same  month,  1660. 

Dr.  Hammond  was  a  very  handsome  man,  well-made, 
and  of  a  strong  and  vigorous  constitution  ;  of  a  clear  and 
florid  complexion,  his  eye  remarkably  quick  and  sprightly, 
and  in  his  countenance  there  was  a  mixture  of  sweetness  and 
dignity.  He  had  a  free,  graceful,  and  commanding  elo-  • 
quenee.  King  Charles  I.  said  of  him,  that  he  was  the  most 
natural  orator  he  ever  heard.  He  had  not,  however,  a 
technical  memory,  and  used  to  complain  that  it  was  harder 
for  him  to  get  ope  sermon  by  heart  than  to  pen  twenty.  He 
was  of  a  very  kind,  social,  benevolent,  and  friendly  dis- 
position;  extremely  liberal  to  the  poor,  to  whom  he  ren- 
dered his  bounty  more  valuable  by  his  manner  of  bestow- 
ing it.  "  Misery  and  want,'7  says  his  excellent  biographer, 
"  wherever  Dr.  Hammond  met  with  them,  sufficiently  en- 
deared the  object.  His  alms  were  as  exuberant  as  his  love; 
and  in  calamities,  to  the  exigence  he  never  was  a  stranger, 
whatever  he  might  be  to  the  man  that  suffered."  Among 
other  evidences  which  Hammond  gave  of  his  benevolence, 
Dr.  Fell  informs  us,  that,  when  he  saw  a  man  honest  and 
industrious,  he  would  trust  him  with  a  sum,  and  let  him  pay 
it  again  at  such  times  and  in  such  proportions  as  he  found 
himself  able ;  all  this  accompanied  by  an  inquiry  into  his 
condition,  and  advice  as  to  the  better  disposal  of  the  mo- 
ney, closing  his  discourse  with  prayer,  and  dismissing  the 
object  of  his  benevolence  with  the  utmost  kindness.  To 
persons  of  rank  and  fortune  his  advice  was,  to  "  treat  their 
poor  neighbours  with  such  a  cheerfulness,  that  they  may 
be  glad  to  have  met  with  them." 

Dr.  Hammond  was  a  man  of  great  temperance;  his  diet 
was  of  the  plainest  kind,  and  he  frequently  practised  fast- 
»ng.  He  seldom  went  to  bed  until  midnight,  or  remained 

HAMMOND.  117 

in  it  beyond  five  or  six  o'clock.  By  these  means  he  was 
enabled  to  endure  cold  and  fatigue,  and  in  the  severest 
weather  sat  at  a  distance  from  a  fire.  His  studious  in- 
dustry was  unceasing.  He  not  only  avoided,  but  had  a 
strong  aversion  to  idleness.  "  To  be  always  furnished  with 
somewhat  to  do"  he  considered  as  the  best  expedient  both 
for  innocence  and  pleasure,  saying,  that  no  burthen  was 
more  heavy,  or  temptation  more  dangerous,  than  to  have 
time  lie  on  one's  hand."  His  piety  was  fervent,  and  from 
his  youth  he  spent  much  of  his  time  in  secret  devotion. 
Bishop  Burnet  says  of  him,  that  "  his  death  was  an  un- 
speakable loss  to  the  church  ;  for  as  he  was  a  man  of  great 
learning,  and  of  most  eminent  merit,  he  having  been  the 
person  that  during  the  bad  times  had  maintained  the  cause 
of  the  church  in  a  very  singular  manner ;  so  he  was  a  very 
moderate  man  in  his  temper,  though  with  a  high  principle, 
and  would  probably  have  fallen  into  healing  counsels.  He 
was  also  much  set  on  reforming  abuses,  and  for  raising  the 
clergy  to  a  due  sense  of  the  obligations  they  lay  under." 

He  published  a  great  many  controversial  and  practical 
tracts  and  sermons,  commentaries,  &c.  in  his  life-time, 
which,  with  many  posthumous  pieces,  were  collected  to- 
gether by  his  amanuensis,  the  learned  Mr.  William  Fulman, 
and  published  in  4  vols.  fol.  1684  ;  and  in  1739  Mr.  Peck 
published  a  collection  of  his  letters,  amounting  to  nineteen.1 

HAMPDEN  (JOHN,  esq.),  of  Hamden,  in  Buckingham- 
shire, a  celebrated  political  character  in  the  reign  of  Charles 
I.  was  born  at  London  in  1594.  He  was  of  as  ancient 
(Whitlocke  says  the  ancientest)  extraction  as  any  gentle- 
man in  his  county;  and  cousin-german  to  Oliver  Crom- 
well, his  father  having  married  the  protector's  aunt.  In. 
1609  he  was  sent  to  Magdalen  college  in  Oxford  ;  whence, 
without  taking  any  degree,  be  removed  to  the  inns  of 
court,  and  made  a  considerable  progress  in  the  study  of  the 
law.  Sir  Philip  Warwick  observes,  that  "  he  had  great 
knowledge  both  in  scholarship  and  the  law."  In  his  en- 
trance into  the  world,  he  is  said  to  have  indulged  himself 
in  all  the  licence  of  sports,  and  exercises,  and  company, 
such  as  were  used  by  men  of  the  most  jovial  conversation; 
but  afterwards  to  have  retired  to  a  more  reserved  and 

1  Life  by  bishop  Fell,  1601,  12mo,  lately  reprinted  at  Oxford,  1806. — Biog. 
Brit. — Wordsworth's  Eccl.  Biography, — Berwick's  Life. — Lloyd's  Memoirs,  fol. 
— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. — Peck's  Desiderata,  vol.  II. — Chm ton's  Life  of  Nowell.— 
Wsher's  Life,  and  Letters,  p.  541—543. 

118  H  A  M  P  D-E  N. 

austere  society,  preserving,  however,  his  natural  cheer- 
fulness and  vivacity.  In  the  second  parliament  of  king 
Charles,  which  met  at  Westminster,  February  1625-6,  he 
obtained  a  seat  in  the  house  of  commons,  as  he  also  did  in 
two  succeeding  parliaments;  but  made  no  figure  till  1636, 
when  he  became  universally  known,  by  a  solemn  trial  at 
the  king's  bench,  on  his  refusing  to  pay  the  ship-money. 
He  carried  himself,  as  Clarendon  tells  us,  through  this 
whole  suit  with  such  singular  temper  and  modesty,  that  he 
obtained  more  credit  and  advantage  by  losing  it,  than  the 
king  did  service  by  gaining  it.  From  this  time  he  soon 
grew  to  be  one  of  the  most  popular  men  in  the  nation,  and 
a  leading  member  in  the  long  parliament.  "  The  eyes  of 
all  men,"  says  the  same  writer,  "  were  fixed  upon  him  as 
their  pater  patrite,  and  the  pilot  that  must  steer  the  vessel 
through  the  tempests  and  rocks  which  threatened  it." 
After  he  had  held  the  chief  direction  of  his  party  in  the 
house  of  commons  against  the  king,  he  took  up  arms  in 
the  same  cause,  and  was  one  of  the  first  who  opened  the 
war  by  an  action  at  a  place  called  Brill,  a  garrison  of  the 
king's,  on  the  edge  of  Buckinghamshire,  about  five  miles 
from  Oxford.  He  took  the  command  of  a  regiment  of  foot 
under  the  earl  of  Essex,  and  shewed  such  skill  and  bravery, 
that,  had  he  lived,  he  would;  probably,  soon  have  been 
raised  to  the  post  of  a  general.  But  he  was  cut  off  early 
by  a  mortal  wound,  which  he  received  in  a  skirmish  with 
prince  Rupert,  at  Chalgrove-field,  in  Oxfordshire,  where, 
it  is  generally  reported,  he  was  shot  in  the  shoulder  with  a 
brace  of  bullets,  which  broke  the  bone,  June  18,  1643; 
and,  after  suffering  much  pain  and  misery,  he  died  the 
24th,  an  event  which  affected  his  party  nearly  as  much  as 
if  their  whole  army  had  been  defeated  *.  "  Many  men 
observed,"  says  Clarendon,  "  that  the  field  in  which  this 
skirmish  was,  and  upon  which  Hampden  received  his  death- 
wound,  namely,  Chalgrove-field,  was  the  same  place  in 
which  he  had  first  executed  the  ordinance  of  the  militia, 
and  engaged  that  county,  in  which  his  reputation  was  very 
great,  in  this  rebellion  :  and  it  was  confessed  by  the  pri- 
soners that  were  taken  that  day,  and  acknowledged  by  all, 

*  So  little  is  known  of  Hampden,      See  Noble's  Memoirs  of  Cromwell,  vol. 
n        T^ /  W§  death  h&S     IL  P"  70'  where  there  is  a  ]onS  "count 


of  one  of  hia  own  pistols.-^. 

H  A  M  P  D  E  N.  H9 

that  upon  the  alarm  that  morning,  after  their  quarters  were 
beaten  up,  he  was  exceeding  solicitous  to  draw  forces  to- 
gether to  pursue  the  enemy;  and,  being  a  colonel  of  foot, 
put  himself  amongst  those  horse  as  a  volunteer,  who  were 
first  ready,  and  that,  when  the  prince  made  a  stand,  all 
the  officers  were  of  opinion  to  stay  till  their  body  came  up, 
and  he  alone  persuaded  and  prevailed  with  them  to  ad- 
vance :  so  violently  did  his  fate  carry  him  to  pay  the  mulct 
in  the  place  where  he  had  committed  the  transgression 
about  a  year  before.  This  was  an  observation  made  at  that 
time  ;"  but  lord  Clarendon  does  not  adopt  it  as  an  opinion 
of  his  own. 

Hampden,  if  we  form  our  judgment  of  him  only  from 
the  account  of  those  who  were  engaged  in  the  opposite 
party  to  him,  was,  perhaps,  one  of  the  most  extraordinary 
men  that  ever  lived  ;  and  is  thus  delineated  by  the  noble 
historian  already  quoted.  "  He  was  a  man  of  much  greater 
cunning,  and  it  may  be  of  the  most  discerning  spirit,  and 
of  the  greatest  address  and  insinuation  to  bring  any  thing 
to  pass  which  he  desired,  of  any  man  of  that  time,  and  who 
laid  the  design  deepest. — He  was  not  a  man  of  many  words, 
and  rarely  began  the  discourse,  or  made  the  first  entrance 
upon  any  business  that  was  assumed,  but  a  very  weighty 
speaker;  and  after  he  had  heard  a  full  debate,  and  ob- 
served how  the  house  was  like  to  be  inclined,  took  up  the 
argument,  and  shortly,  and  clearly,  and  craftily,  so  stated 
it,  that  he  commonly  conducted  it  to  the  conclusion  he 
desired.  He  was  of  that  rare  affability  and  temper  in  de- 
bate, and  of  thatseeming  humility  and  submission  of  judg- 
ment, as  if  he  brought  no  opinion  of  his  own  with  him, 
but  a  desire  of  information  and  instruction ;  yet  he  had  so 
subtle  a  way,  and  under  the  notion  of  doubts  insinuating 
his  objections,  that  he  infused  his  own  opinions  into  those 
from  whom  he  pretended  to  learn  and  receive  them.  And 
even  with  them  who  were  able  to  preserve  themselves  from 
his  infusions,  and  discerned  those  opinions  to  be  fixed  in 
him  with  which  they  could  not  comply,  he  always  left  the 
character  of  an  ingenuous  and  conscientious  person.  He 
was,  indeed,  a  very  wise  man,  and  of  great  parts,  and 
possessed  with  the  most  absolute  spirit  of  popularity,  and 
the  most  absolute  faculties  to  govern  the  people,  of  any 
man  I  ever  knew.  For  the  first  year  of  the  parliament  he 
seemed  rather  to  moderate  and  soften  the  violent  and 
distempered  humours  than  to  inflame  them.  But  wise  and 

120  H  A  M  P  D  E  N. 

dispassionate  men  plainly  discerned,  that  that  moderation 
proceeded  from  prudence,  and  observation  that  the  season 
was  not  ripe,  rather  than  that  he  approved  of  the  modera- 
tion ;  and  that  he  begot  many  opinions  and  notions,  the 
education  whereof  he  committed  to  other  men  ;  so  far  dis- 
guising his  own  designs,  that  he  seemed  seldom  to  wish 
more  than  was  concluded.    And  in  many  gross  conclusions, 
which  would  hereafter  contribute  to  designs  not  yet  set  on 
foot,  when   he  found  them  sufficiently  backed  by  a  majo- 
rity of  voices,  he  would  withdraw  himself  before  the  ques- 
tion, that  he  might  seem  not  to  consent  to  so  much  visible 
unreasonableness ;  which  produced  as    great   a  doubt  in 
some  as  it  did  approbation  in  others  of  his  integrity.    After 
he  was  among  those  members  accused  by  the  king  of  high 
treason,  he   was  much   altered ;  his   nature  and  carriage 
seeming   much  fiercer   than    it   did    before:  and   without 
.question,  when  he  first  drew  his  sword,  he  threw  away  the 
scabbard.     He  was  very  temperate  in  diet,  and  a  supreme 
governor   over   all  his  passions   and    affections ;  and    had 
thereby  a  great  power  over  other  men's.     He  was  of  an 
industry  and  vigilance  not  to  be  tired  out  or  wearied  by 
the  most  laborious ;  and   of  parts  not  to  be  imposed  upon 
by  the  most  subtle  and  sharp ;  and  of  a  personal  courage 
equal  to  his  best  parts :  so  that  he  was  an  enemy  not  to  be 
wished  wherever  he  might  have  been  made  a  friend  ;  and 
as  much  to  be  apprehended  where  he  was  so,  as  any  .man 
could  deserve  to  be.     And  therefore  his  death  was  no  less 
pleasing  to  the  one  party  than  it  was  condoled  in  the  other. 
In  a  word,  what  was  said  of  Cinna  might  well  be  applied  to 
him  :  he  had  ahead  to  contrive,  a  tongue  to  persuade,  and 
a  hand  to  execute,  any  mischief,  or,'-'  as  the  historian  says 
elsewhere,  "  any  good."     Thus  is  Hampden  described   by 
Clarendon,  agreeably  to  the  notions  usually  formed  of  his 
character  after  the  restoration  ;  which  was  that  of  a  great, 
rather  than  a  good  man.     But  as  the  characters  of  states- 
men, commanders,  or  men   acting  in   a  public  capacity, 
always  vary  with  the  times  and  fashions  of  politics,  at  the 
revolution,  and  since,  he  has  been  esteemed  a  good  man 
as  well  as  a  great. l 

HANDEL  (GEORGE  FREDERIC),  the  greatest  musical 

ser  of  his  time,  or  perhaps  of  any  time  or  country, 

Halle,  in  the  duchy  of  Magdeburgh,  February 

Cromwell.  Brlt"~ Hume  a"d  Ra*in's  Hist.-Claremlon.-Noble'S  Memoirs  of 

HANDEL  121 

£4,  1684,  by  a  second  wife  of  his  father,  who  was  an  emi- 
nent physician  and  surgeon  of  the  same  place,  and  then 
above  sixty  years  of  age.  From  his  very  childhood  he  dis- 
covered such  a  propensity  to  music,  that  his  father,  who 
always  intended  him  for  the  civil  law,  took  every  method 
to  oppose  this  inclination,  by  keeping  him  out  of  the  way 
of,  and  strictly  forbidding  him  to  meddle  with,  musical  in- 
struments of  any  kind.  The  son,  however,  found  means 
to  get  a  little  clavicord  privately  conveyed  to  a  room  at 
the  top  of  the  house  ;  and  with  this  he  used  to  amuse  him- 
self when  the  family  was  asleep.  While  he  was  yet  under 
seven  years  of  age,  he  went  with  his  father  to  the  duke  of 
Saxe  Weisenfels,  where  it  was  impossible  to  keep  him 
from  harpsichords,  and  other  musical  instruments.  One 
morning,  while  he  was  playing  on  the  organ,  after  the 
service  was  over,  the  duke  was  in  the  church  ;  and  some- 
thing in  his  manner  of  playing  affected  his  highness  so 
strongly,  that  he  asked  his  valet-de-chambre  (who  was 
Handel's  brother-in-law)  who  it  was  that  he  heard  at  the 
organ?  The  valet  replied,  that  it  was  his  brother.  The 
duke  demanded  to  see  him  ;  and  after  making  proper  in- 
quiries about  him,  expostulated  very  seriously  with  his 
father,  who  still  retained  his  prepossessions  in  favour  of 
the  civil  law.  He  allowed  that  every  father  had  certainly 
a  right  to  dispose  of  his  children  as  he  should  think  most 
expedient;  but  that  in  the  present  instance  he  could  not 
but  consider  it  as  a  sort  of  crime  against  the  public  and 
posterity  to  rob  the  world  of  such  a  rising  genius.  The 
issue  of  this  conversation  was,  not  only  a  toleration  for  mu- 
sic, but  consent  also  that  a  master  should  be  called  in  to 
forward  and  assist  him. 

The  first  thing  his  father  did  at  his  return  to  Halle,  was 
to  place  him  under  one  Zackau,  organist  to  the  cathedral 
church,  a  person  of  great  abilities  in  his  profession,  and 
not  more  qualified  than  inclined  to  do  justice  to  any 
pupil  of  promising  hopes.  Handel  pleased  him  so  much, 
that  he  never  thought  he  could  do  enough  for  him.  He 
was  proud  of  a  pupil  who  already  began  to  attract  the  at- 
tention of  the  public  ;  and  glad  of  an  assistant  who  by  his 
extraordinary  talents  was  capable  of  supplying  his  place 
whenever  he  had  a  mind  to  be  absent.  If  it  seem  strange 
to  talk  of  an  assistant  at  seven  years  of  age,  it  will  appear 
stranger  that  at  nine  Handel  began  to  compose  the  church 
service  for  voices  and  instruments,  and  from  that  time  was 



accustomed  to  compose  a  service  every  week  for  three 
years  successively.  Having  far  surpassed  his  master,  the 
master  himself  confessing  it,  and  made  all  the  improve- 
ment he  could  at  Halle,  it  was  agreed  he  should  go  to 
Berlin  in  1698,  where  the  opera  was  in  a  flourishing  con- 
dition under  the  encouragement  of  the  elector  of  Bran- 
denburg, afterwards  king  of  Prussia.  Handel  had  not 
been  long  at  this  court  before  his  abilities  became  known 
to  the  sovereign,  who  frequently  sent  for  him,  and  made 
him  large  presents.  He  farther  offered  to  send  him  to 
Italy,  where  he  might  be  formed  under  the  best  masters, 
and  have  opportunities  of  hearing  and  seeing  all  that  was 
excellent  in  the  kind  ;  but  his  father  refused  this  offer 
from  a  spirit  of  independence.  During  his  stay  at  Berlin, 
he  became  acquainted  with  two  Italian  composers,  Buo- 
noncini  and  Attilio ;  the  same  who  afterwards  came  to 
England  while  Handel  was  here,  and  were  at  the  head  of 
a  formidable  opposition  against  him. 

Next  to  the  opera  of  Berlin,  that  of  Hamburgh  was  in  the 
highest  request ;  and  thither  it  was  resolved  to  send  him, 
with  a  view  to  improvement ;  but  his  father's  death  hap- 
pening soon  after,  and  his  mother  being  left  in  narrow 
circumstances,  he  thought  it  necessary  to  procure  scholars, 
and  obtain  some  employment  in  the  orchestra;  and  by  this 
means  was  enabled  to  prove  a  great  relief  to  her.  He  had 
a  dispute  at  Hamburgh  with  one  of  the  masters,  in  oppo- 
sition to  whom  he  laid  claim  to  the  first  harpsichord,  which 
was  determined  in  his  favour.  The  honour,  however,  had 
like  to  have  cost  him  dear  ;  for  his  antagonist  so  resented 
his  being  constrained  to  yield  to  such  a  stripling  compe- 
titor, that,  as  they  were  coming  out  of  the  orchestra,  he 
made  a  push  at  him  with  a  sword,  which  had  infallibly 
pierced  his  heart,  but  for  the  friendly  score  which  he 
carried  accidentally  in  his  bosom.  "  Had  this  happened," 
says  his  historian,  "in  the  early  ages,  not  a  mortal  but 
would  have  been  persuaded  that  Apollo  himself  interposed 
to  preserve  him  in  the  form  of  a  music-book."  Dr.  Bur- 
ney,  however,  has  subdued  this  flourish  a  little,  by  in- 
forming us  that  the  sword  broke  against  a  metal  button.  t 

From  conducting  the  performance  he  became  composer 
to  the  Chouse ;  and  "  Almeria,"  his  first  opera,  was  com- 
posed when  he  was  not  much  above  fourteen  years  of  age. 
The  success  of  it  was  so  great,  that  it  ran  for  thirty  nights 
without  interruption ;  and  this  encouraged  him  to  com- 

HANDEL.  123 

pose  others,  as  lie  did  also  a  considerable  number  of  so- 
natas during  his  stay  at  Hamburgh,  which  was  about  four 
or  five  years.  He  contracted  an  acquaintance  at  this  place 
with  many  persons  of  note,  among  whom  was  the  prince 
of  Tuscany,  brother  to  the  grand  duke.  The  prince,  who 
was  a  great  lover  of  the  art  for  which  his  country  was  fa- 
mous, would  often  lament  Handel's  not  being  acquainted 
with  the  Italian  music ;  shewed  him  a  large  collection  of 
it,;  and  was  very  desirous  he  should  return  with  him  to 
Florence.  Handel  plainly  answered,  that  he  could  see 
nothing  in  the  music  answerable  to  the  prince's  character 
of  it ;  but,  on  the  contrary,  thought  it  so  very  indifferent, 
that  the  singers,  he  said,  must  be  angels  to  recommend  it. 
The  prince  smiled  at  the  severity  of  his  censure,  yet 
pressed  him  to  return  with  him,  and  intimated  that  no  con- 
venience should  be  wanting.  Handel  thanked  him  for 
the  offer  of  a  favour  which  he  did  not  chuse  to  accept ;  for 
he  resolved  to  go  to  Italy  on  a  speculation  of  his  own,  as 
soon  as  he  could  raise  a  sum  sufficient  for  the  purpose. 
He  had  in  him  from  his  childhood  a  strong  spirit  of  inde- 
pendence, which  was  never  known  to  forsake  him  in  the 
most  distressful  seasons  of  his  life ;  and  it  is  remarkable 
that  he  refused  the  greatest  offers  from  persons  of  the  first 
distinction,  because  he  would  not  be  cramped  or  confined 
by  particular  attachments. 

Soon  after,  he  went  to  Italy,  and  Florence  was  his  first 
destination  ;  where  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  he  composed 
the  opera  of  "  Rodrigo,"  for  which  he  was  presented  with 
100  sequins,  and  a  service  of  plate.  This  may  serve  to 
shew  what  a  reception  he  met  with  at  a  place  where  the 
highest  notions  were  conceived  of  him  before  he  arrived. 
Vittoria,  a  celebrated  actress  and  singer,  bore  a  principal 
part  in  this  opera.  She  was  a  fine  woman,  and  had  been 
some  time  in  the  good  graces  of  his  serene  highness;  yet 
Handel's  youth  and  comeliness,  joined  with  his  fame  and 
abilities  in  music,  had  raised  emotions  in  her  heart,  which, 
however,  we  do  not  find  that  Handel  in  the  least  encou- 
raged. After  about  a  year's  stay  at  Florence,  he  went  to 
Venice,  where  he  was  first  discovered  at  a  masquerade, 
while  he  was  playing  on  a  harpsichord  in  his  vizor.  Scar- 
latti happened  to  be  there,  and  affirmed  it  could  be  no 
one  but  the  famous  Saxon  or  the  devil.  Being  earnestly 
importuned  to  compose  an  opera,  he  finished  his  "  Agrip- 
jpina"  in  three  weeks;  which  was  performed  twenty-seven 

124  HANDEL. 

nights  successively,  and  with  which  the  audience  were  en- 
raptured. From  Venice  he  went  to  Rome,  where  his  ar- 
rival was  no  sooner  known  than  he  received  polite  mes- 
sages from  persons  of  the  first  distinction.  Among  his 
greatest  admirers  was  the  cardinal  Ottoboni,  a  man  of  re- 
iined  taste  and  princely  magnificence ;  at  whose  court  he 
met  with  the  famous  Corelli,  with  whom  he  became  well 
acquainted.  Attempts  were  made  at  Rome  to  convert  him 
to  Popery;  but  he  declared  himself  resolved  to  die  a  mem- 
ber of  that  communion,  whether  true  or  false,  in  which  he 
had  been  born  and  bred.  From  Rome  he  went  to  Naples ; 
and  after  he  quitted  Naples,  made  a  second  visit  to  Flo- 
rence, Rome,  and  Venice.  The  whole  time  of  his  abode 
in  Italy  was  six  years ;  during  which  he  had  composed  a 
great  deal  of  music,  and  some  in  almost  every  species  of 
composition.  These  early  fruits  of  his  studies  would  doubt- 
less be  great  curiosities,  could  they  be  met  with. 

He  now  returned  to  his  native  country,  but  could  not 
prevail  on  himself  to  settle  while  there  was  any  musical 
court  which  he  had  not  seen.  He  accordingly  visited  Ha- 
nover, where  he  met  with  Steffani,  with  whom  he  had 
been  acquainted  at  Venice;  and  who  was  then  master  of 
the  chapel  to  George  I.  when  elector  of  Hanover.  There 
also  was  a  nobleman  who  had  taken  notice  of  him  in  Italy, 
and  who  afterwards  did  him  great  service  when  he  came  to 
Kngland  for  the  second  time,  baron  Kilmansegge,  who 
now  introduced  him  at  court,  and  so  well  recommended 
him  to  his  electoral  highness,  that  he  immediately  offered 
him  a  pension  of  1 500  crowns  per  annum,  as  an  induce- 
ment to  stay.  Handel  excused  his  not  accepting  this  high 
favour,  because  he  had  promised  the  court  of  the  elector 
palatine,  and  had  also  thoughts  of  going  to  England,  whi- 
ther he  had  received  strong  invitations  from  the  duke  of  Man- 
chester. On  this  he  obtained  leave  to  be  absent  for  a  twelve- 
month or  more  at  a  time,  and  to  go  whithersoever  he 
pleased  ;  and  on  these  conditions  he  thankfully  accepted 
the  pension. 

After  paying  a  visit  to  his  mother,  who  was  now  ex- 
tremely old  and  blind,  and  to  his  old  master  Zackau,  he 
set  out  for  Dusseldorp.  The  elector  was  highly  pleased 
with  him,  and  at  parting  made  him  a  present  of  a  fine  set 
of  wrought  plate  for  a  dessert.  From  Dusseldorp  he  made 
the  best  of  his  way  through  Holland;  and  embarking  for 
England,  he  arrived  at  London  in  the  winter  of  1710, 

H  A  N  D  E  L.  125 

where  he  was  soon  introduced  at  court,  and  honoured  with 
marks  of  the  queen's  favour.  Many  of  the  nobility  were 
impatient  for  an  opera  from  him ;  on  which  he  composed 
"  Rinaldo,"  which  succeeded  so  wonderfully,  that  his 
engagements  at  Hanover  became  the  subject  of  much 
concern.  He  returned  however  thither  in  about  a  twelve- 
month ;  for  besides  his  pension,  Steffani  had  resigned  to 
him  the  mastership  of  the  chapel;  but  in  17  12  he  obtained 
leave  of  the  elector  to  visit  England  again,  on  condition 
that  he  returned  within  a  reasonable  time.  The  poor  state 
of  music  here,  and  the  wretched  proceedings  at  the  Hay- 
market,  made  the  nobility  desirous  that  he  might  be  em- 
ployed in  composing  for  the  theatre.  To  their  applica- 
tions the  queen  added  her  own  authority  ;  and  as  an  en- 
couragement, settled  on  him  for  life  a  pension  of  20O/, 
per  annum.  All  this  induced  Handel  to  forget  his  obli- 
gations to  Hanover ;  so  that  when  George  I.  came  over  at 
the  death  of  the  queen,  in  1714,  conscious  how  ill  he  had 
deserved  at  his  hands,  he  durst  not  appear  at  court.  It 
happened,  however,  that  his  noble  friend  baron  Kilman- 
segge  was  here ;  and  he,  with  others  of  the  nobility,  con- 
trived the  following  scheme  for  reinstating  him  in  his  ma- 
jesty's favour.  The  king  was  persuaded  to  form  a  party 
on  the  water;  and  Handel  was  desired  to  prepare  some 
music  for  that  occasion.  This,  which  has  since  been  so 
justly  celebrated  under  the  title  of  the  "  Water  Music/* 
was  performed  and  conducted  by  himself,  unknown  to  his 
majesty,  whose  pleasure  on  hearing  it  was  equal  to  hig 
surprize.  Upon  his  inquiring  whose  it  was,  the  baron 
produced  the  delinquent,  and  presented  him  to  his  ma- 
jesty, as  one  that  was  too  conscious  of  his  fault  to  attempt 
an  excuse  for  it.  Thus  Handel  was  restored  to  favour, 
and  his  music  honoured  with  the  highest  approbation;  and 
as  a  token  of  it,  the  king  was  pleased*  to  add  a  pension  foe 
life  of  200/.  a  year  to  that  which  queen  Anne  had  before 
given  him.  Some  years  after,  when  he  was  employed  to 
teach  the  young  princesses,  another  pension  was  added  to 
the  former  by  her  late  majesty. 

Handel  was  now  settled  in  England,  and  well  provided 
for.  The  first  three  years  he  was  chiefly,  if  not  constantly, 
at  the  earl  of  Burlington's,  where  he  frequently  met  Pope. 
The  poet  one  day  asked  his  friend  Arbuthnot,  of  whose 
knowledge'in  music  he  had  an  high  idea,  what  was  his  real 
opinion  of  Handel,  as  a  master  of  that  science?  who  re-, 

126  HANDEL. 

plied,  "  Conceive  the  highest  you  can  of  his  abilities,  and 
they  are  much  beyond  any  thing  that  you  can  conceive." 
Pope  nevertheless  declared,  that  Handel's  finest  things, 
so  untoward  were  his  ears,  gave  him  no  more  pleasure 
than  the  airs  of  a  common  ballad.  The  two  next  years 
Handel  spent  at  Cannons,  then  in  its  glory,  and  composed 
music  for  the  chapel  there.  About  this  time  a  project  was 
formed  by  the  nobility  for  erecting  an  academy  in  the 
Haymarket;  the  intention  of  which  was  to  secure  a  con- 
stant supply  of  operas,  to  be  composed  by  Handel,  and 
to  be  performed  under  his  direction.  For  this  purpose 
the  sum  of  50,000^.  was  subscribed,  the  king  subscribing 
lOOOl.  and  a  society  was  formed  called  "  the  Royal  Aca- 
demy.'* Handel  immediately  was  commissioned  to  go  to 
Dresden  in  quest  of  singers,  whence  he  brought  Senesino 
and  Duristanti.  At  this  time  Buononcini  and  Attilto, 
whom  we  have  mentioned  before,  composed  for  the  opera,, 
and  had  a  strong  party  in  their  favour,  which  produced 
a  violent  opposition,  ridiculed  by  Swift  and  the  other  wits 
of  the  time,  although  of  great  importance  to  the  fashion- 
able world ;  but  at  last  the  rival  composers  and  performers 
were  all  united,  and  each  was  to  have  his  particular  part. 

The  academy  being  now  firmly  established,  and  Handel 
appointed  principal  composer,  all  things  went  on  pros- 
perously for  a  course  of  ten  years.  Handel  maintained  an 
absolute  authority  over  the  singers  and  the  band,  or  rather 
kept  them  in  total  subjection.  What,  however,  they  re- 
garded for  some  time  as  legal  government,  at  length  ap- 
peared to  be  downright  tyranny;  on  which  a  rebellion 
commenced,  with  Senesino  at  the  head  of  it,  and  all  be- 
came tumult  and  civil  war.  Handel  perceiving  that  Se- 
nesino was  grown  less  tractable  and  obsequious,  resolved 
to  subdue  him.  To  manage  him  by  gentle  means  he  dis- 
dained ;  yet  to  controul  him  by  force  he  could  not,  Se- 
nesino's  interest  and  party  being  too  powerful.  The  one, 
therefore,  was  quite  refractory,  the  other  quite  outrageous. 
The  merits  of  the  quarrel  are  not  known  ;  but,  whatever 
they  were,  the  nobility  would  not  consent  to  his  design  of 
parting  with  Senesino,  and  Handel  had  resolved  to  have 
no  farther  concerns  with  him.  And  thus  the  academy, 
after  it  had  gone  on  in  a  flourishing  state  for  above  nine 
years,  was  at  once  dissolved. 

Handel  still  continued  at  the  Haymarket,  but  his  audi- 
ence gradually  sunk  away.  New  singers  must  be  sought, 

HANDEL.  127 

and  could  not  be  had  any  nearer  than  Italy,  to  which,  how- 
ever, he  was  obliged  to  go,  and  returning  with  several 
singers,  he  carried  on  the  opera  for  three  or  four  years 
without  success.  Many  of  the  nobility  raised  a  new  sub- 
scription for  another  opera  at  Lincoln's-inn-fields,  and 
sent  for  Farinelli  and  others ;  and  in  short,  the  opposition 
was  so  strong,  that  in  spite  of  his  great  abilities,  his  affairs 
declined,  and  his  fortune  was  not  more  impaired  than  his 
health  and  his  understanding.  His  right  arm  was  become 
useless  to  him  from  a  stroke  of  the  palsy ;  and  his  senses 
were  greatly  disordered  at  intervals  for  a  long  time.  In 
this  unhappy  state,  it  was  thought  necessary  that  he  should 
go  to  the  vapour-baths  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  ;  and  thence  he 
received  a  cure,  which  from  the  manner,  as  well  as  quick- 
ness of  it,  passed  with  the  nuns  for  a  miracle. 

Soon  after  his  return  to  London,  in  1736,  his  "  Alex- 
ander's Feast"  was  performed  at  Covent-garden,  and  ap- 
plauded ;  and  several  other  attempts  were  made  to  reinstate 
him,  but  they  did  not  prevail;  the  Italian  party  were  too 
powerful;  so  that  in  174-1  he  went  to  Dublin,  where  he 
was  well  received,  and  began  to  repair  his  fortune.  At 
his  return  to  London  in  1741-2,  the  minds  of  most  men 
were  disposed  in  his  favour,  and  the  aera  of  his  prosperity 
returned.  He  immediately  began  his  oratorios  in  Covent- 
garden,  which  he  continued  with  uninterrupted  success 
and  unrivalled  glory,  till  within  eight  days  of  his  death. 
The  last  was  performed  on  the  6th,  and  he  expired  on  the 
13th  of  April,  1759.  He  was  buried  in  Westminster- abbey, 
where  by  his  own  order,  and  at  his  own  expence,  a  monu- 
ment is  erected  to  his  memory. 

As  a  composer,  it  would  be  affectation  to  attempt  any 
character  of  Handel  after  what  Dr.  Burney  has  given. 
"  That  Handel  was  superior  in  the  strength  and  boldness 
of  his  style,  the  richness  of  his  harmony,  and  complication 
of  parts,  to  every  composer  who  has  been  most  admired 
for  such  excellencies,  cannot  be  disputed  ;  and  while 
fugue,  contrivance,  and  a  full  score  were  more  generally- 
reverenced  than  at  present,  he  remained  wholly  unrivalled. 
We  know  it  has  been  said  that  Handel  was  not  the  original 
3-nd  immediate  inventor  of  several  species  of  music  for  which 
his  name  has  been  celebrated  ;  but  with  respect  to  origi- 
nality, it  is  a  term  to  which  proper  limits  should  be  set 
before  it  is  applied  to  the  productions  of  any  artist.  Every 
invention  is  clumsy  in  its  beginning  j  and  Shakspeare  was 

128  HANDEL. 

not  the  first  writer  of  plays,  or  Corelli  the  first  composer 
of  violin  solos,  sonatas,  and  concertos,  though  those  which 
he  produced  were  the  best  of  his  time  ;  nor  was  Milton  the 
inventor  of  epic  poetry.  The  scale,  harmony,  and  ca- 
dence of  music  being  settled,  it  is  impossible  for  any  com- 
poser to  invent  a  genus  of  composition  that  is  wholly  and 
rigorously  new,  any  more  than  for  a  poet  to  form  a  lan- 
guage, idiom,  and  phraseology  for  himself.  All  that  the 
o-reatest  and  boldest  musical  inventor  can  do,  is  to  avail 
himself  of  the  best  effusions,  combinations,  and  effects  of 
his  predecessors  ;  to  arrange  and  apply  them  in  a  new 
manner;  and  to  add  from  his  own  source,  whatever  he  can 
draw,  that  is  grand,  graceful,  gay,  pathetic,  or  in  any 
other  way  pleasing.  This  Handel  did  in  a  most  ample  and 
superior  manner ;  being  possessed  in  his  middle  age  and 
full  vigour,  of  every  refinement  and  perfection  of  his  time; 
uniting  the  depth  and  elaborate  contrivance  of  his  own 
country  with  Italian  elegance  and  facility  ;  as  he  seems 
while  he  resided  south  of  the  Alps,  to  have  listened  atten- 
tively in  the  church,  theatre,  and  chamber,  to  the  most 
exquisite  compositions  and  performers  of  every  kind  that 
were  then  existing.  We  will  not  assert  that  his  vocal  me- 
Todies  were  more  polished  and  graceful  than  those  of  his 
countryman  and  contemporary  Hasse ;  or  his  recitatives  or 
musical  declamation,  superior  to  that  of  his  rivals  Buonon- 
cini  and  Porpora.  But  in  his  instrumental  composition* 
there  is  a  vigour,  a  spirit,  a  variety,  a  learning,  and  invention, 
superior  to  every  other  composer  that  can  be  named  ;  and 
in  his  organ  fugues  and  organ  playing,  there  is  learning 
always  free  from  pedantry;  and  in  his  choruses  a  grandeur 
and  sublimity  which  we  believe  has  never  been  equalled 
since  the  invention  of  counterpoint." 

The  figure  of  Handel  was  large,  and  he  was  somewhat 
corpulent  and  unwieldy  in  his  motions,  and  his  general 
cast  of  countenance  seemed  rather  heavy  and  sour ;  yet, 
when  animated  in  conversation,  his  visage  was  full  of  fire 
and  dignity,  and  such  as  impressed  ideas  of  superiority 
and  genius;  and  when  he  smiled,  there  was  an  uncommon 
sudden  flash  of  intelligence,  wit,  and  good-humour  beam- 
ing in  his  countenance.  Though  he  was  generally  rough 
and  peremptory  in  his  manners  and  conversation,  he  was 
totally  devoid  of  ill-nature  or  malevolence;  indeed,  there 
was  an  original  humour  and  pleasantry  in  his  most  lively 
sallies  of  anger  or  impatience,  which,  with  his  broken 

ft  A  N  D  E  L 

English,  were  extremely  risible.  His  natural  propensity 
to  wit  and  humour,  and  happy  manner  of  relating  common 
occurrences  in  an  uncommon  way,  enabled  him  to  throw 
persons  and  things  into  very  ridiculous  attitudes.  Had  he 
been  as  great  a  master  of  the  English  language  as  Swift, 
his  bon-mots  would  have  been  as  frequent,  and  somewhat 
of  the  same  kind. 

Handel,  with  many  virtues,  was  addicted  to  no  vice  that 
was  injurious  to  society.  Nature,  indeed,  required  a  great 
supply  of  sustenance  to  support  so  huge  a  mass,  and  he 
was  rather  Epicurean  in  the  choice  of  it ;  but  this  seems 
to  have  been  the  only  appetite  which  he  allowed  himself 
to  gratify ;  and  though  he  was  frequently  rough  in  his 
language,  and  in  the  habit  of  swearing,  a' vice  then  much 
more  in  fashion  than  at  present,  he  became  more  regular 
during  the  last  years  of  his  life,  and  constantly  attended 
public  prayers  twice  a  day,  winter  and  summer,  both  in 
London  and  Tunbridge. 

It  has  been  said  of  him,  that  out  of  his  profession  he  was 
ignorant  and  dull,  but,  if  the  fact  was  as  true  as  it  is  se- 
vere, it  must  be  allowed  in  extenuation,  that  to  possess  a 
difficult  art  in  the  perfect  manner  in  which  he  did,  and  to 
be  possessed  by  it,  seems  a  natural  consequence,  and  all 
that  the  public  had  a  right  to  expect,  as  he  pretended  to 
nothing  more.  So  occupied  and  absorbed  was  Handel  by 
the  study  and  exercise  of  his  profession,  that  he  had  little 
time  to  bestow,  either  on  private  amusements  or  the  culti- 
vation of  friendship.  Indeed,  the  credit  and  reverence 
arising  from  these,  had  Handel  possessed  them,  would 
have  been  transient,  and  confined  to  his  own  age  and  ac- 
quaintance ;  whereas  the  fame  acquired  by  silent  and 
close  application  to  his  professional  business  is  universal. 
Dr.  Burney  thinks  it  probable  that  his  name,  like  that  of 
many  of  his  brethren,  will  long  survive  his  works.  The 
most  learned  man  can  give  us  no  information  concerning 
either  the  private  life  or  compositions  of  Orpheus,  Am- 
phion,  Linus,  Olympus,  Terpander,  or  Timotheus,  yet 
every  school-boy  can  tell  us  that  they  were  great  musicians, 
the  delight  of  their  several  ages,  and  many  years  after, 
of  posterity.  Though  totally  free  from  the  sordid  vices  of 
meanness  and  avarice,  and  possessed  of  their  opposite  vir- 
tues, charity  and  generosity,  in  spite  of  temporary  adver- 
sity, powerful  enemies,  and  frequent  maladies  of  body, 
which  sometimes  extended  to  intellect,  Handel  died  worth 



upwards  of  20,000/. ;  which,  except  1000/.  to  the  fund  for 
decayed  musicians  and  their  families,  he  chiefly  bequeathed 
to  his  relations  on  the  continent.1 

HANCKIUS  (MARTIN),  a  learned  German  professor, 
was  born  February  16,  1633,  at  Breslaw.  Some  theses 
which  he  maintained  did  him  so  much  honour,  that  he 
was  invited  to  Gotha,  where  he  was  made  professor  of 
morality,  politics,  and  history  ;  and  appointed  afterwards 
professor  of  history,  politics,  and  rhetoric,  at  Breslaw, 
1661  ;  librarian  of  the  Elizabeth  library,  in  the  same  city, 
1670  -y  patron  of  the  college  of  Elizabeth,  1631  ;  and  in 
1688,  teacher  and  inspector  of  all  the  schools  of  the  Augs- 
burg confession  in  that  country.  He  died  at  Breslaw, 
April  24,  1709.  He  wrote  many  works  which  established 
his  reputation  among  his  countrymen  as  an  acute  critic  and 
profound  scholar.  His  principal  performance,  and  that 
for  which  he  is  most  esteemed  among  scholars,  is  his  book 
"  De  Romanarum  rerum  Scriptoribus,"  2  vols.  4to,  1669, 
1675,  to  which  was  added  another,  "  De  By  z  an  tin  arum 
rerum  Scriptoribus  Grsecis,"  1677,  4to.  His  other  publi- 
cations, also  on  history  and  antiquities,  are  in  considerable 

HANMER  (MEREDITH),  an  English  divine  of  a  very 
mixed  character,  was  son  to  Thomas  Hanmer  of  Porking- 
ton,  in  Shropshire,  where  he  was  born  in  1543,  though 
Fuller  says  he  was  born  in  Flintshire.  He  became  chaplain 
of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford,  where  he  took  a  degree 
in  arts  in  April  1567.  He  afterwards  was  presented  to  the 
living  of  St.  Leonard,  Shoreditch,  during  his  holding  of 
which  his  conduct  was  such  as  to  bring  great  odium  on  him. 
Out  of  avarice  he  tore  away  the  brass  plates  from  the  grave- 
stones and  monuments,  and  sold  them;  and  he  also  ap- 
pears by  Fleetwood's  Diary  to  have  paid  very  little  regard  to 
his  oath  in  a  court  of  justice.  In  1581  or  1582,  betook 
his  degrees  in  divinity,  and  in  Nov.  4th,  1583,  was  pre- 
sented to  the  vicarage  of  Islington,  which  he  resigned  in 
1590.  Two  or  three  years  afterwards  he  resigned  Shore- 
ditch,  went  to  Ireland,  and  at  length  became  treasurer  to 
the  church  of  the  holy  Trinity,  in  Dublin,  which  he  kept 
until  his  death  in  1604.  Weever  says  he  committed  sui- 
cide ;  and  there  is  still  a  tradition  to  this  effect  among  the 

1  Barney's  Hist,  of  Music,  and  article  in  Rees's  Cyclopadia.— £urney'« 
Hist,  of  the  Commemoration  of  Handel. 
3  tfictron,  rol.  XXXVI  11,—Chaufepie.— Saxii 

H  A  N  M  E  R.  131 

inhabitants  of  Shoreditch  parish.  Whatever  his  errors,  he 
was  esteemed  an  exact  disputant,  and  a  good  preacher;  an 
excellent  Greek  scholar,  and  well  versed  in  ecclesiastical 
and  civil  history.  Besides  some  tracts  against  the  Jesuits, 
he  published  "  A  Chronography,"  &c.  Lond.  1585,  folio, 
which  Harris  says  was  added  to  his  translation  of  "  The 
Ancient  Ecclesiastical  Histories  of  the  first  600  years  after 
Christ,  originally  written  by  Eusebius,  Socrates,  and  Eva- 
grius,"  1576,  folio,  reprinted  1585.  With  this  were  printed 
the  lives  of  the  prophets  and  apostles,  &c.  by  Dorotheus, 
bishop  of  Tyre ;  the  Ephemeris  of  the  Saints  of  Ireland ; 
and  "  The  Chronicle  of  Ireland,  in  two  parts,"  the  third 
part  of  which  was  published  in  1633,  at  Dublin,  fol.  He 
published  also,  "  A  Sermon  on  the  Baptising  of  a  Turk,'* 
preached  in  the  collegiate  church  of  St.  Katherine,  1586, 

HANMER  (Slit  THOMAS,  Bart.)  a  distinguished  states- 
man and  polite  writer,  was  born  about  1676,  and  had  hi* 
education  at  Westminster-school,  and  Christ-church,  Ox- 
ford. When  he  arrived  at  years  of  maturity,  he  was  chosen 
knight  of  the  shire  for  the  county  of  Suffolk,  and  sat  in 
parliament  near  thirty  years,  either  as  a  representative  for 
that  county,  or  for  Flintshire,  or  for  the  borough  of  Thet- 
ford.  In  this  venerable  assembly  he  was  soon  distinguished ; 
and  his  powerful  elocution  and  unbiassed  integrity  drew 
the  attention  of  all  parties.  In  17 13  he  was  chosen  speaker 
of  the  house  of  commons ;  which  office,  difficult  at  all 
times,  but  at  that  time  more  particularly,  he  discharged 
with  becoming  dignity.  All  other  honours  and  emolu- 
ments he  declined.  Having  withdrawn  himself  by  degrees 
from  public  business,  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  in 
an  honourable  retirement  amongst  his  books  and  friends ; 
and  there  prepared  an  elegant  and  correct  edition  of  the 
works  of  Shakspeare.  This  he  presented  to  the  university 
of  Oxford;  and  it  was  printed  there  1744,  in  6  vols.  4to, 
with  elegant  engravings,  by  Gravelot,  at  the  expence  of 
sir  Thomas.  He  died  at  his  seat  in  Suffolk,  April  5, 
1746.  2 

HANNEKEN  (MEMNON),  a  celebrated  Lutheran  divine, 
was  born  March  1,  1595,  at  Blaxen  in  the  county  of  Olden- 
burg, into  which  county,  and  Delmenhorst,  his  ancestors 

1  Fuller's  Worthies.— -Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Ellis's  Hist,  of  Shoreditch. 

2  Biog.  Brit.  vol.  VI.  part  II.  Supplement,  where  there  are  many  particulars 
«f  his  quarrel  with  Warburton,  &c.— Swift's  Works,  see  Index. 



had  introduced  Lutheranism.     He  was  professor  of  mora- 
lity, afterwards  of  divinity  and  oriental  languages  at  Mar- 
purg,  and,   lastly^  superintendant  of  the  churches  of  Lu- 
bec,  where   he   died    February  17,  1671.      His   principal 
works  are,  "  Scutum  Catholic®  veritatis,"  against  the  Je- 
suit Thomas  Henrici ;  an  "  Examination  of  the  Jesuit  Be- 
can's  Manual  ;"  a  "  Hebrew  Grammar  ;"  "  Expositio  Epis- 
tolse  Pauli  ad  Ephesios,"  Marpurg,  1631,  4to  ;   "  Synopsis 
Theologiae  ;"  "  Irenicum  Catholico  Evangelicum  ;"   "  De 
Justificatione    Hominis,"    &c.— His   son,     PHILIP    LEWIS 
Hanneken,  who  died  professor  of  divinity  at  Wittemberg, 
June  16,  1706,  has  also  left  several  works  on  the  Scriptures.1 
HANNEMAN    (JOHN,    or  according   to   lord  Orford, 
ADRIAN),  an  historical  and  portrait  painter,  was   born  at 
the  Hague  in  1611,  and  as  some  writers  report,  was  a  dis- 
ciple of  Vandyke;  But  with  more  probability,  was  a  dis- 
ciple of  Hubert  Kavestein.     However,  he  formed  his  taste, 
and  his  manner  of  penciling,  by  studying  and  copying  the 
works  of  Vandyke,  observing  particularly  the  airs  of  the 
heads,  which  he  very  happily  imitated  ;  and  in  the  tints  of 
his  carnations  he  had  somewhat  so  extremely  soft  and  de- 
licate, as  to  give  them  an  appearance  little  inferior  to  those 
of  Vandyke.     Several  of  Hannetnan's  copies  after  that  il- 
lustrious painter's   works  shewed  such  exactness,  and  at 
the  same  time  such  a  freedom  of  hand,  that  they  are  fre- 
quently mistaken  for  offegirials.     Although  he  was  usually 
employed  in  portrait- painting,  yet  he  sometimes  designed 
historical  and  allegorical  subjects.  Of  the  latter  kind  there 
is^a  large  picture  in  the  hall  of  the  States  of  Holland,  re- 
presenting Peace,  under  the  figure  of  a  beautiful  woman 
seated  on   a  throne,   holding  a  dove  on    her  knees,  and 
crowned  with  wreaths  of  laurel  by  two  genii.     The  com- 
position is  rich,  and  it  is  painted  with  a  great  deal  of  force; 
the  carnations  approaching  very  near  to  the  tints  of  Van- 
dyke.    He  came  to  England  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  and 
continued  here  for  sixteen  years,  and,  at  his  return  to  the 
Hague,  became  the  favourite  painter  of  the  princess  Mary 
of  Orange.     There  is  a  picture  of  her,  and  the  prince  in 
armour,  at  lord  Stratford's  at  Wentworth  castle,  painted, 
as  lord  Orford  thinks,  by  him  ;  there  are  also  portraits  by 
him  at  Windsor,  Worksop,  and  other  places.     He  died 

ahmir    1  £fin  2  * 

about  1680." 

1  Chaufepie.— Moreri.— Saxii  Onomait. 
9  .-Walpole'i  Anecdotes, 

H  A  N  N  O.  133 

IIANNO,  a  Carthaginian  general,  who  was  employed 
to  sail  round  Africa,  entered  the  ocean  by  what  is  now 
called  the  Strait  of  Gibraltar;  discovered  several  countries, 
and  would  have  continued  his  voyage,  had  he  not  been  in 
want  of  provisions.  The  "  Periplus  of  Hanno,"  ascribed 
to  him,  was  published  in  Greek  by  Gelenius,  1533,  and 
there  is  a  good  edition  of  it  in  Greek  and  Latin,  with  notes, 
Leyden,  1674,  12mo.  It  is  also  inserted  in  the  "  Geogra- 
phi  Veteres,"  Oxford,  4  vols.  8vo,  but  some  suppose  this 
work  is  of  much  later  date  than  the  time  of  Hanno,  there 
being  reason  to  suppose  he  was  the  famous  Carthaginian 
general  who  carried  on  the  war  against  Agathocles,  when 
Carthage  was  in  its  most  flourishing  state.  It  has  been 
translated  into  Italian  by  Romusio,  into  Spanish  by  Cam- 
pomanes,  into  French  by  Bougainville,  and  in  I7U7  into 
English  by  the  learned  Mr.  Falconer  of  Corpus  college, 
Oxford,  who  has  ably  defended  the  authenticity  of  the 
work  against  Dodwell  and  other  writers.1 

HANVILL  (JOHN),  a  monk  of  St.  Alban's,  and  a  Latin 
poet  of  the  twelfth  century,  was  a  native  of  this  country, 
and  educated  at  Oxford,  where  he  took  a  master's  degree. 
He  is  said  to  have  travelled  through  a  great  part  of  Europe, 
and  during  a  long  residence  at  Paris,  studied  rhetoric,  and 
was  distinguished  for  his  taste  even  among  the  numerous 
and  polite  scholars  of  that  flourishing  seminary.  On  his 
return  to  England,  he  became  a  Benedictine  monk  in  the 
abbey  of  St.  Alban's,  where  he  died  about  the  beginning 
of  the  thirteenth  century.  He  wrote  a  long  Latin  poem  in 
nine  books,  dedicated  to  Walter  bishop  of  Rouen,  entitled 
"  Architrenius,"  which  Warton,  who  has  given  a  long  spe- 
cimen of  it,  pronounces  a  learned,  ingenious,  and  very  en- 
tertaining performance,  containing  a  mixture  of  satire  and 
panegyric  on  public  vice  and  virtue,  with  some  historical 
digressions,  but  not  enough  to  justify  Simlerus's  blunder 
in  the  epitome  of  Gesner's  Bibliotheca,  where  he  says  the 
subject  is  *' de  antiquitatibus  Britannise."  This  work  was 
printed  at  Paris,  1517,  4to,  and  is  scarce;  but  there  are 
two  manuscripts  of  it  in  the  Bodleian  library,  with  some 
epistles,  epigrams,  and  other  poems  by  the  same  hand.2 

HAN  WAY  (JONAS),  a  benevolent  and  amiable  character, 
was  born  at  Portsmouth  in  1712.     He  was  at  a  very  early 

'  Moreri. — Saxii  Onomast — Falconer's  translation. 

9  Leland. — ]>ale. — Pits,    and  Tanner. — Walton's  Hist,   of  Poetry. — Fuller's 

13*  H  A  N  W  A  Y. 

age  bound  apprentice  to  a  merchant  at  Lisbon,  and  after- 
wards connected  himself  with  a  mercantile  house  at  Peters- 
burgh,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was  induced  to  travel 
into  Persia.  On  leaving  Russia  with  an  independent  for- 
tune, he  returned  to  his  own  country,  and  passed  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life  as  a  private  gentleman,  honourably  to 
himself  and  useful  to  the  world.  In  1753,  he  published 
an  account  of  his  travels  through  Russia  into  Persia,  and 
back  again  through  Russia,  Germany,  and  Holland.  To 
this  work  also  was  added  an  account  of  the  revolutions  of 
Persia  during  the  present  century.  His  other  publications 
are  very  numerous;  most  of  them  were  well  received,  and 
all  of  them  calculated  to  prove  him  an  excellent  citizen 
and  liberal-minded  man.  The  institution  of  the  Marine 
Society,  justly  attributed  to  his  activity  and  benevolence, 
was  the  favourite  object  of  Mr.  Han  way's  care  ;  and  in 
1758,  he  was  also  particularly  instrumental  in  the  esta- 
blishment of  the  Magdalen  charity.  His  public  spirit,  and, 
above  all,  his  disinterestedness,  were  so  conspicuous,  that 
a  deputation  of  the  principal  merchants  in  London  waited 
upon  the  earl  of  Bute,  when  prime  minister,  and  repre- 
sented to  him  that  an  individual  like  Mr.  Hanway,  who  had 
done  so  much  public  good  to  the  injury  of  his  private  for- 
tune, was  deserving  of  some  signal  mark  of  the  public 
esteem.  He  was  accordingly  made  a  commissioner  of  the 
navy,  a  situation  which  he  held  more  than  twenty  years, 
and,  when  he  resigned,  he  was  allowed  to  retain  the  salary 
for  life,  on  account  of  his  known  exertions  in  the  cause  of 
universal  chanty.  To  enumerate  the  various  instances  in 
which  the  benevolent  character  of  his  heart  was  success- 
fully exerted,  would  be  no  easy  task.  Sunday-schools  in 
a  great  measure  may  look  upon'  Mr.  Hanway  as  their  fa- 
ther;  the  chimney-sweepers'  boys  are  much  indebted  to 
his  humanity;  and  perhaps  there  never  was  any  public 
calamity  in  any  part  of  the  British  empire  which  he  did 
not  endeavour  to  alleviate.  So  greatly  and  so  universally 
was  he  respected,  that  when  he  died,  in  1786,  a  subscrip- 
tion of  many  hundred  pounds  was  raised  to  erect  a  monu- 
ment to  his  memory.  The  great  character  of  his  numerous 
works  is  a  strong  masculine  spirit  of  good  sense,  and  a 
very  chaste  simplicity.  In  his  private  life  he  was  remark- 
able for  the  strictest  integrity  of  conduct,  and  for  a  frank- 
ness and  candour  which  naturally  inspired  confidence.  The 
number  of  his  publications  amounted  to  almost  seventy,  a 

H  A  R  M  U  S.  135 

catalogue  of  which  is  annexed  to  his  Life  by  Mr.  Pugh,  a 
work  highly  edifying  and  entertaining.1 

HARjEUS  (FRANCIS),  a  learned  Dutch  catholic  divine, 
and  called  in  that  language  Van  der  Haer,  was  born  at 
Utrecht  in  1550,  and  after  the  usual  course  of  academical 
instruction,  taught  rhetoric  at  Douay,  and  travelled  after- 
wards into  Germany,  Italy,  and  Muscovy.  He  accompa- 
nied father  Pousse vin,  who  was  sent  there  by  the  pope  as 
nuncio.  On  his  return,  he  was  made  canon  of  Bois-Ie-duc, 
then  of  Namur,  and  Louvain,  at  which  last  place  he  died, 
January  12,  1632.  His  principal  works  are,  "  Biblia  sacra 
expositionibus  priscorum  Patrum  litteralibus  *t  mysticis 
illustrata,"  Antwerp,  1630,  folio;  "Catena  aurea  in  IV 
Evangelia,"  1625,  8vo;  "  Annales  Ducum  Brabantiae,  ac 
tumultuum  Belgicorum  ;"  an  abridgment  of  the  "  Lives  of 
the  Saints,1'  taken  chiefly  from  Surius,  8vo  ;  and  "  A  Chro- 
nology," Antwerp,  1614,  4to,  &c.2 

HARDI  (ALEXANDER),  a  French  dramatist  of  the  se- 
venteenth century,  remarkable  for  the  fertility  of  his  pen, 
wrote  an  incredible  number  of  pieces  for  the  theatre,  som« 
say  six  hundred,  and  some  even  more.  Of  these,  however, 
no  more  remain  than  thirty-four,  which  were  published  by 
himself  in  six  volumes,  8vo,  Paris,  1625 — 1628.  Among 
these  the  only  tolerable  piece  is  "  Marianne,"  so  good,  in- 
deed, that  his  readers  will  wonder  how  it  came  there.  All 
his  boast  was  a  remarkable  facility  in  writing ;  it  was  said 
that  he  would  write  two  thousand  lines  in  twenty-four 
hours :  in  three  days  his  play  was  composed,  and  acted. 
He  certainly  had  considerable  talents,  but,  as  he  was  very 
necessitous,  and  compelled  to  write  against  time,  his  abili- 
ties had  not  fair  scope.  He  was  the  first  French  dramatist 
who  introduced  the  custom  of  being  paid  for  his  pieces. 
He  died  at  Paris  in  1630.3 

HARDING,  or  IIARDYNG  (JOHN),  one  of  our  old 
English  historians,  descended  from  a  reputable  northern 
family,  was  born  in  1  373,  and  at  the  age  of  twelve  was  ad- 
mitted into  the  family  of  sir  Henry  Percy,  eldest  son  to 
the  earl  of  Northumberland,  familiarly  known  by  the  name 
of  Harry  Hotspur,  on  account  of  his  impatient  spirit.  He 
was  one  of  the  most  esteemed  warriors  of  his  time,  active 

*  Life  by  Pugh. — Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXV. — Johnson's  Works  by  Hawkins.— 
Boswell's  Life  of  Johnson. 

2  Buruaan  Traject,  Erudit.— Foppen  Bibl.  Belg. — Clement  Bibl.  Cuiifuse.<-« 
Saxii  Ouoinast,  3  Diet.  Hist. 

136  HARDING. 

and  enterprising,  had  a  large  vassalry,  numerous  partizans, 
and  unlimited  authority.  His  household,  as  lord  of  the 
east  march  of  England,  was  constantly  held  at  Berwick^ 
upon-Tweed.  Harding,  it  appears,  was  with  his  patron, 
as  a  volunteer,  in  the  battles  of  Homildon  and  Cokelawe. 
After  the  death  of  Percy,  he  enlisted  under  the  banners 
of  sir  Robert  Umfravile,  with  whom  he  had  fought  at  Ho- 
roildon,  and  who  was  connected  with  the  Percies  by  the 
ties  of  affinity  as  well  as  those  of  arms.  In  1405,  when 
king  Henry  IV.  reduced  the  fortresses  of  lord  Bardolph 
and  the  earl  of  Northumberland,  sir  Robert  Umfravile's 
services  in  the  expedition  were  rewarded  with  the  castle 
of  Warkworth,  under  whom  Harding  became  the  constable. 
How  long  he  remained  at  Warkworth  does  not  appear,  but 
his  knowledge  of  Scottish  geography  seems  soon  to  have 
engaged  him  in  the  secret  service  of  his  country,  In  1415 
we  find  him  attendant  on  the  king  at  Harfleur,  and  his 
journal  of  the  march  which  preceded  the  memorable  battle 
of  Agincourt  forms  one  of  the  most  curious  passages  among 
the  additions  to  the  late  reprint  of  his  Chronicle.  In  1416 
he  appears  to  have  accompanied  the  duke  of  Bedford  to 
the  sea-fight  at  the  mouth  of  the  Seine.  In  1424  he  was 
at  Rome,  and  employed  partly  in  inspecting  "  the  great 
Chronicle  of  Trogus  Pompeius ;"  but  soon  after  he  was 
again  employed  in  collecting  documents  for  ascertaining 
the  fealty  due  from  the  Scottish  kings,  which  seems  to 
have  been  attended  with  some  personal  danger.  He  has 
even  been  accused  of  forging  deeds  to  answer  his  royal 
master's  purpose  ;  but  the  truth  of  this  charge  cannot  now 
be  ascertained. 

Actively  as  Harding  was  engaged  in  public  life,  he 
found  time  to  gather  materials  lor  his  "  Chronicle,",  and 
appears  to  have  finished  the  first  composition  of  it  toward 
the  latter  en4  of  the  minority  of  king  Henry  VI.  The 
Lansdowne  manuscript  closes  with  the  life  of  sir  Robert 
Umfravile,  who  died,  according  to  Dugdale,  Jan.  27,  1436, 
and  under  whom  Harding  seems  to  have  lived  in  his  latter 
years  as  constable  of  Kyme  castle  in  Lincolnshire.  Of 
the  rewards  which  he  received  for  his  services,  we  find  only 
a  grant  for  life  often  pounds  per  annum  out  of  the  manor 
or  alien  preceptory  of  Wyloughton  in  the  county  of  Lin- 
coln, in  the  eighteenth  year  of  Henry  VI.;  and  in  1457  he 
had  a  pension  of  twenty  pounds  a  year  for  life  by  letters 
patent,  charged  upon  the  revenues  of  the  county  of  Lin., 

HARDING.  137 

coin.  During  his  latter  days  he  appears  to  have  re-com- 
posed his  "  Chronicle"  for  Richard  duke  of  York,  father 
to  king  Edward  IV.  who  was  slain  in  the  battle  of  Wake- 
field,  Dec.  31,  1460.  It  was  afterwards  presented  to  king 
Edward  IV.  himself.  The  history  comes  no  lower  than 
the  flight  of  Henry  VI.  to  Scotland,  but  from  "  the  excu- 
sacion"  touching  his  "  defaultes,"  in  which  the  q'ueen'is 
mentioned,  it  is  evident  that  Harding  could  not  have 
finished  his  work  before  1465.  How  long  he  survived  its 
completion  is  unknown,  but  he  must  then  have  been  at 
least  eighty-seven  years  of  age.  His  "  Chronicle  of  Eng- 
land unto  the  reign  of  king  Edward  IV."  is  in  verse,  and  as 
a  metrical  composition  is  beneath  criticism,  but,  as  a  re- 
cord of  facts,  is  highly  interesting  to  the  English  historian 
and  antiquary.  It  was  first  printed  by  Grafton  in  1543, 
with  a  continuation  by  the  same,  to  the  thirty-fourth  year 
of  Henry  VIII.  This  has  been  long  ranked  among  the  most 
rare  and  expensive  of  our  Chronicles,  but  those  who  pre- 
fer use  to  mere  antiquity,  will  set  a  higher  value  on  the 
edition  printed  in  1812  by  the  booksellers  of  London, 
Henry  Ellis,  esq.  the  learned  editor  of  this  edition,  has 
prefixed  a  biographical  and  literary  preface,  to  which  the 
preceding  account  is  much  indebted,  and  has  carefully 
collated  Harding' s  part  of  the  "  Chronicle"  with  two  manu- 
scripts of  the  author's  own  time,  the  Lansdowne  and  the 
Harleian,  both  which  are  in  the  British  Museum  ;  and 
Grafton's  addition  has  been  collated  with  his  duplicate 
edition.^  It  is  noticed  by  Mr.  Ellis  as  a  very  singular  fact, 
that  there  should  be  two  editions  of  Harding,  both  printed 
by  Grafton  in  the  month  of  January  1543,  differing  in 
almost  every  page,  and  one,  in  Grafton's  own  portion  of 
the  work,  containing  (in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.)  no  less 
than  twenty-nine  pages  more  than  the  other.1 

HARDING  (THOMAS),  a  popish  divine  of  considerable 
note,  and  the  antagonist  of  bishop  Jewel,  was  born  at 
Comb-Martin  in  Devonshire,  1512.  His  school  education 
was  first  at  Barhstaple,  and  afterwards  at  Winchester, 
whence  he  was  removed  to  New-college,  Oxford,  and  after 
two  years'  probation,  was  chosen  fellow  there  in  1536.  In 
1542,  having  completed  his  degrees  in  arts,  he  was  chosen 
Hebrew  professor  of  the  university  by  Henry  VIII.  and, 
fcis  religion  probably  kept  pace  with  the  king's,  but  Ed- 

>  Mr.  Ellis's  Preface  as  above. 

138  HARDING. 

ward  no  sooner  ascended  the  throne,  than  Harding  became 
a  zealous  protestant.     He  was  afterwards  chaplain  to  the 
duke  of  Suffolk,  father  of  Jane  Grey,  and  had  the  honour 
to  instruct  this  young  lady  in  the  protestant  religion  ;  but, 
on  the  accession  of  queen  Mary,  he  immediately  became 
a  confirmed  papist,  and  was  chaplain  and  confessor  to  Gar- 
diner bishop  of  Winchester.     There  is   a  curious  epistle 
preserved  by  Fox,  said  to  be  written  by  lady  Jane  to  Har- 
ding on  his  apostacy,  which,  Burnet  observes,  "  is  full  of 
Jife  in  the  thought,  and  zeal  in  the  expression."     In  1554, 
he  proceeded  D.  D.  at  Oxford,  and  was  the  year  after 
made  treasurer  of  the  cathedral  of  Salisbury,  as  he  had 
been   a  little  before   prebendary   of  Winchester.     When 
Elizabeth  came  to  the  crown,  being  deprived  of  his  pre- 
ferment, he  left  the  kingdom  ;  and,  having  fixed  his  abode 
at  Louvain  in  Flanders,  he  became,  says  Wood,  "  the  tar- 
get of  popery,"  in  a  warm  controversy  with  bishop  Jewel, 
respecting  ordination,  against  whom,   between    1554  and 
1567,  he  wrote  seven  pieces.     He  died  at  Louvain  Sept. 
16,  1572,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Gertrude, 
with  an  epitaph,  given  at  length  by  Pits.      He  was   un- 
doubtedly a  man  of  parts  and  learning,  and  not  an  inele- 
gant writer.     Humphrey,  in   his  "  Life  of  Jewel,"  com- 
paring him  .with  his  adversary,  says, — "  in  multis   pares 
sunt,  &  arnbo  doctrinae  &  eloquentiae  gloria  praecellentes."1 
HARD  INGE  (NICHOLAS),  a  polite  and  ingenious  scho- 
lar, was  the  younger  son  of  the  rev.  Gideon  Hardinge,  and 
grandson  of  sir   Robert  Hardinge,  of  King's  Newton,   a 
small  hamlet  in   the  parish  of  Melbourne  in   Derbyshire, 
who  was  knighted  in  the  civil  wars.     He  was  born  in  1700, 
and  educated   at  Eton  school,   which  he  left  in  17 IS  for 
King's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degree  of 
B.  A.  in  1722,  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1726.     When  he  left 
the  university,  he  studied  law,  and  was  called  to  the  bar ; 
but  obtained  in  1731  the  office  of  chief  clerk  of  the  house 
of  commons,  which  he  held  until  1752,  when  he  was  ap- 
pointed joint  secretary  of  the  treasury,  in  which  post  he 
died  April  9,  1758. 

At  Eton  and  Cambridge,  he  had  the  fame  of  the  most 
eminent  scholar  of  his  time,  and  wrote  Latin  verse  with 
great  elegance.  When  at  Cambridge  he  was  at  the  head 

i  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  new  edit.— Dodd's  Ch.  Hist.— Prince's  Worthies  of  Derort. 
— Strype's  Cranmer,  p.  36'J — Tanner,  &c. 

H  A  R  D  I  N  G  E.  139 

of  the  whig  party,  which  happened  to  prevail  in  a  contest 
respecting  the  expulsion  of  a  student,  who,  in  one  of  the 
college  exercises  had  offended  the  tories.  In  this  contest 
lie  made  himself  master  of  the  law  and  custom  of  visita- 
torial power,  which  he  discussed  in  a  very  masterly  essay; 
but  this,  although  intended  for  publication,  has  not  yet 
appeared.  He  was  a  very  profound  and  judicious  anti- 
quary, particularly  in  what  concerned  English  law  and  his- 
tory. At  the  request  of  William  duke  of  Cumberland  (to 
whom  he  had  been  appointed,  in  Dec.  1732,  law-reader, 
and  was  afterwards  his  attorney-general),  he  wrote  a  very 
learned  memorial  upon  the  regency  (when  that  subject  was 
agitated  in  the  last  reign),  which  lord  Hardwicke  called 
"  an  invaluable  work."  It  was  by  Mr.  Hardinge' s  advice 
and  encouragement  that  Mr.  Stuart  undertook  his  journey 
to  Athens,  with  a  view  of  illustrating  the  history  of  that 
city.  His  diligence,  accuracy,  knowledge,  and  skill,  in  the 
office  of  clerk  to  the  House  of  commons,  were  never  ex- 
ceeded. He  put  the  "  Journals"  into  their  present  form  ; 
and  drew  up  a  very  able  report  of  the  condition  in  which 
he  found  them.  In  his  office  of  secretary  he  was  laborious, 
able,  and  zealous ;  and  so  honest,  that  he  had  many  ene- 
mies. He  was  chosen  representative  for  the  borough  of 
Eye  in  parliament  in  1748  and  1754,  and  was  a  very  useful 
member;  but  had  no  talents  or  courage  for  eloquence, 
though  his  taste  in  estimating  it  was  exquisite. 

He  had  a  rich  vein  of  humour ;  and  his  English  muse, 
though  never  inelegant,  had  a  peculiar  turn  for  it.  His 
"  Denhill  Iliad,"  a  poem  occasioned  by  the  hounds  running 
through  lady  Gray's  gardens  at  Denhill,  in  East  Kent,  is 
very  much  in  the  manner  of  Pope ;  and  his  "  Dialogue  in 
the  Senate-house  of  Cambridge,"  written  in  1750,  was 
much  admired  for  its  poetry  and  humour  :  the  former  of 
these  is  in  Mr.  Nichols's  "  Select  Collection  of  Poems," 
the  latter  in  the  "  Poetical  Calendar,"  vol.  IX.  In  1780, 
his  son,  the  present  George  Hardinge,  esq.  solicitor-general 
to  the  queen,  printed  for  private  distribution,  an  octavo 
volume  of  his  Latin  verses,  with  a  corrected  copy  of  the 
ode  in  Mr.  Nichols's  collection.  The  Latin  poems  are  of 
various  dates  ;  some  of  them  school  exercises  at  Eton  in 
1717  and  1718,  and  are  remarkable  specimens  of  classical 
taste  at  so  early  a  period  of  life.1 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer,  where  are  many  particulars  of  Mr.  Hardinge,  and,  par- 
ticularly in  vol.  VIII.  much  valuable  correspondence  communicated  by  hisSoa. 

140  H  A  R  D  I  O  N. 

HARD1ON   (JAMES),  a  polite  French  writer,  was  born 
at  Tours   in  1686,  and  coming  to  Paris  in  1704,  devoted 
his  time  to  the  study  of  the  belles  lettres,  and  at  the  same 
time  cultivated  a  critical  knowledge  of  the  Greek  language 
under  Boivin  and  Massieu,  professors  in  the  royal  college. 
In  1711,  he  was  admitted  as  a  pupil   into   the  academy  of 
inscriptions,  became  an  associate  in  1715,  and  a  pensionary 
in  172S.  For  their  Memoirs  he  wrote  a  great  many  curious 
and  interesting  papers,  and  his  general  knowledge  and  re- 
putation procured  him  at  length  the  office  of  keeper  of  the 
library  and  antiquities  in  the  royal  cabinet.     In  1730  he 
was  chosen  a  member  of  the  French   academy,  and  the 
following  year  began  his  "  Histoire  de  1'origine  et  des  pro- 
gres  de  la  Rhetorique  dans  la  Grece."     He  had  published 
twelve  dissertations  on  this  subject,  when,  in  1 748,  the  king 
honoured  him  with  the  appointment  of  preceptor  in  history 
and  geography  to  madame  Victoire,  one  of  the  princesses, 
and  he  afterwards  taught  other  illustrious  females  of  that 
family.     It  was  for  their  use  that  he  wrote  his  "  Histoire 
Poetique,"  with  two  treatises,  one  on  French  poetry,  and 
the  other  on  rhetoric,  Paris,  1751,   3  vols.   12mo,  and  his 
universal  history,  "  Histoire  Universelle,"   18  vols.  12mo, 
to  which   Linguet  added  two  others.     All  his  works  are 
valued  for  elegance  of  style  and  the  accuracy  of  his  re- 
searches, and  his  personal  character  was  not  less  admired, 
as  a  man   of  integrity  whom  a  court- life  had   not  spoiled, 
and  who  preserved  the  dignity  of  the  literary  character 
amidst  the  cabals  arrd  intrigues  by  which  he  was  surrounded. 
Hardion  died  at  Paris  in  September  1766.     His  disserta- 
tions in  the  Memoirs  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  display 
a  profound  knowledge  of  classical  antiquities.1 

HARDOUIN  (JoiiN),  a  French  Jesuit,  eminent  for  his 
great  parts,  learning,  and  singularities  of  opinion,  was 
born  of  obscure  parents,  at  Kimper  in  Bretagne,  in  1647. 
He  entered  young  in  the  society  of  Jesuits,  and  devoted 
himself  to  the  study  of  the  belles  lettres,  the  learned  lan- 
guages, history,  philosophy,  and  divinity.  In  1684,  he 
published  in  4to,  a  work  entitled  "  Nummi  antiqui  popu- 
lorum  &  urbium  illustrati ;"  in  which  he  often  gave  expli- 
cations very  singular,  and  as  contrary  to  truth  as  to  good 
sense.  The  same  year  he  published,  in  conjunction  with 
Petavius,  «  Themistii  Orationes  xxxiii.  cum  notis,"  folio,; 

1  Plot.  H«t,— Saxii  Onoraast. 

H  A  R  D  O  U  I  N.  141 

and  the  year  following,  in  5  vols.  4to,  for  tlie  use  of  the 
dauphin,  "  Plinii  Historic  Naturalis  libri  xxxvii,  interpre- 
tatione  &  notis  illustrati,"  of  which  a  much  improved  edi- 
tion appeared  at  Paris  in  1723,  3  vols.  folio.  Hitherto  he 
confined  himself  to  profane  learning,  where  his  whimsies 
were  not  supposed  capable  of  doing  much  harm  ;  but  now 
he  began  to  tamper  with  religious  subjects;  and  in  1687, 
he  published  his  book  entitled  "  De  Baptismo  qu<fistio  tri- 
plex." Two  years  after  appeared  his  4<  Antirrheticus  de 
nummis  antiquis  colouiarum  &  municipiorum,"  in  4to;  aud 
also  "  S.  Joannis  Chrysostorni  Epistola  ad  Cacsarium  Mo- 
nachum,  notis  ac  clissertatione  de  sacramento  altaris,"  in 
4to.  Le  Clerc  having  made  some  reflections  upon  '*  St. 
Chrysostom's  Letter  to  Cassarius,"  Hardouin  replied,  iu  a 
piece  printed  in  1690,  and  entitled  "  Defence  de  la  l.ettre 
de  S.  Jean  Chrysostome,  addressee  a  1'Auteur  cle  la  Biblio- 
theque  Universelle  :"  to  which  Le  Clerc  returned  an  an- 
swer in  the  nineteenth  volume  of  that  work. 

In  1693,  he  printed  at  Paris,  in  2  vols,  4to,  u  Chrono- 
logize ex  nummis  antiquis  restitute  prolusio,  de  nummis 
Herodiadum :"  in  which  he  opened  more  fully  that  strange 
paradoxical  system,  of  which  he  had  yet  done  little  more 
than  give  hints.  He  undertakes  to  prove  from  medals, 
that  the  greater  part  of  those  writings  which  are  considered 
as  ancient,  were  forged  by  monks  of  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury, who  gave  to  them  the  several  names  of  Homer, 
Plato,  Aristotle,  Plutarch,  &c.  Tertullian,  Origen,  Basil, 
Augustin,  &c.  He  excepts  only  out  of  this  monkish  ma- 
nufacture the  works  of  Cicero,  Pliny's  "  Natural  History," 
Virgil's  "  Georgics,"  and  Horace's  "  Satires  and  Epistles/' 
These  he  supposes  the  only  genuine  monuments  of  anti- 
quity remaining,  except  some  few  inscriptions  and  fasti : 
and  with  the  assistance  of  these,  he  is  of  opinion  that  these 
monks  drew  np  and  published  all  the  other  ancient  writings, 
as  Terence's  "  Plays,"  Livy's  and  Tacitus's  "  Histories," 
Virgil's  "  Eneid,"  Horace's  "  Odes,"  &c.  Nay,  he  car- 
ried this  whim  so  far,  that  he  fancied  he  could  see  plainly 
enough  that  /Eneas  in  Virgil  was  designed  for  Jesus  Christ, 
and  Horace's  mistress  Lalage  for  the  Christian  religion. 
Absurd  as  all  this  may  seem,  he  appears  to  have  seriously 
believed  k  himself,  and  was  persuaded  that  his  reasons  for 
it  were  clear  and  evident;  though  he  would  not  publish 
them  to  the  world,  nor  explain  his  system,  which  he  was 
frequently  called  upon  to  do.  This  work  was  suppressed 


by  public  authority  at  Paris.  He  afterwards  published  "A 
Letter  upon  three  Samaritan  Medals;"  "  An  Essay  towards 
the  restoring  Chronology  by  Medals  of  Constantino's  age,'7 
and  "A  Chronology  of  the  Old  Testament,  conformable  to 
the  vulgar  translation,  illustrated  by  ancient  Medals  ;"  all 
which  were  likewise  suppressed,  on  account  of  the  para- 
doxes contained  in  them. 

Still  persisting  in  his  opinion,  in  some  letters,  written  to 
Mons.  Ballanfaux,  and  printed  at  Luxemburg  in  1700,  he 
speaks  of  "  an  impious  faction  begun  a  long  while  ago, 
which  still  subsists,  and  which  by  forging  an  infinite  num- 
ber of  writings,  that  seem  to  breathe  nothing  but  piety, 
appears  to  have  no  other  design  than  to  remove  God  out 
of  the  hearts  of  mankind,  and  to  overturn  all  religion." 
Mr.  La  Croze  refuted  his  notion  concerning  the  forgery  of 
the  ancient  writings,  in  a  Dissertations  historiques  sur 
divers  sujets,  Rot.  1707;"  and  in  "  Vindiciae  veterum 
Scriptorum  contra  J.  Harduinum."  La  Croze  imagined, 
that  Hardouin  advanced  his  notions  in  concert  with  the  so- 
ciety of  Jesuits,  or  at  least  with  his  superiors,  in  order  to 
set  aside  the  ancient  Greek  and  Latin  sacred  and  profane 
writers,  and  so  leave  all  clear  to  infallibility  and  tradition 
only ;  but  Le  Clerc  was  of  opinion,  that  there  was  no  ground 
for  this  supposition.  In  1700  there  was  published  at  4™- 
sterdam  a  volume  in  folio,  entitled  "  Joannis  Harduini 
opera  selecta,"  consisting  of  his  "  Nummi  antiqui  popu- 
lorum  et  urbium  illustrati;"  "  De  Baptismo  quaestio  tri- 
plex;" edition  of"  St.  Chrysostom's  Letter  to  Caesarius," 
with  the  dissertation  "  De  Sacramento  Altaris ;"  "  De  num- 
mis  Herodiadum;"  his  "  Discourse  on  the  Last  Supper,'* 
which  had  been  printed  in  1693  ;  a  treatise  in  which  he 
explains  the  medals  of  the  age  of  Constantine ;  "  Chrono- 
logy of  the  Old  Testament,  adjusted  by  the  Vulgate  trans- 
lation, and  illustrated  by  Medals ;"  "  Letters  to  M.  de 
Ballanfaux  ;"  and  other  pieces.  This  volume  made  a  great 
deal  of  noise  before  it  was  published.  The  author  had 
corrected  what  he  thought  proper  in  the  works  he  had  al- 
ready published ;  and  then  put  them  into  the  hands  of  a 
bookseller,  who  undertook  to  print  them  faithfully  from 
the  copy  he  had  received.  ,  He  began  the  impressjon  with 
the  author's  consent,  and  was  considerably  advanced  in  it, 
when  the  clamour  raised  against  the  paradoxes  in  those 
works  obliged  Hardouin  to  send  an  order  to  the  bookseller 
to  retrench  the  obnoxious  passages.  But  the  bookseller 

H  A  R  D  O  U  I  N.  .  143 

refused  to  do  it,  and  wrote  an  answer  to  him,  alleging  the 
reasons  of  his  refusal.  This  immediately  produced  "  A 
Declaration  of  the  father  provincial  of  the  Jesuits,  and  of 
the  superiors  of  their  houses  at  Paris,  concerning  a  new 
edition  of  some  works  of  father  John  Hardouin  of  the  same 
society,  which  has  been  actually  made  contrary  to  their 
will  hy  the  Sieur  de  Lorme,  bookseller  at  Amsterdam,'''  &c. 
At  the  bottom  of  this  was  Hardouin's  recantation,  which 
runs  in  these  curious  terms  :  "  I  subscribe  sincerely  to 
every  thing  contained  in  the  preceding  declaration ;  I 
heartily  condemn  in  my  writings  what  it  condemns  in  them, 
and  particularly  what  I  have  said  concerning  an  impious 
faction,  which  had  forged  some  ages  ago  the  greatest  part 
of  the  ecclesiastical  or  profane  writings,  which  have  hi- 
therto been  considered  as  ancient.  I  am  extremely  sorry 
that  I  did  not  open  my  eyes  before  in  this  point.  I  think 
myself  greatly  obliged  to  my  superiors  in  this  society,  who 
have  assisted  me  in  divesting  myself  of  my  prejudices.  I 
promise  never  to  advance  in  word  or  writing  any  thing 
directly  or  indirectly  contrary  to  my  present  recantation. 
And  if  hereafter  I  shall  call  in  question  the  antiquity  of  any 
writing,  either  ecclesiastical  or  profane,  which  no  person 
before  shall  have  charged  as  supposititious,  I  will  only  do 
it  by  proposing  my  reasons  in  a  writing  published  under 
my  name,  with  the  permission  of  my  superiors,  and  the 
approbation  of  the  public  censors.  In  testimony  of  which 
I  have  signed,  this  27th  of  December,  1708,  J.  Hardouin, 
of  the  society  of  Jesus.'5 

But  notwithstanding  this  solemn  protestation,  nothing 
can  be  more  certain  than  that  Hardouin  industriously  che- 
rished and  propagated  his  opinions  to  the  last  moment  of 
his  life.  Thus,  in  1723,  when  he  reprinted  his  edition  of 
Pliny  in  three  volumes  folio,  he  greatly  augmented  it  with, 
notes,  in  which  were  dispersed  many  paradoxical  conceits, 
tending  to  support  his  general  system,  which  Mr.  Crevier 
and  father  Desmolets  of  the  oratory  thought  themselves 
obliged  to  point  out  and  refute.  Yet,  notwithstanding 
all  these  circumstances,  and  the  clamour  raised  against 
him  and  his  writings,  he  maintained  his  credit  so  well  with 
the  clergy  of  France,  that  they  engaged  him  to  undertake 
a  new  edition  of"  The  Councils,"  and  gave  him  a  pension 
for  that  purpose.  It  was  printed,  1715,  in  12  vols.  folio, 
at  the  royal  printing-house;  but  the  sale  of  it  was  pro- 
hibited by  the  parliament,  who  commissioned  some  doc- 

144  H  A  R  D  O  U  I  N. 

tors,  among  whom  was  the  celebrated  Dupin,  to  examin^ 
it.  These  doctors  gave  in  their  report,  that  the  edition! 
should  either  be  suppressed,  or  at  least  corrected  in  a 
great  number  of  places ;  because  it  contained  many  max- 
ims injurious  to  the  doctrines  and  discipline  of  the  church 
in  general,  and  to  those  of  the  Gallican  church  in  particu- 
lar ;  and  because  some  very  essential  things  were  omitted, 
while  others  that  were  spurious  were  inserted. 

Father  Hardouin  died  at  Paris,  Sept.  3,  1729,  in  his 
eighty-third  year ;  and  after  his  death  a  volume  of  his 
"  Opuscula,"  in  folio,  was  published  by  an  anonymous 
friend.  The  largest  and  most  singular  of  these  is  entitled 
"  Athei  detecti ;"  among  whom  are  to  be  found  Jansenius, 
Malbranche,  Thomasin,  Descartes,  Regis,  Arnaud,  Nicole, 
Paschal,  and  Quesnel  ;  whose  irreligion,  no  doubt,  con- 
sisted chiefly  in  their  being  enemies  to  the  Jesuits.  The 
society,  however,  thought  proper,  in  their  "  Memoires  de 
Trevonx,'7  to  disown  any  concern  in  the  publication  of 
these  "  Opuscula ;"  and  affected  to  censure  freely  the 
errors  contained  in  them.  A  posthumous  work  was  pub- 
lished in  1766,  under  the  title  of  "  Joannis  Harduini,  Je- 
suitte,  ad  Censuram  Scriptorum  Veterum  Prolegomena," 
with  a  valuable  preface  by  Mr.  Bowyer,  to  whom  a  curious 
Latin  pamphlet  was  addressed  on  that  occasion  by  his 
friend  the  rev.  Caesar  De  Missy. 

We  will  conclude  our  account  of  this  famous  Jesuit  with 
a  characteristic  epitaph  by  M.  de  Boze. 

"  In  expectatione  judicii,  hicjacet  hominum  paradoxotatos,  na- 
tione  Gallus,  religione  Romanus  :  orbis  litterati  portentum :  ve- 
nerandae  antiquitatis  cultor  et  destructor.  Docte  febricitans,  som- 
nia  et  inaudita  commenta  vigilans  edidit.  Scepticum  pie  egit,  ere- 
dulitate  puer,  audacia  juvenis,  delhiis  senex."  l 

HARE  (Dr.  FRANCIS),  an  English  bishop,  was  born  in 
London,  and  educated  at  Eton,  whence  he  was  admitted 
of  King's  college,  Cambridge,  in  1688,  and  took  his  de- 
gree of  A.  B.  in  1692,  and  of  A.  M.  1696.  He  afterwards 
became  tutor  in  the  college,  and  in  that  capacity  super- 
intended the  education  of  the  celebrated  Anthony  Collins, 
who  was  fellow-commoner  there.  He  had  also  the  tuition 
of  the  marquis  of  Blandford,  only  son  of  the  illustrious 
duke  of  Marlborough,  who  appointed  him  chaplain-general 

1  Gen.  Diet— Moreri.— Memoirs  of  Literature,  vols.  IX.  XI.  and  XII.— 
Republic  of  Letters,  vol.  IV.— Nichols's  Bowyer.— Saxii  Onomast, 

HARE.  145 

to  the  army  ;  but  this  promising  young  nobleman  died  in 
1702,  and  was  buried  in  King's  college  chapel.     The  in- 
scription on  his  monument  is  by  our  author.     In  1708  Mr. 
Hare  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.  obtained  the  deanery  of 
Worcester,  and   in  1726   the  deanery   of  St.    Paul's.     In 
Dec.  1727,  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  where 
he  sat  about  four  years,  and  was  translated,  Nov.  25, 1731, 
to   the  bishopric  of  Chichester,  which   he  held  with  the 
deanery  of  St.  Paul's  to  his  death.     He  was  dismissed  from 
being  chaplain  to  George  I.  in  1718,  by  the  strength  of 
party  prejudices,  in  company  with  Dr.  Moss  and  Dr.  Sher-r 
lock,  persons  of  distinguished  rank  for  parts  and  learning. 
About  the  latter  end  of  queen  Anne's  reign  he  published 
a  remarkable  pamphlet,    entitled  "  The   difficulties  and 
discouragements  which  attend  the  Study  of  the  Scriptures, 
in  the  way  of  private  judgment;"  in  order  to  shew,  that 
since  such   a  study  of  the  scriptures  is   an  indispensable 
duty,  it  concerns  all  Christian  societies  to  remove,  as  much 
as  possible,  those  discouragements.    This  work  was  thought 
to  have  such  a  direct  tendency  to  promote  scepticism,  and 
a  loose  way  of  thinking  in  matters  of  religious  concern, 
that  the  convocation  judged  it  right  to  pass  a  severe  censure 
on  it ;  and  Whiston  says,  that,  finding  this  piece  likely  to 
hinder  preferment,  he  aimed  to  conceal  his  being  the  au- 
thor.    The  same  writer  charges  him  with  being  strongly 
inclined  to  scepticism  ;  that  he  talked  ludicrously  of  sacred 
matters  ;  and  that  he  would  offer  to  lay  wagers  about  the 
fulfilling  of  scripture  prophecies.     The  principal  ground 
for  these  invidious  insinuations  some  suppose  to  be,  that, 
though  he  never  denied  the  genuineness  of  the  apostolical 
constitutions  (of  which  he  procured  for  Whiston  the  colla- 
tion of  two  Vienna  MSS.),  yet  "  he  was  not  firm  believer 
enough,  nor  serious  enough  in  Christianity,   to  hazard  any 
thing  in   this  world  for  their  reception."     He  published 
many  pieces  against  bishop  Hoadly,  in  the  Bangorian  con* 
troversy ;  and   also  other  learned   works,  which  were  col- 
lected after  his  death,  and  published  in  four  volumes,  8yo. 
2.  An  edition  of  "  Terence,"  with  notes,  in  4to.    3.  '*  The 
Book  of  Psalms,  in  the  Hebrew,  put  into  the  original  poe^ 
tical  metre,"  4to.     In  this  last  work  he  pretends  to  have 
Discovered  the  Hebrew  metre,  which  was  supposed  to  be 
irretrievably  lost.     But  his  hypothesis,  though  defended 
by  some,  yet  has  been  confuted  by  several  learned  men, 
particularly  by  Dr.  Lowtb  in  his  "  Metrics  Hareaue  brevis 
Vc»L.  XVJ1,  I- 

U6  HARE. 

confutatio,"  annexed  to  his  lectures  "  De  Sacra  Poesi  He- 
breeorum."  He  was  yet  more  unfortunate  in  the  above- 
mentioned  edition  of  Terence,  which  sunk  under  the  re- 
putation of  that  of  Dr.  Bentley,  of  whom  he  was  once  the 
warm  admirer,  and  afterwards  the  equally  warm  opponent. 
During  their  friendship  the  emendations  on  Menander  and 
Philemon  were  transmitted  through  Hare,  who  was  then 
chaplain-general  to  the  army,  to  Burman,  in  1710;  and 
Bentley's  "  Remarks  on  the  Essay  on  Freethinking"  (sup- 
posed to  be  written  by  Collins)  were  inscribed  to  him  in 
1713.  As  soon  as  the  first  part  of  these  were  published, 
Hare  formally  thanked  Dr.  Bentley  by  name  for  them,  in 
a  most  flattering  letter  called  "  The  Clergyman's  Thanks 
to  Phileleutherus,"  printed  the  same  year ;  but,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  rupture  between  them,  not  inserted  in  the 
collection  of  Hare's  works.  This  rupture  took  place  soon 
after  the  above-mentioned  date,  and  Bentley  in  the  sub- 
sequent editions  of  his  "  Remarks"  withdrew  the  inscrip- 
tion. Hare  was  excessively  piqued  at  the  utter  annihila- 
tion of  his  Terence  and  Phoedrus,  the  one  soon  after  its 
birth,  the  other  before  its  birth,  by  Bentley's  edition  of 
both  together  in  1726,  who  never  once  names  Hare. 

Bishop  Hare,  about  the  time  of  his  death,  was  preparing 
an  edition  of  Plautus.  He  died  at  his  house  at  Chalfont 
St.  Giles's,  Bucks,  where  he  had  bought  an*  estate  and 
resided  very  much,  April  26,  1740,  and  was  buried  in  that 
parish  church.  He  was  twice  married.  His  son,  the  rev. 
Robert  Hare  of  Hurstmonceaux  place,  in  Sussex,  preben- 
dary of  Winchester,  died  in  March  1797.  He  was  the 
father  of  James  Hare,  esq.  late  member  of  parliament  for 
Knaresborough. 1 

HARE  (HENRY,  lord  COLERANE),  third  and  last  baron 
of  that  name  and  family,  descended  from  John,  younger 
brother  to  sir  Nicholas  Hare,  baronet,  master  of  the  rolls, 
and  privy-counsellor  to  Henry  VIII.  (both  sons  to  Nicho- 
las Hare  of  Homersfield,  in  the  county  of  Suffolk,  the 
elder  branch  being  seated  at  Stow  Bardolph,  in  Norfolk) 
was  born  at  Blechingley,  in  Surrey,  May  10,  1693;  edu- 
cated at  Enfield,  under  Dr.  Uvedale,  who  had  also  the 
honour  of  educating,  among  many  other  eminent  men,  the 
late  earl  of  Huntingdon,  and  sir  Jeremy  Sambrooke,  bart. 

1  G-nt.   M*g.    see    Index  —Swift's   Works. —Whiston's    Life.— Cole's    MS 
in  Uiit.  Mus. 

HARE.  147 

After  the  death  of  his  grandfather,  Hugh  lord  Colerane, 
in  1708,  he  succeeded  to  the  title,  and  was  admitted  a 
gentleman  commoner  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford, 
under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Rogers,  who  afterwards  married 
Lydia,  one  of  his  lordship's  sisters  *.  A  lyric  poem  by 
lord  Colerane  appeared  in  the  "  Academiae  Oxoniensis 
Comitia  Philologica,  1713,"  and  in  the  "  Musaj  Angli- 
canae,"  vol.  III.  p.  303,  under  the  title  of  "  Musaruin 
oblatio  ad  reginam."  Dr.  Basil  Kennet,  who  succeeded 
Dr.  Turner  in  the  presidency  of  that  society,  inscribed 
to  his  lordship  an  epistolary  poem  on  his  predecessor's 
death.  He  was  a  great  proficient  in  the  learned  lan- 
guages, particularly  the  Greek ;  and  eminently  versed 
in  history,  both  civil  and  ecclesiastical.  He  was  grand 
master  of  the  society  of  free-masons,  and  had  made  the 
tour  of  Italy  three  times ;  the  second  time  with  Dr. 
Con  yers  Middle  ton,  about  1723,  in  which  he  made  a  no- 
ble collection  of  prints  and  drawings  of  all  the  antiquities, 
buildings,  and  pictures  in  Italy  ;  given  after  his  decease 
to  Corpus  Christi  college.  The  esteem  in  which  he  was 
held  by  the  literati  procured  him  admittance  into  the  Re- 
publica  Literaria  di  Arcadia,  and  the  particular  intimacy 
of  the  marquis  Scipio  Maffei ;  who  afterwards  visited  him 
at  his  ancient  manor  and  seat  at  Tottenham,  in  Middlesex. 
His  lordship  died  at  Bath,  Aug.  4,  1749  ;  and  was  buried 
in  the  family  vault  at  Tottenham,  built,  with  the  vestrv, 
by  his  grandfather.  His  very  valuable  collection  of  prints 
relative  to  English  antiquities,  with  a  portrait  of  him  when 
a  young  man,  by  Richardson,  were  obtained  after  his 
death  by  Mr.  Henry  Baker  for  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 
His  books  were  sold  to  T.  Osborne,  who  detained  some  of 
the  family  papers,  which  were  with  difficulty  recovered 
from  him.  The  pictures,  bronzes,  marble,  tables,  urns, 
vases,  and  other  antiquities,  were  sold  by  auction,  March 
13  and  14,  1754,  for  904/.  135.  6d.  The  coins,  it  is  sup- 
posed, were  disposed  of  privately.  His  lordship  married 
in  1717,  Anne,  only  daughter  of  John  Hanger,  esq.  by 
whom  he  had  a  fortune  of  100,000/.  but  she,  having  unac- 
countably left  him  within  three  years,  and  resisted  every 

*  See  the  account  of  Dr.  Rogers  pr«-  president,  who  died  a  single  man,  anJ 

fixed  to  his  XIX  Sermons,  p.   23,  61.  gave  20,000/.  to  the  use  of  poor  cler- 

— In  the   introduction  to  the  Archaeo-  gymcn's  widows.— Another  of  lord  Cole- 

Jogia,  it  is  said  by  mistake  that  this  ratio's    sisters     was    manicd    to    Mr, 

lady  was  married  to  Dr.  Turner,  the  Knight. 

L   2 

148  H  A  R  E. 

effort  of  his  to  recall  her,  after  twenty  more  years  he 
formed  a  connexion  with  a  foreign  lady,  Miss  Duplessis,  by 
whom  he  had  a  natural  daughter,  Henrietta  Rosa  Peve- 
grina,  born  in  Italy,  and  afterwards  naturalized.  She  was 
married  in  1764  to  James  Townsend,  esq.  alderman  of 
Bishopsgate  ward,  who  in  her  right -enjoyed  the  exten- 
sive manor  of  Tottenham,  and  repaired  the  family  seat, 
commonly  called  Bruce-castle,  from  having  anciently  be- 
longed to  theBruces  earls  of  Huntingdon,  which  had  been 
considerably  modernized  in  the  close  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  It  is  now  the  property  of  William  Curtis,  esq. 
son  to  sir  William  Curtis,  bart. l 

HARLEY  (ROBERT),  afterwards  earl  of  Oxford  and  earl 
Mortimer,  and  lord  high  treasurer  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Anne,  was  eldest  son  of  sir  Edward  Harley,  and  born  at 
London,  in  Bow-street,  Covent  Garden,  December  5,  1661. 
He  was  educated  under  the  rev.  Mr.  Birch,  at  Shilton,  near 
Burford,  Oxfordshire,  which,  though  a  private  school,  was 
remarkable  for  producing  at  the  same  time,  a  lord  high 
treasurer,  viz.  lord  Oxford ;  a  lord  high  chancellor,  viz. 
lord  Harcourt ;  a  lord  chief  justice  of  the  common  pleas, 
viz.  lord  Trevor  ;  and  ten  members  of  the  house  of  com- 
mops,  who  were  all  contemporaries,  as  well  at  school  as 
in  parliament.  Here  he  laid  the  foundation  of  that  ex- 
tensive knowledge  and  learning,  which  rendered  him  after- 
wards so  conspicuous  in  the  world.  At  the  revolution,  sir 
Edward  Harley,  and  this  his  eldest  son,  raised  a  troop  of 
horse  at  their  own  expence  ;  and,  after  the  accession  of  king 
William  and  queen  Mary,  he  was  first  chosen  member  of 
parliament  for  Tregony  in  Cornwall,  and  afterwards  served 
for  the  town  of  Radnor  till  he  was  called  to  the  house  of 
lords.  In  1690  he  was  chosen  by  ballot  one  of  the  nine 
members  of  the  house  of  commons,  commissioners  for 
stating  the  public  accounts  ;  and  also  one  of  the  arbitrators 
for  uniting  the  two  India  companies.  In  1694  the  house 
of  commons  ordered  Mr.  Harley,  November  19,  to  pre- 
pare and  bring  in  a  bill  "  For  the  frequent  meeting  and 
calling  of  parliaments  ;"  which  he  accordingly  did  upon  the 
22d,  and  it  was  received  and  agreed  to  by  both  houses, 
without  any  alteration  or  amendment.  On  February  11, 
1701-2,  he  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  house  of  commons; 
and  that  parliament  being  dissolved  the  same  year  by  king 

>  Nichols's  Bowyer,— Park's  Royal  and  Noble  Authors. 

H  A  R  L  E  Y.  149 

William,  and  a  new  one  called,  he  was  again  chosen 
speaker,  December  31st  following,  as  he  was  in  the  first 
parliament  called  by  queen  Anne. 

On  April  17,  1704,  he  was  sworn  of  her  majesty's  privy 
council;  and,  May  18th  following,  sworn  in  council  one 
of  the  principal  secretaries  of  state,  being  also  speaker  of 
the  house  of  commons  at  the  same  time.  In  1706  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for  the  treaty  of  union 
with  Scotland,  which  took  effect;  and  resigned  his  place 
of  principal  secretary  of  state  in  February  1707-8.  August 
10,  1710,  he  was  constituted  one  of  the  commissioners  of 
the  treasury,  also  chancellor  and  under-treasurer  of  the 
exchequer.  On  the  8th  of  March  following  he  was  in  great 
danger  of  his  life  ;  the  marquis  of  Guiscard,  a  French  pa- 
pist, then  under  examination  of  a  committee  of  the  privy 
council  at  Whitehall,  stabbing  him  with  a  penknife,  which 
he  took  up  in  the  clerk's  room,  where  he  waited  before  he 
was  examined.  Guiscard  was  imprisoned,  and  died  in 
Newgate  the  17th  of  the  same  month  :  and  an  act  of  par- 
liament passed,  making  it  felony,  without  benefit  of  clergy, 
to  attempt  the  life  of  a  privy  counsellor  in  the  execution  of 
his  office  ;  and  a  clause  was  inserted  "  To  justify  and  in- 
demnify all  persons,  who  in  assisting  in  defence  of  Mr. 
Harley,  chancellor  of  the  exchequer,  when  lie  was  stabbed 
by  the  sieur  de  Guiscard,  and  in  securing  him,  did  give 
any  wound  or  bruise  to  the  said  sieur  de  Guiscard,  whereby 
he  received  his  death."  The  wound  Mr.  Harley  had  re- 
ceived confined  him  some  weeks ;  but  the  house  being  in- 
formed that  it  was  almost  healed,  and  that  he  would  in  a 
few  days  come  abroad,  resolved  to  congratulate  his  escape 
and  recovery;  and  accordingly,  upon  his  attending  the 
house  on  the  26th  of  April,  the  speaker  addressed  him  in 
a  very  respectful  speech,  to  which  Mr.  Harley  returned  as 
respectful  an  answer.  They  had  before  addressed  the 
queen  on  this  alarming  occasion. 

In  1711,  queen  Anne,  to  reward  his  many  eminent  ser- 
vices, was  pleased  to  advance  him  to  the  peerage  of  Great 
Britain,  by  the  style  and  titles  of  baron  Harley  of  Wig- 
more,  in  the  county  of  Hereford,  earl  of  Oxford,  and  earl 
Mortimer,  with  remainder,  for  want  of  issue  male  of  his 
own  body,  to  the  heirs  male  of  sir  Robert  Harley,  knight 
of  the  Bath,  his  grandfather.  May  29,  1711,  he  was  ap- 
pointed lord  high  treasurer  of  Great  Britain  ;  and  August 
15th  following,  at  a  general  court  of  the  South-sea  com- 


H  A  R  L  E  Y. 

pany  he  was  chosen  their  governor,  as  he  had  been  their 
founder  and  chief  regulator.  October  26,  1712,  he  was 
elected  a  knight  companion  of  the  most  noble  order  of  the 
garter.  July  27,  1714,  he  resigned  his  staff  of  lord  high 
treasurer  of  Great  Britain,  at  Kensington,  into  the  queen's 
hand,  she  dying  upon  the  1st  of  August  following.  June 
10,  1715,  he  was  impeached  by  the  House  of  commons 
of  high-treason,  and  high  crimes  and  misdemeanors ;  and 
on  July  the  16th  was  committed  to  the  Tower  by  the  House 
of  lords,  where  he  suffered  confinement  till  July  1,  1717, 
and  then,  after  a  public  trial,  was  acquitted  by  his  peers. 
He  died  in  the  64th  year  of  his  age,  May  21,  1724,  after 
having  been  twice  married. 

Hewas  a  great  encourager  of  learning,  and  the  greatest 
collector  in  his  time  of  all  curious  books  in  print  and  ma- 
nuscript, especially  those  concerning  the  history  of  his  own 
country,  which  were  preserved  and  much  augmented  by 
the  earl  his  son, -and  afterwards  purchased  for  the  British 
Museum.  The  dispersion,  however,  of  his  printed  books 
must  ever  be  regretted.  He  was  also  a  man  of  taste  and 
letters  himself ;  and  under  this  character  we  find  a  pro- 
posal addressed  to  him  by  Dr.  Swift,  "  for  correcting,  im- 
proving, and  ascertaining  the  English  tongue."  He  wrote 
also  "  An  Essay  upon  Public  Credit,"  1710,  inserted 
in  Somers's  Tracts;  where  are  also  "  An  Essay  upon 
Loans,"  and  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Rights  of  the  Com- 
mons of  England,"  said  to  be  by  him,  but  signed  Hum- 
phrey Mackworth.  Various  letters  by  him  are  preserved 
among  the  Harleian  MSS.;  and  a  few  jocular  verses  in  the 
correspondence  between  Swift  and  his  friends. 

Oxford,  says  Mr.  archdeacon  Coxe,  was  unimpeachable  in 
his  private  character,  never  offending  against  morality  either 
in  conversation  or  action,  a  tender  husband,  and  a  good  fa- 
ther;  highly  disinterested  and  generous.  He  prided  him- 
self in  his  high  descent,  was  stiff  and  formal  in  his  deport- 
ment, and  forbidding  in  his  manner.  He  was  learned  and 
pedantic ;  embarrassed  and  inelegant  both  in  speaking 
and  writing.  He  was  equally  an  enemy  to  pleasure  and 
business ;  extremely  dilatory  and  fond  of  procrastination  ; 
timid  in  public  affairs,  yet  intrepid  when  his  own  person 
was  concerned  ;  jealous  of  power,  indefatigable  in  pro- 
moting the  petty  intrigues  of  the  court,  but  negligent  in 
things  of  importance  ;  a  whig  in  his  heart,  and  a  tory  from 
ambition ;  too  ready  for  temporary  convenience  to  adopt 

H  A  R  L  E  Y.  151 

measures  he'disapproved,  yet  unwilling  wholly  to  sacrifice 
his  real  sentiments  to  interest  or  party  ;  affecting  the  most 
profound  secrecy  in  all  political  transactions,  and  myste- 
rious in  the  most  trifling  occurrences.  He  was  liberal  in 
making  promises,  yet  breaking  them  without  scruple,  a 
defect  which  arose  more  from  facility  of  temper,  than  from 
design.  He  corresponded  at  the  same  time  with  the  de- 
throned family  and  the  house  of  Hanover,  and  was  there  - 
fore  neither  trusted  nor  respected  by  either  party.  The 
only  pojnt  in  which  he  and  his  colleague  Bolingbroke 
agreed,  was  the  love  of  literature  and  the  patronage  of 
learned  men ;  which  rendered  their  administration  emi- 
nently illustrious.1 

HARMAR  (JOHN),  a  learned  Greek  scholar  and  teacher, 
was  the  son  of  a  father  of  the  same  name,  who  was  warden 
of  Winchester,  and  died  in  J613.  He  was  also  an  able 
Greek  scholar,  was  employed  on  the  translation  of  the  Bible, 
and  published  some  of  Chrysostom's  homilies  from  MSS.  in 
the  library  of  New-college,  Oxford.  His  son  was  born 
about  1594,  at  Churchdowne,  near  Gloucester,  and  edu- 
cated at  Winchester-school.  In  1611  he  entered  as  a 
demy  of  Magdalen-college,  Oxford,  and  completed  his 
master's  degree  in  1617,  the  highest  Wood  says  he  took, 
"  although  he  was  in  his  latter  days  called  Dr.  Harmar." 
His  first  employment  as  a  teacher  was  in  Magdalen  school, 
about  which  time  he  took  orders.  He  was  afterwards  in 
succession  chief  master  of  the  free-school  at  St.  Alban's,  and 
under-master  of  Westminster-school.  In  1650,  when  the 
committee  for  reforming  the  university  had  ejected  all  the 
old  professors,  he  was  appointed  by  their  authority,  Greek 
professor,  and  in  1659  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of 
Ewhurst,  in  Hampshire.  On  account  of  his  connexions 
with  the  usurping  powers,  he  was  deprived  of  his  profes- 
sorship and  rectory  at  the  restoration,  and  retired  to  Ste- 
venton,  in  Hampshire,  .where  he  subsisted  on  his  wife's 
jointure.  He  died  there  Nov.  1,  1670.  As  a  nonconformist 
Calamy  has  nothing  to  say  for  him,  and  Neal  says  "  he  was 
an  honest,  weak  man."  He  wrote  Latin  and  Greek  pane- 
gyrics on  the  leading  men  of  all  parties,  and  complimented 
Charles  II.  with  as  much  sincerity  as  he  had  Cromwell, 
and  Richard  his  successor.  In  the  facility  of  Greek  com- 

1  Collins's   Peerage  by  Sir  E.  Brydges. — Park's    edit,    of  Royal  and   Nobl< 
Author*. — swift's  Works  ;  see  Index, — Coxe's  Life  of  Wai  pole. 

152  H  A  R  M  A  R. 

position  he  appears  to  have  excelled,  and  he  translated 
some  part  of  Butler's  Hudibras  into  Latin,  retaining  much 
of  the  spirit  of  the  original.  While  engaged  as  a  teacher, 
he  published  a  "  Praxis  Grammatica,"  Lond.  1622,  1623, 
8vo,  and  a  "  Janua  Linguarum,"  of  which  there  were  six 
or  seven  editions  before  J  63 1 .  He  published  also  a  "  Lexi- 
con Etymologicon  Graccum,"  which  Wood  says  is  "  junctim 
cum  Scapula,'*  Lond.  1637,  fol.  His  other  principal  works 
are,  1.  "  Eclogse  sententiarum  et  similitudinum,  e  D. 
Chrysostomo  decerptae,"  Gr.  &  Lah  with  notes,  Lond. 
1622,  8vo.  2.  "  Protomartyr  Britannus ;  seu  Elogia  sacra 
in  conversionem  et  rnartyrium  S.  Albani,"  ibid.  1630,  4to. 
3.  "  Epistola  ad  D.  Lambertum  Osbaldestonum,  cui  in- 
texitur  Apologia  pro  honoratissimo  &c.  D.  Johanne  Wil- 
liams Arch.  Eborac."  ibid.  1649,  8vo.  4.  "  M.  T.  Cice- 
ronis  vita,  ex  optimis  quibusque  scriptoribus  delibata," 
Ox.  1662,  8vo.  He  translated  from  Latin  into  English, 
Daniel  Heinsius's  "  Mirror  of  Humility ;"  from  English 
into  Greek  and  Latin,  the  Assembly's  "  Shorter  Cate- 
chism," ibid.  1659,  8vo ;  and  from  English  into  Latin, 
HowelPs  "  Treatise  concerning  Ambassadors."1 

HARMER  (THOMAS),  a  learned  dissenter,  was  born  at 
Norwich  in  1715.  He  received  the  elements  of  classical 
learning  in  the  country,  and  discovering  an  inclination  for 
the  profession  of  a  dissenting  minister,  was  sent  to  London 
to  study  un'ler  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Eames.  When  he  had 
finished  his  studies,  he  settled  with  a  small  congregation 
at  Wattsfield,  in  Suffolk,  where  he  improved  his  acquain- 
tance with  the  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew  languages,  in 
each  of  which  he  acquired  much  critical  skill.  The  fa- 
vourite object  of  his  pursuit  was  oriental  history,  which  he 
applied  to  the  illustration  of  the  sacred  writings.  Ob- 
serving a  striking  conformity  between  the  present  customs 
of  the  eastern  nations  and  those  of  the  ancients,  as  men- 
tioned or  alluded  to  in  various  passages  of  scripture,  he 
conceived  a  design  at  a  very  early  period,  of  making  ex- 
tracts of  such  passages  in  books  of  travels  and  voyages,  as 
appeared  to  him  to  furnish  a  key  to  many  parts  of  holy 
writ.  In  1764  he  published  a  volume  of  "Observations 
on  divers  Passages  of  Scripture,"  &c.  The  favourable  re- 
ception which  this  work  met  with,  encouraged  Mr.  Harmer 
to  proceed  in  it,  and  in  1776  he  gave  the  public  an  en- 

and  Life> 1772'  8vo> p-  135-Bk* Brk 

H  A  R  M  E  R.  153 

larged  edition  of  it,  in  2  vols.  8vo.  By  the  preface  to  this 
impression  we  learn  that  Dr.  Lowth  bishop  of  London  fur- 
nished him  with  some  MS  papers  of  sir  John  Chardin.  In 
17S7  Mr.  Haroier  published  two  other  volumes.  A  new 
e-tition  of  the  whole  of  this  most  useful  work  has  lately  been 
published  by  the  rev.  Adam  Clarke.  He  was  author  also 
of  the  '•  Outlines  of  a  new  Commentary  on  Solomon's  Song, 
drawn  by  the  help  of  instructions  from  the  East ;"  an  "  Ac- 
count of  the  Jewish  Doctrine  of  the  Resurrection  of  the 
Dead,"  and  some  other  tracts  of  less  consequence.  Mr. 
Harrner  died  without  a  struggle,  in  November  1788, 
having  passed  the  preceding  day  in  perfect  health.1 

HARPALUS,  a  great  astronomer,  who  flourished  about 
480  years  before  Christ,  corrected  the  cycle  of  eight  years 
invented  by  Cleostratus,  and  in  its  stead  proposed  a  new 
one  of  nine  years,  in  which  he  supposed  that  the  sun  and 
moon  returned  to  the  same  point ;  but  this  cycle  of  Har- 
palus  was  afterwards  altered  by  Meton,  about  the  year  444 
B.  C.  who  added  ten  years  to  it,  which  cycle  is  still  in  use, 
and  called  "The  Golden  Number."2 

HAKPE  (JOHN  FRANCIS  DE  LA),  one  of  the  ablest  French 
writers  of  the  last  century,  was  born  at  Paris,  Nov.  20, 
1739.  His  father,  an  officer  of  the  artillery,  died  when 
he  was  very  young,  and  left  him  in  poverty.  He  obtained, 
however,  the  patronage  of  M.  Asselin,  principal  of  the 
college  of  Harcourt,  who  conceived  an  affection  for  him, 
received  him  among  his  pupils,  and  soon  after  obtained  a 
pension  for  him.  During  his  education  he  displayed  a 
turn  for  poetry  and  satire,  and  was  accused  of  writing  a 
satirical  poem  on  his  benefactor.  He  protested  his  inno- 
cence and  his  reverence  for  M.  Asselin;  but  this  not  ap- 
pearing satisfactory,  he  was  confined  for  some  months  in  a 
house  of  correction.  One  of  his  biographers  says  in  the 
Bastille ;  but,  wherever  it  was,  we  are  told  that  it  made  a 
deep  impression  on  him.  His  first  poetical  productions 
after  this  affair,  were  of  a  species  then  very  fashionable, 
and  called  Heroides,  in  which  Colordeau,  Ranee,  and 
Dorat  had  distinguished  themselves,  and  La  Harpe  was 
thought  little  inferior  to  Dorat.  In  1763,  when  only  in 
his  twenty-fourth  year,  he  wrote  his  tragedy  of  "  War- 
wick," which  met  with  deserved  success,  and  still  pre- 
serves its  popularity  on  the  stage.  "  Timoleon,"  which 

1  Gent.  Mag.  1788  and  1789.— Europ.  Mag.  1792. 
»  Gen.  Diet,— Moreri.— Fabric,  Bibl.  Grac. 

154  HARP  E. 

he  produced  in  1764,  and  "  Pharmond,"  in  1765,  were 
much  less  applauded.  They  showed  a  laudable  ambition 
to  excel,  but  it  was  too  much  to  expect  three  such  trage- 
dies as  "  Warwick"  within  so  short  a  space  of  time. 

Having,  however,  acquired  notice  by  these  productions, 
he  had  the  courage  to  become  a  candidate  for  the  aca- 
demic prizes;  and  few  writers  have  been  more  successful. 
Among  the  "  Eloges"  which  he  wrote,  that  on  Henry  IV. 
was  most  admired,  and  scarcely  less  those  on  Fenelon, 
Racine,  and  Catinat,  which  excelled  in  an  exact  estimate 
of  character  and  in  elegance  of  style.  His  poetical  pieces, 
however,  even  those  which  obtained  the  prizes,  are  more 
distinguished  by  purity  of  style,  and  elegance  and  facility 
of  versification,  than  for  genuine  poetical  spirit.  In  the 
mean  time  his  enthusiasm  for  the  stage  produced  in  1766 
"  Gustavus  Vasa,"  in  1776  "  MenzikofT,"  and  in  1778 
"  The  Barmicides,"  and  afterwards  various  other  dramas, 
none  of  which  proved  rivals  to  his  "  Warwick"  in  the  pub- 
lic estimation,  except  his  "  Philoctete,"  a  translation  from 
Sophocles,  represented  for  the  first  time  in  1781,  in  which 
he  is  thought  by  his  countrymen  to  have  preserved  all  the 
beauties  of  the  original. 

The  reputation  he  had  gained  by  his  various  prize  es- 
says and  poems,  and  by  his  "  Warwick,"  at  length  opened 
the  doors  of  the  French  academy,  into  which  he  was  ad- 
mitted in  1776.  In  1779  he  wrote  his  "  Muses  Rivales" 
in  compliment  to  Voltaire,  and  the  year  following  an  eloge 
on  that  celebrated  writer,  with  whom  he  had  been  ac- 
quainted since  1765.  He  was  not  less  a  favourite,  or 
less  connected  with  the  encyclopedists,  and  was  at  this 
time  accounted  an  adept  in  that  audacious  philosophy 
which  infected  France,  and  finally  dissolved  her  morals. 

About  1779  he  undertook  an  abridgment  of  the  abbe" 
Prevost's  «  Histoire  des  Voyages,"  an  employment  so  much 
beneath  his  talents,  that  it  was  generally  considered  rather 
as  a  bookseller's  job  than  an  effort  of  literary  ambition.  In 
the  same  year  he  printed  his  "  Tangu  et  Felime,"  in  four 
cantos,  which  was  reckoned  one  of  the  best  productions  of 
the  voluptuous  kind.  But  that  on  which  his  fame  is  more 
honourably  and  solidly  established,  was  his  "  Cour  de 
Litterature,  ancienne  et  moderne,"  which  justly  entitles 
him  to  the  appellation  of  the  French  Quintilian.  Being 
appointed  a  professor  of  literature  in  the  Lyceum,  the  lec- 
tures he  had  delivered  in  it  during  many  years  were  col- 

H  A  R  P  E.  155 

lected  and  properly  arranged  by  him,  and  soon  after  pub- 
lished under  the  title  of  "  Lyceum  ;  or,  Course  of  Litera- 
ture," in  12  vols.  8vo.  M.  Petitot  says  of  this  work,  that 
"  he  not  only  labours  to  give  to  persons  of  no  great  know- 
ledge competent  information  on  the  topics  of  his  work,  but 
arrests  the  attention  of  the  most  learned.  In  his  plans, 
the  outline  of  which  alone  announces  an  immense  stock  of 
science  and  learning,  he  embraces  all  ages  in  which  lite- 
rature has  flourished.  Every  celebrated  work  is  analyzed 
and  discussed.  The  beauties  of  the  several  writers  are 
happily  displayed,  and  their  faults  pointed  out  with  all  the 
ability  of  the  most  lively  and  sound  criticism.  That  which 
distinguishes  La  Harpe  from  other  moderns  who  have 
treated  of  literature  is,  that  he  always  assumes  the  tone  of 
the  work  he  criticises,  a  merit  which  we  find  in  none  of  the 
ancients  except  Cicero,  Quintilian,  and  Longinus.  If 
he  speaks  of  the  Iliad,  we  behold  him  borrow  all  the  rich 
colours  of  the  father  of  poetry  to  decorate  his  discourse. 
If  he  treats  of  Demosthenes  and  Cicero,  all  the  great  in- 
terests of  Athens  and  Rome  are  re-produced  under  his  pen. 
If  Tacitus  is  his  theme,  we  are  instantly  transported  to  the 
age  of  the  emperors  ;  we  enter  into  all  the  mystery  of  the 
dark  policy  of  Tiberius,  and  tremble  at  the  sight  of  Nero." 
The  only  regret  on  this  subject  is  that  the  author  did  not 
live  to  finish  his  course  of  instruction  ;  only  some  fragments 
have  been  left  of  what  he  purposed  as  a  continuation. 

Notwithstanding  the  multiplicity  of  his  labours,  La 
Harpe  was  much  in  company,  and  his  visits  were  eagerly 
courted.  Doubtless  he  owed  the  favour  in  which  he  was 
with  polite  circles  to  his  early  and  brilliant  success  in 
letters,  which  at  once  balanced  the  prejudices  created  by 
the  resentment  often  excited  by  the  severity  of  his  criti- 
cisms. From  the  first  essay  of  his  talents  he  was  patronized 
by  Voltaire  and  D'Alembert,  who  were  at  the  head  of 
literature  and  sciences  ;  and  it  is  well  known  what  influence 
those  two  celebrated  men  possessed  over  the  public  opi- 
nion. VoUaire  accorded  him  the  title  of  his  favou- 
rite pupil.  Married  while  yet  very  young,  to  a  woman 
of  wit  and  beauty,  madame  de  la  Harpe  and  he  mutually 
shone  with  unusual  brilliancy  in  the  most  fashionable  as- 
semblies. They  had  been  formed  in  the  art  of  speaking 
and  declamation  under  the  eyes  of  Voltaire  during  a  long 
stay  they  made  at  Ferney,  where  they  were  accustomed  to 
perform  the  principal  parts  in  the  tragedies  of  that  great 

156  HARPE. 

poet,  got  up  by  his  direction  at  his  own  theatre.  This 
practice  was  also  of  great  importance  to  M.  de  la  Harpe 
in  the  art  of  reading,  which  he  possessed  in  a  very  supe- 
rior manner.  The  mode  was  still  at  the  height  of  attending 
in  crowds  at  the  readings  given  by  authors  of  their  works 
previous  to  publication  ;  and  M.  de  Ja  Harpe,  whose  va- 
rious productions  succeeded  each  other  so  rapidly,  was  in- 
vited to  make  his  readings  in  so  many  circles,  that  he  was 
soon  compelled  to  be  select  in  his  choice  of  the  circles  he 
honoured  with  this  gratification. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  revolution  he  professed  himself 
an  advocate  for  the  new  order  of  things  ;  and  most  likely 
he  continued  in   the  same  principles  till   the  downfall  of 
royalty,  and  till  he  himself  fell   a  prey  to  the  terrorism  of 
Robespierre.     It  appears  from  the  report  of  Gregoire  to 
the  national  convention,  that  he  was  imprisoned  from  No- 
vember 1793  to  August  1794;  and  this  confinement  was  the 
cause  of  M.  La  Harpe's  conversion,  brought  about  by  the  ad- 
vice of  the  bishop  of  St.  Brieux,  who  happened  to  be  his  fel- 
low-prisoner   La  Harpe  soon  after  proved  one  of  the  greatest 
champions  of  the  attempted  counter-revolution  ;  and  from 
the  latter  part  of  1794,  he  devoted  almost  his  whole  time 
to  royalist  publications,  among  which  were  his  dissertation 
on  the  war  declared  by  the  republican  tyranny  against  good 
sense   and    morals,    his   Fanaticism  of  the  Revolutionary 
Language,  his  Confutation   of  Helvetius,  and  his  journal 
Le  Memorial,  which  he  edited  conjointly  with  his  friend 
Fontanes.      This  Memorial,  however,  involved  La  Harpe 
in  the  directorial  proscription  of  the  14th  September  1797, 
and  he  narrowly  escaped  being  transported  to  Cayenne  ; 
it  was  a  twelvemonth  before  he  was  restored  to  his  station 
in  Paris.     But  confinement  had  injured  his  health,  and  he 
died  in  Feb.  1803,  in  the  sixty-fifth  year  of  his  age.     On 
the   evening  preceding  his  death,  M.  Fontanes  called  to 
see  him  ;  he  was  listening  to  the  Prayers  for  the  Sick ;  and 
as  soon  as  they  were  concluded,  he   stretched   his  hand  to 
M.  Fontanes,  and   said,   "  I  am  grateful  to  divine  mercy 
for  having  left  me  sufficient  recollection  to  feel  how  con- 
soling these  prayers  are  to   the  dying."     His  funeral  was 
attended  by  his  friends,  and  most  of  the  distinguished  lite- 
rary characters  in  France.     A  deputation  from  the  institute 

ned  the  procession ;  and  M.  Fontanes,  one  of  the  de- 
putation, pronounced  a  funeral  oration  over  the  crave, 

H  A  R  P  E.  157 

Of  La  Harpe's  other  works  not  noticed  already,  are, 
I.  "  Melanges  Litteraires,"  1765,  12mo.  2.  Tiansla- 
tion  of  Suetonius  into  French,  with  notes,  1770,  2  vots. 
8vo.  3.  Translation  of  the  Lnsiad  of  Camoens,  with  notes 
and  a  life  of  the  author,  1776,  2  vols,  8vo.  4.  ''  Corre- 
spondence Litteraire  addressee  a  Paul  I."  emperor  of 
Russia,  1801,  4  vols.  Svo.  5.  "  Commentaire  de  trage- 
dies de  Racine,"  Paris,  7  vols.  Svo,  printed  since  his  death. 
6.  "  Refutation  de  L'Esprit  de  Helvetius."  He  left  many 
manuscripts  both  in  prose  and  verse.1 

HARPOCRATION  (VALERIUS),  an  ancient  rhetorician 
of  Alexandria,  who  flourished  about  the  year  360,  has  left 
us  an  excellent  "Lexicon  upon  the  ten  Orators  of  Greece,'* 
for  that  is  the  title  usually  given  to  it,  though  Meursius 
will  have  it,  that  the  author  inscribed  it  only  XE|EI$;  and  he 
is  followed  in  this  opinion  by  James  Gronovius.  Harpo- 
cration  speaks  in  this  work,  with  much  seeming  exactness, 
of  magistrates,  pleadings  at  the  bar,  places  in  Attica,  names 
of  men  who  had  the  chief  management  of  affairs  in  the  re- 
public, and  of  every  thing,  in  short,  which  has  been  said  to 
the  glory  of  this  people  by  their  orators.  Aldus  first  pub- 
lished this  Lexicon  in  Greek  at  Venice,  1603,  in  folio,  and 
many  other  learned  men,  as  Meursius,  Maussac,  Valesius, 
have  laboured  upon  it;  James  Gronovius  published  an  edi- 
tion of  it  at  Leyden,  1696,  in  4to.2 

HARPSFELD  (JOHN),  dean  of  Norwich,  and  one  of 
the  bitterest  persecutors  under  the  reign  of  queen  Mary, 
was  born  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Old  Fish- 
street,  London,  and  educated  at  Winchester  school,  whence 
he  was  sent  to  New  college,  Oxford,  of  which  he  was  ad- 
mitted fellow  in  1534.  Having  completed  his  degrees  in 
arts,  and  taken  orders,  he  became  chaplain  to  bishop  Bon- 
ner,  whose  whole  spirit  he  imbibed.  In  1554  he  was  col- 
lated to  the  church  of  St.  Martin  Ludgate,  which  he  re- 
signed on  being  presented  to  the  living  of  Layndon  in  Es- 
sex in  May  1558.  He  had  other  preferments,  and  was 
created  doctor  of  divinity.  A  few  months  before  the  death 
of  queen  Mary,  he  was  preferred  to  the  deanery  of  Nor- 
wich; but  was  deprived  of  it  in  1560,  and  committed  to 
the  Fleet  prison  He  remained  here  about  a  year,  and  was 
then  set  at  liberty  on  giving  security  for  his  peaceable  be- 
haviour. He  died  in  London  in  1578.  Among  his  pre- 

1  Diet.  Hist,  and  Supplement,  &o.         2  Fahr.  Bibl.  Graec. — Saxii  Onomast. 

158  H  A  R  P  S  F  E  L  D. 

ferments  was  that  of  archdeacon  of  London,  given  to  him 
because  he  would  act  with  more  cruelty  to  the  martyrs  than 
his  predecessor.  He  appears,  indeed,  in  every  respect,  a 
suitable  assistant  to  Bonner.  In  learning,  however,  he 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  inferior  to  any  of  his  contem- 
poraries. His  published  works  are,  1.  "  Concio  ad  cle- 
rum,"  Lond.  1553,  8vo.  2.  "  Homilies,"  1554,  1555,  ibid. 
Among  Bonner's  Homilies,  nine  were  written  by  Harps- 
feld.  3.  "  Disputations  and  Epistles,"  in  Fox's  Acts  and 
Monuments.  4.  "  Supputatio  temporum  a  diluvio  ad  A.D. 
1559,"  Lond.  1560.1 

HARPSFELD  (NICHOLAS),  brother  to  the  preceding, 
was  born  in  London,  and  educated  at  Winchester  school, 
after  which  he  studied  civil  law  at  New  college,  Oxford,  of 
which  he  was  admitted  a  fellow  in  1536.  In  1543  he  took 
the  degree  of  bachelor  of  laws,  and  the  year  following  was 
chosen  principal  of  White-hall,  which  stood  on  the  site  of 
Jesus  college.  In  1546  he  was  appointed  regius  professor 
of  Greek.  He  was  the  first  who  read  this  lecture  before  it 
was  fully  established  by  Henry  VIII.  and  Leland  charac- 
terizes him  as  "  Atticae  linguae  interpres  facilis,  disertus, 
aptus."  He  appears  to  have  resigned  this  office  in  1548. 
In  1550,  Pits  says,  he  went  abroad  for  conscience  sake  ; 
but  in  1553  we  find  him  resigning  his  fellowship,  taking 
the  degree  of  LL.  D.  and  on  Jan.  15,  1554,  admitted  a 
civilian  in  London.  In  the  same  year  he  was  made  arch- 
deacon of  Canterbury,  prebendary  of  St.  Paul's,  and  also 
admitted  to  the  living  of  Layndon,  which  in  1558  here- 
signed  to  his  brother.  In  1558  he  acted  as  prolocutor  for 
the  province  of  Canterbury  in  convocation,  and  after  queen 
Elizabeth  came  to  the  throne,  was,  as  well  as  his  brother, 
one  of  the  seven  popish  disputants  ;  but  his  zeal  for  popery 
deprived  him  of  all  his  preferments.  He  appears  to  have 
been  afterwards  imprisoned,  some  say  for  twenty-three 
years.  But  it  is  proved  that  he  was  for  some  years  at  least 
jnder  the  mild  custody  of  archbishop  Parker,  who  afforded 

n  every  help  in  compiling  his  ecclesiastical  history.  He 
died  in  1583.  He  wrote,  1.  Dialogi  sex  contra  summi 
pontificatus,  monastics  vitae,  sanctorum  sacrorum  imagi- 
num,  oppugnatores  et  pseudo-martyres,"  Antwerp,  1566, 
1 573, 4to  This  was  published  under  the  name  of  Alan  Cope, 
being  then  in  prison.  The  initials  at  the  end, 

'  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.-Dodd's  Ch.  Hist—Fox's  Acts  and  Monument s.-Tanner, 

H  A  R  P  S  F  E  L  D.  159 

A.  H.  L.  N.  H.  E.  V.  E.  A.  C.  Pits  interprets  thus,  «  Auc- 
tor  hujus  libri  Nicolaus  Harpsfeldus ;  edidit  vero  eum 
Alanus  Copus."  2.  "  Historia  Anglicana  ecclesiastica," 
Doway,  1622.  The  original  MS.  is  in  the  Cotton  library, 
but  differs  in  some  passages  from  the  printed  book.  It  is 
a  learned  and  laborious  performance,  according  to  Wood, 
but  much  impartiality  cannot  be  expected.  3.  "  Historia 
haeresis  Wickleffianae,"  published  with  the  former.  4. 
"  Chronicon  a  diluvio  Noe  ad  annum  1559,"  MS.  in  verse, 
and  5.  "  A  Treatise  concerning  Marriage,"  occasioned  by 
king  Henry  VIII. 's  divorce,  a  MS.  in  the  library  of  New 
college.  Other  manuscripts  are  mentioned  in  our  autho- 

HARRINGTON  (JAMES),  an  eminent  political  writer, 
was  born  in  January  1611,  being  the  eldest  son  of  sir  Sap- 
cote  Harrington,  and  Jane  the  daughter  of  sir  William 
Samuel  of  Upton,  in  Northamptonshire,  the  place  of  his 
nativity.  When  he  had  made  a  progress  in  classical  learn* 
ing,  he  was  admitted  in  1629  a  gentleman-commoner  of 
Trinity  college,  in  Oxford,  and  placed  under  Mr.  Chilling- 
worth,  who  had  lately  been  elected  fellow  of  that  college  ; 
from  whom  he  might  possibly  acquire  some  portion  of  that 
spirit  of  reasoning  and  thinking  for  himself,  which  af- 
terwards shone  forth  so  conspicuously  in  his  writings. 
About  three  years  after,  his  father  died  ;  upon  which  he 
left  the  university,  and  commenced  travelling,  having  pre- 
viously furnished  himself  with  the  knowledge  of  several 
foreign  languages.  His  first  step  was  into  Holland,  then 
the  principal  school  of  martial  discipline  ;  and,  what  may 
be  supposed  to  have  affected  him  more  sensibly,  a  country 
wonderfully  flourishing,  under  the  auspices  of  liberty, 
commerce,  strength,  and  grandeur.  Here  it  is  probable 
that  he  began  to  make  government  the  subject  of  his  me- 
ditations ;  for,  he  was  often  heard  to  say,  that,  "  before  he 
left  England,  he  knew  no  more  of  anarchy,  monarchy,  aris- 
tocracy, democracy,  oligarchy,  or  the  like,  than  as  hard 
words,  whose  signification  he  found  in  his  dictionary."  On 
coming  into  the  Netherlands,  he  entered  a.  volunteer,  and 
remained  in  that  capacity  some  months,  in  lord  Craven's 
regiment;  during  which  time,  being  much  at  the  Hague, 
he  had  the  farther  opportunity  of  accomplishing  himself  in 
two  courts,  those  of  the  prince  of  Orange,  and  of  the  queen 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  new  edit,— DoM's  Ch.  HKt  -— Tanner  and  Pits. 


of  Bohemia,  daughter  of  our  James  I.  who  was  then  a  fu- 
gitive in  Holland.  He  was  taken  into  great  favour  by  this 
princess,  and  also  by  the  prince  elector,  whom  he  attended 
to  Copenhagen,  when  his  highness  paid  a  visit  to  the  king 
of  Denmark  ;  and,  after  his  return  from  travelling,  was 
entrusted  by  him  with  the  affairs  of  the  Palatinate,  so  far 
as  they  were  transacted  at  the  British  court. 

He  stayed,  however,  but  a  short  time  in  Holland  ;  no 
temptations  or  offers  could  divert  or  restrain  him  from  the 
resolution  he  had  formed  to  pursue  his  travels,  and  there- 
fore, taking  Flanders  in  his  way,  he  set  out  on  a  tour 
through  part  of  Germany,  France,  and  Italy.  While  he 
was  at  Rome,  the  pope  performed  the  ceremony  of  conse- 
crating wax-lights  on  Candlemas-day.  When  his  holiness 
had  sanctified  these  torches,  they  were  distributed  among 
the  people,  who  fought  for  them  very  eagerly.  Harring- 
ton was  desirous  to  have  one  of  them  ;  but,  perceiving  that 
it  was  not  to  be  obtained  without  kissing  the  pope's  toe, 
he  declined  to  accept  it  on  such  a  condition.  His  compa- 
nions were  not  so  scrupulous,  and  when  they  came  home 
spoke  of  his  squeamishness  to  the  king.  The  king  told 
him,  "  he  might  have  done  it  only  as  a  piece  of  respect  to 
a  temporal  prince  ;"  but  Harrington  replied,  that  "  since 
he  had  the  honour  to  kiss  his  majesty's  hand,  he  thought  it 
beneath  him  to  kiss  any  other  prince's  foot."  He  is  said 
to  have  preferred  Venice  to  all  other  places  in  Italy,  as  he 
did  its  government  to  that  of  the  whole  world  ;  it  being,  in 
his  opinion,  immutable  by  any  external  or  internal  causes, 
and  to  finish  only  with  mankind.  Here  he  cultivated  an 
acquaintance  with  all  the  men  of  letters,  and  furnished 
himself  with  the  most  valuable  books  in  the  Italian  tongue, 
such  especially  as  were  written  upon  politics  and  govern- 

After  having  thus  seen  Italy,  France,  the  Low  Countries, 
Denmark,  and  some  parts  of  Germany,  he  returned  home 
to  England,  and  in  the  beginning  of  the  civil  war,  1642, 
he  took  a  decided  part  with  the  parliament,  and  endea- 
voured to  get  a  seat  in  the  house,  but  could  not.  His  in, 
clmation  to  letters  kept  him  from  seeking  public  employ- 
ments, so  that  we  hear  no  more  of  him  till  1646  ;  when 
attending  out  of  curiosity  the  commissioners  appointed  by 
parliament  to  Charles  I.  from  Newcastle  nearer  to  London, 
he  was  by  some  of  them  named  to  wait  on  his  majesty,  as 
a  person  known  to  him  before,  and  engaged  to  no  party  or 


faction.  The  king  approved  the  proposal,  and  Harrington, 
entered  on  the  station  of  a  domestic;  but  would  never 
presume  to  come  into  his  presence,  except  in  public,  till 
he  was  particularly  commanded  by  the  king,  and  made  one 
of  the  grooms  of  the  bed-chamber  in  May  1647.  He  had 
the  good  fortune  to  please  the  king  much  :  "  His  majesty 
loved  his  company,"  says  Wood,  "  and,  finding  him  to  be 
an  ingenious  man,  chose  rather  to  converse  with  him  than, 
with  others  of  his  chamber.  They  had  often;"  says  he, 
"  discourses  concerning  government;  but,  when  they  hap- 
pened to  talk  of  a  commonwealth,  the  king  seemed  not  to 
endure  it."  Harrington  conceived  a  high  notion  of  the 
king,  finding  him  to  be  a  different  person  from  what  he 
had  been  represented,  as  to  parts,  morals,  religion,  &c. ; 
and  therefore,  after  the  king  was  removed  out  of  the  Isle 
of  Wight  to  Hurst-castle,  in  Hampshire,  was  forcibly 
turned  out  of  his  service,  because  he  vindicated  some  of 
his  majesty's  arguments  against  the  parliament  commis- 
sioners at  Newport,  and  thought  his  concessions  more  satis- 
factory than  they  did.  There  is  no  ground  to  imagine 
that  he  saw  the  king  any  more  till  the  day  he  was  brought 
to  the  scaffold  ;  whither  Harrington  found  means  to  ac- 
company him,  and  where,  or  a  little  before,  he  received  a 
token  of  hifcmajesty's  affection.  The  king's  execution  af* 
fected  him  extremely.  He  often  said,  ft  nothing  ever 
went  nearer  him ;  and  that  his  grief  on  that  account  was 
so  great  as  to  bring  a  disorder  upon  him." 

After  the  king's  death,  he  was  observed  to  keep  much 
in  his  library,  and  more  retired  than  usual,  which  his 
friends  attributed  to  discontent  and  melancholy.  But,  to 
convince  them  that  this  was  not  the  cause  of  his  retire- 
ment, he  produced  a  copy  of  his  "  Oceana ;"  which  "  he 
had  been  writing,"  he  said,  '*  not  only  because  it  was 
agreeable  to  the  studies  which  he  pursued,  but  because,  if 
ever  it  should  be  the  fate  of  England  to  be,  like  Italy  of 
old,  overrun  by  a  barbarous  people,  or  to  have  its  govern- 
ment and  records  destroyed  by  some  merciless  conqueror, 
they  might  not  be  then  left  to  their  own  invention  in, 
framing  a  new  government."  This  "  Oceana"  is  a  kind  of 
political  romance,  in  imitation  of  Plato's  "  Atlantic  Story," 
where,  by  Oceana,  Harrington  means  England  ;  exhibiting 
a  plan  of  republican  government,  which  he  would  have  had 
erected  here,  in  case  these  kingdoms  had  formed  them- 
selves into  a  genuine  commonwealth.  This  work,  how* 



ever,  pleased  no  party,  and  as  it  reflected  severely  upon 
Oliver's  usurpation,  met  with  many  difficulties  in  the  pub- 
lishing;  for,  it  being  known  to  some  of  the  courtiers  that 
it  was  printing,  they  hunted  it  from  one  press  to  another, 
till  at  last  they  found  it,  and  carried  it  to  Whitehall.  AH 
the  solicitations  he  could  make  were  not  able  to  retrieve 
his  papers,  till  he  bethought  himself  of  applying  to  lady 
Claypole,  who  was  a  good-natured  woman,  and  Oliver's 
favourite  daughter  ;  and  who,  upon  his  declaring  that  they 
contained  nothing  prejudicial  to  her  father's  government, 
got  them  restored  to  him.  He  printed  it  in  1656,  and  de- 
dicated it,  as  he  promised  lady  Claypole,  to  her  father  ; 
who,  it  is  said,  perused  it,  but  declared,  agreeable  to  his 
principles  of  policy,  that  "  the  gentleman  must  not  think 
to  cheat  him  of  his  power  and  authority ;  for  that  what  he 
had  won  by  the  sword,  he  would  not  suffer  himself  to  be 
scribbled  out  of." 

This  work  was  no  sooner  published,  than  many  under- 
took a  refutation  of  it.  This  occasioned  him  to  reply,  and 
to  explain  his  scheme,  in  several  successive  pieces,  which 
may  be  easily  seen  in  the  collection  of  his  works.  In  the  mean 
time,  he  not  only  endeavoured  to  propagate  his  republican' 
notions  by  writing,  but,  for  the  more  effectually  advancing 
a  cause,  of  which  he  was  enthusiastically  enamoured,  he 
formed  a  society  of  gentlemen,  agreeing  with  him  in  prin- 
ciples, who  met  nightly  at  Miles's  coffee-house,  in  New 
Palace-yard,  Westminster,  and  were  called  the  Rota. 
Wood  has  given  a  very  particular  account  of  this  associa- 
tion, or  gang,  as  he  calls  them.  "  Their  discourses  about 
government,"  says  he,  "  and  of  ordering  a  commonwealth, 
were  the  most  ingenious  and  smart  that  ever  were  heard ; 
for  the  arguments  in  the  parliament-house  were  but  flat  to 
those.  This  gang  had  a  balloting-box,  and  balloted  how 
things  should  be  carried  by  way  of  essay  •,  which  not  being 
used,  or  known  in  England  before  on  this  account,  the 
room  was  every  evening  very  full.  The  doctrine  there  in- 
culcated was  very  taking ;  and  the  more,  because  as  to 
human  foresight  there  was  no  possibility  of  the  king's  re- 
turn. The  greatest  part  of  the  parliament-men  hated  this 
rotation  and  balloting,  as  being  against  their  power :  eight 
or  ten  were  for  it,  who  proposed  it  to  the  house,  and  made 
it  out  to  the  members,  that,  except  they  embraced  that 
sjrt  of  government,  they  must  be  ruined.  The  model  of 
it  was,  that  the  third  part  of  the  senate  or  house  should 


rote  out  by  ballot  every  year,  not  capable  of  being  elected 
again  for  three  years  to  come ;  so  that  every  ninth  year 
the  senate  would  be  wholly  altered.  No  magistrate  was  to 
continue  above  three  years,  and  all  to  be  chosen  by  the 
ballot,  than  which  nothing  could  be  invented  more  fair  and 
impartial,  as  it  was  then  thought,  though  opposed  by  many 
for  several  reasons.  This  club  of  commonwealthsmen, 
which  began  about  Michaelmas  1659,  lasted  till  about  Feb. 
21  following;  at  which  time,  the  secluded  members  being 
restored  by  general  Monk,  all  their  models  vanished*/' 

After  the  restoration,  he  lived  more  privately  than  he 
had  done  before,  but  still  was  looked  upon  as  a  dangerous 
person,  who  maintained  and  propagated  principles  which 
could  never  be  reconciled  to  monarchical  government.  He 
employed  himself  now  in  reducing  his  politics  into  short 
and  easy  aphorisms  methodically  digested,  and  freely  com- 
municated his  papers  to  all  who  visited  him.  While  he 
was  putting  the  last  hand  to  his  system,  he  was,  by  an 
order  from  the  king,  seized  December  28,  1661,  and  com- 
mitted to  the  Tower  of  London  for  treasonable  designs  and 
practices.  He  was  charged  by  lord  chancellor  Hyde,  at  a 
conference  of  the  lords  and  commons,  with  being  con- 
cerned in  a  plot,  of  which  twenty-one  persons  were  the 
chief  managers  :  "  that  they  all  met  in  Bow-street,  Covent- 
garden,  and  in  other  places ;  that  they  were  of  seven  dif- 
ferent parties  or  interests,  as  three  for  the  commonwealth, 
three  for  the  long-parliament,  three  for  the  city,  three  for 
the  purchasers,  three  for  the  disbanded  army,  three  for  the 
independents,  and  three  for  the  fifth-monarchy  men  ;  that 
their  first  consideration  was  how  to  agree  on  the  choice  of 
parliament-men  against  the  ensuing  session  ;  and  that  a 
special  care  ought  to  be  had  about  the  members  for  the 
city  of  London,  as  a  precedent  for  the  rest  of  the  kingdom 
to  follow ;  whereupon  they  nominated  the  four  members 
after  chosen,  and  then  sitting  in  parliament.  Their  next 
care  was  to  frame  a  petition  to  the  parliament  for  a  preach- 
ing ministry  j  and  liberty  of  conscience;  then  they  were  to  di- 
vide and  subdivide  themselves  into  several  councils  and  com- 
mittees, for  the  better  carrying  on  their  business  by  them- 
selves or  their  agents  and  accomplices  all  over  the  king- 

*  For  this  ami  many  other  particu-  ten  by  Eminent  Persons,  &c."   1813, 

Jars  respecting  Mr.  Harrington,  Wood  3  vols.  8vo.     There  is  in  tlu-se  MSS.  a 

appears  to  be  indebted  to  the  Aubrey  more  minute  account  of  Harrington's 

MSS>  now  published  in  "  Letter*  writ-  insanity. 

M   2 

164  H  A  R  R  I  N  G  T  O  N. 

dom.  In  these  meetings  Harrington  was  said  to  be  often 
in  the  chair ;.  that  they  had  taken  an  oath  of  secrecy,  and 
concerted  measures  for  levying  men  and  money."  The 
chancellor  added,  that  though  he  had  certain  information 
of  the  times  and  places  of  their  meetings,  and  particularly 
those  of  Harrington  and  Wildman,  they  were  nevertheless 
so  fixed  in  their  nefarious  design,  that  none  of  those  they 
had  taken  would  confess  any  thing,  not  so  much  as  that 
they  had  seen  and  spoken  to  one  another  at  those  times  or 

But,  notwithstanding  these  declarations  of  the  chancellor, 
it  is  certain,  that  this  plot  was  never  proved,  and  was  pro- 
bahly  imaginary.  It  is  at  least  easy  to  account  upon  poli- 
tical principles,  for  Harrington's  confinement,  and  the  se- 
vere usage  he  met  with,  when  we  consider  not  only  his  no- 
tions of  government,  which  he  every  where  enforced  with 
the  greatest  zeal ;  but  also  how  obnoxious  he  made  him- 
self to  the  powers  then  in  being,  by  his  treatment  of  the 
Stuart  family.  Nothing  can  be  viler  than  the  picture  he 
has  drawn  of  Mary  queen  of  Scotland  ;  he  has  also  painted 
her  son  James  I.  in  the  most  odious  colours,  suggesting  at 
the  same  time,  that  he  was  not  born  of  the  queen,  but  was 
a  supposititious  impostor,  and  of  course  had  no  right  to 
the  crown  he  inherited.  His  portrait  of  Charles  I.  is  an 
abominable  figure  t  "  never  was  man,"  says  he,  "  so  reso- 
lute and  obstinate  in  tyranny.  He  was  one  of  the  most 
consummate  in  the  arts  of  tyranny  that  ever  was;  and  it 
could  be  no  other  than  God's  hand,  that  arrested  him  in 
the  height  of  his  designs  and  greatness,  and  cut  off  him 
and  his  family."  Such  a  character  very  ill  accorded  with 
what  he  had  himself  observed  of  that  unhappy  monarch, 
and  with  the  grief  he  felt  at  his  death  ;  but  Harrington 
seems  in  the  latter  end  of  his  life  to  have  grown  fanatic  in 
politics,  and  his  keeping  within  no  bounds  might  make 
it  the  more  expedient  to  put  him  under  confinement. 
Prom  the  Tower  lie  was  conveyed  very  privately  to  St. 
Nicholas's  island  opposite  to  Plymouth;  and  thence,  upon 
petition,  to  Plymouth,  some  relations- obliging  themselves 
in  a  bond  ot  5000/.  for  his  safe  imprisonment.  At  this 
place  he  became  acquainted  with  one  Dr.  Dunstan,  who 
advised  him  to  take  a  preparation  of  guiacum  in  coffee,  as 
a  certain  cure  for  the  scurvy,  with  whi<&  he  was  then  trou- 
bled. He  drank  of  this  liquor  in  great  quantities,  which 
had  probably  a  very  pernicious  effect,  for  he  soon  grew 


delirious  ;  upon  which  a  rumour  prevailed  at  Plymouth, 
that  he  had  taken  some  drink  which  would  make  any  man 
mad  in  a  month  ;  and  other  circumstances  made  his  rela- 
tions suspect,  that  he  had  foul  play  shewn  him,  lest  he 
should  write  any  more  "  Oceanas."  It  was  near  a  month 
before  he  was  able  to  bear  the  journey  to  London,  whither, 
as  nothing  appeared  against  him,  he  had  leave  from  the 
king  to  go.  Here  he  was  put  under  the  care  of  physicians, 
who  could  afford  little  help  to  the  weakness  of  his  body, 
and  none  at  all  to  the  disorders  of  his  mind.  He  would  dis- 
course of  other  things  rationally  enough  ;  but,  when  his 
own  distemper  was  touched  upon,  he  would  fancy  and 
utter  strange  things  about  the  operation  of  his  animal  spi- 
rits, which  transpired  from  him,  he  said,  in  the  shape  of 
birds,  flies,  bees,  or  the  like.  He  talked  so  much  of  good 
and  evil  spirits,  that  he  even  terrified  those  about  him  ; 
and  to  those  who  objected  to  him  that  these  chimeras  were 
the  fruits  of  a  disordered  imagination,  he  would  reply,  that 
11  he  was  like  Democritus,  who,  for  his  admirable  discove- 
ries in  anatom}*,  was  reckoned  distracted  by  his  fellow- 
citizens."  In  this  crazy  condition  he  married  the  daughter 
of  sir  Marmaduke  Dprrel,  in  Buckinghamshire,  a  lady  to 
whom  he  was  formerly  suitor,  and  with  whom  he  spent  the 
remainder  of  his  life.  Towards  his  latter  end,  he  was  sub- 
ject to  the  gout,  and  enjoyed  little  ease ;  but,  after  drooping 
and  languishing  for  some  time,  he  was  at  last  seized  with  a 
palsy,  and  died  at  Westminster,  September  11,  1677,  and 
lies  buried  there  in  St.  Margaret's  church,  on  the  south 
side  of  the  altar,  next  the  grave  of  sir  Walter  Raleigh. 

His  writings  were  first  collected,  methodized,  reviewed, 
and  published,  by  Toland,  1700,  in  one  volume,  folio  ;  but 
there  was  another  edition,  by  Dr.  Birch,  published  in  1737, 
which  Contains  several  articles  omitted  in  Toland's,  and 
there  was  a  third  edition  in  1747.  He  made  some  attempts 
in  the  poetical  way,  and  in  1658  published  an  English 
translation  of  two  eclogues  of  Virgil,  and  two  books  of  the 
4<  JEneis,"  under  the  title  of  "  An  Essay  upon  two  of  Vir- 
gil's Eclogues,  and  two  of  his  JEne\s9  towards  the  transla- 
tion of  the  whole;"  and,  in  1659,  was  printed  his  transla- 
tion of  the  four  following  books  "  of  the  ^Eneid  ;"  but  his 
poetry  gained  him  no  reputation.1 

i  Bio£,  Brit.— Ath,  Ox.  Tol.  JJ. 


HARRINGTON  (JAMES),  a  young  lawyer  of  great  pro- 
mise, was  born  probably  at  Waltham  Abbey,  where  his 
father  resided,  in  1664.  He  was  educated  at  Westminster 
school,  whence  he  was  elected  student  of  Christ  church, 
Oxford,  in  1683,  and  soon  after  was  entered  a  member  of 
the  Inner  Temple.  In  1690  he  proceeded  M.  A.  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar,  where  he  acquired  very  extensive 
practice.  Some  months  before  his  death,  he  removed  to 
Lincoln's-inn,  where  that  event  happened  Nov.  23,  1693, 
in  his  twenty-ninth  year.  His  body  was  conveyed  to  Ox- 
ford, and,  according  to  Wood,  buried  under  the  north  wall 
of  the  north  transept  joining  to  the  body  of  the  cathedral  of 
Christ  church,  but  we  find  no  memorial  of  him  in  Wood's 
account  of  the  monumental  inscriptions.  His  death,  it  is 
said,  was  much  deplored  by  those  that  knew  him,  "  be^ 
cause,  1.  That  he  was  a  prodigy,  considering  his  age,  in 
his  knowledge  of  the  common  law.  2.  That  he  was  a  per- 
son of  excellent  parts  ;  and  3.  That  he  was  very  honest  in 
his  dealing,  and  of  a  good  and  generous  nature."  His 
writings,  enumerated  by  Wood,  are  principally  cases  and 
memorials  respecting  certain  local  disputes,  the  rights  of 
visitations,  &c.  at  Oxford.  He  contributed  some  Latin 
poems  to  the  "  Musae  Anglicans,"  and  wrote  the  preface 
to  the  first  volume  of  Wood's  "  Athenae,"  and  the  intro- 
duction to  the  second.  He  also  edited  the  works  of  Dr. 
George  Stradling,  to  which  he  added  a  preface  and  life.1 

HARRINGTON  (Sir  JOHN),  an  ingenious  English  poet, 
was  the  son  of  John  Harrington,  esq.  who  was  imprisoned 
in  the  Tower,  under  queen  Mary,  for  holding  a  correspond- 
ence with  the  lady  Elizabeth,  with  whom  he  continued 
in  great  favour  to  the  time  of  his  death.  He  also  was 
somewhat  of  a  poet  and  a  translator.  Sir  John  was  born  at 
Kelston,  near  Bath,  in  Somersetshire,  in  1561,  and  had 
queen  Elizabeth  for  his  godmother.  He  was  instructed  in 
classical  learning  at  Eton-school,  and  from  thence  removed 
to  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  In  his 
thirtieth  year,  159J,  he  published  a  translation  of  Ariosto's 
"  Orlando  Furioso,"  by  which  he  gained  a  considerable 
reputation,  and  for  which  he  is  now  principally  known. 
Warton  says,  that  although  executed  without  spirit  or  ac- 
curacy, unanimated  and  incorrect,  it  enriched  our  poetry- 
by  a  communication  of  new  stores  of  fiction  and  imagina- 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Nichols's  Atterbury,  vol.  I, 


tion,  both  of  the  romantic  and  comic  species,  of  gothic 
machinery  and  familiar  manners.  Mr.  Harrington  was 
knighted  in  the  field  by  the  earl  of  Essex,  which  gave 
much  offence  to  the  queen,  who  was  sparing  of  such 
honours,  and  chose  to  confer  them  herself.  In  the  reign 
of  James,  he  was  created  knight  of  the  Bath  ;  and,  being 
a  courtier,  presented  a  MS.  to  prince  Henry,  levelled 
chiefly  against  the  married  bishops,  which  was  intended 
only  for  the  private  use  of  his  royal  highness ;  but,  being 
published  afterwards,  created  great  clamour,  and  made 
several  of  the  clergy  say,  that  his  conduct  was  of  a  piece 
with  his  doctrines;  since  he,  together  with  Robert  earl  of 
Leicester,  supported  sir  Walter  Raleigh  in  his  suit  to 
queen  Elizabeth  for  the  manor  of  Banvvell,  belonging  to 
the  bishopric  of  Bath  and  Wells ;  on  a  presumption  that 
the  right  rev.  incumbent  bad  incurred  a  pr&munire,  by 
marrying  a  second  wife.  Wood's  account  of  it  is  this : 
"  That  sir  John  Harrington,  being  minded  to  obtain  the 
favour  of  prince  Henry,  wrote  a  discourse  for  his  private 
use,  entitled  *  A  brief  View  of  the  State  of  the  Church 
of  England,  as  it  stood  in  queen  Elizabeth's  and  king 
James's  reign,  to  the  year  1608.'  This  book  is  no  more 
than  a  character  and  history  of  the  bishops  of  those  times, 
and  was  written  to  the  said  prince  Henry,  as  an  additional 
supply  to  the  catalogue  of  bishops  of  Dr.  Francis  Godwin, 
upon  occasion  of  that  proverb, 

Henry  the  eighth  pulled  down  monks  and  their  cells, 
Henry  the  ninth  shall  pull  down  bishops  and  their  bells. 

"  In  the  said  book  the  author  Harrington  doth,  by  imi- 
tating his  godmother,  queen  Elizabeth,  shew  himself  a 
great  enemy  to  married  bishops,  especially  to  such  as  had 
been  married  twice ;  and  many  things  therein  are  said  of 
them,  that  were  by  no  means  fit  to  be  published,  being 
written  only  for  private  use.  But  so  it  was,  that  the  book 
coming  into  the  hands  of  one  John  Chetwind,  grandson  by 
a  daughter  to  the  author,  a  person  deeply  principled  in 
presbyterian  tenets,  did,  when  the  press  was  open,  print 
it  at  London  in  1653  ;  and  no  sooner  was  it  published,  and 
came  into  the  hands  of  many,  but  it  was  exceeding  cla- 
moured at  by  the  loyal  and  orthodox  clergy,  condemning 
him  that  published  it." 

Sir  John  died  in  1612.  His  lady,  Mary,  daughter  of 
sir  George  Rogers,  survived  him  till  1634.  In  his  epi- 



grams  are  several  to  his  mother-in-law  lady  Rogers.  These 
«  Epigrams"  were  the  most  popular  of  his  works,  although 
they  cannot  now  be  allowed  much  poetical  merit.  They 
were  first  published  in  1618,  and  afterwards  in  1625,  under 
the  title  of  "  The  most  elegant  and  witty  epigrams  of  sir 
John  Harrington,  knt.  digested  into  four  bookes,"  8vo. 
The  "  NugEe  Antique,"  a  miscellaneous  collection  of  his 
works,  and  antiquary  collections  and  letters  in  prose  and 
verse,  was  published  some  years  ago,  by  the  rev.  IJertry 
Harrington  of  Bath,  in  whose  family  the  papers  were;  of 
these  a'second  edition  was  published  in  1792,  3  vols.  12mo, 
and  a  third  with  most  valuable  additions  and  improve- 
ments, in  1804,  2  vols.  8vo,  by  Thomas  Park,  F.  S.  A.  with 
illustrative  notes  and  memoirs  of  the  author.1 

HARRIOT  (THOMAS),  an  eminent  mathematician,  was 
born  at  Oxford,  or,  as  Anthony  Wood  expresses  it,  "  turn-; 
bled  out  of  his  mother's  womb  in  the  lap  of  the  Oxonian 
Muses,"  in  1560.  Having  been  instructed  in  grammar- 
learning  in  that  city,  he  became  a  commoner  of  St.  Mary- 
hall,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1579.  He  had 
then  so  distinguished  himself,  by  his  uncommon  skill  in 
mathematics,  as  to  be  recommended  soon  after  to  sir  Wal- 
ter Raleigh  as  a  proper  preceptor  to  him  in  that  science. 
Accordingly,  that  noble  knight  became  his  first  patron, 
took  him  into  his  family,  and  allowed  him  a  handsome  pen- 
sion. In  1585  he  was  sent  over  by  sir  Walter  with  his 
first  colony  to  Virginia ;  where,  being  settled,  he  was  em- 
ployed in  discovering  and  surveying  that  country,  in  ob- 
serving what  commodities  it  produced,  together  with  the 
manners  and  customs  of  its  inhabitants.  He  published  an 
account  of  it  under  this  title,  "  A  brief  and  true  Report  of 
the  Newfoundland  of  Virginia;"  which  was  reprinted  in 
the  third  voyage  of  Hakluyt's  "  Voyages."  Upon  his  re- 
turn to  England,  he  was  introduced  by  his  patron  to  the 
acquaintance  of  Henry  earl  of  Northumberland ;  who, 
"  finding  him,"  says  Wood,  "  to  be  a  gentleman  of  an 
affable  and  peaceable  nature,  and  well  read  in  the  obscure 
pan  of  learning,"  allowed  him  a  yearly  pension  of  120/. 
About  the  same  time,  Robert  Hues,  well  known  by  his 
'  Treatise  upon  the  Globes,"  and  Walter  Warner,  who  is 

' '  Ath.  Ox.   vol.  Il.-Warton's   Hist,  of  Poetry.— Phillips's  Tbeatrum,  nc* 
•  77     «  '  ed«non.— Ctinsura  LUerarja,  vol.  IV.~Hutchinsoi»'s  Cumberland, 
vol.  II.— tllis's  Specimens,  &c. 

HARRIOT.  16* 

said  to  have  communicated  to  the  famous  Harvey  the  first 
hint  concerning  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  being  both  of 
them  mathematicians,  received  pensions  from  him  of  less 
value,  ^o  that  in  1606,  when  the  earl  was  committed  to 
the  Tower  for  life,  Harriot,  Hues,  and  Warner,  were  his 
constant  companions,  and  were  usually  called  the  earl  of 
Northumberland's  Magi.  They  had  a  table  at  the  earl's 
charge,  who  did  constantly  converse  with  them,  to  divert 
the  melancholy  of  his  confinement;  as  did  also  sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  who  was  then  in  the  Tower.  Harriot  lived  for 
some  time  at  Sion-college,  and  died  in  London,  July  2, 
1621,  of  a  cancer  in  his  lip.  He  was  universally  esteemed 
on  account  of  his  learning.  When  he  was  but  a  young 
man,  he  was  styled  by  Mr.  Hakluyt  "Juvenis  in  disciplinis 
mathematicis  excellens;"  and  by  Camden,  "  Mathemati- 
cus  insignis."  A  MS.  of  his,  entitled  "  Ephemeris  Chryro- 
metrica,"  is  preserved  in  Sion-college  library ;  and  his 
"  Artis  Analytic*  Praxis"  was  printed  after  his  death,  in 
a  thin  folio,  and  dedicated  to  Henry  earl  of  Northumber- 
land. Des  Cartes  is  said  to  have  been  obliged  to  this 
book  for  a  great  many  improvements  in  algebra,  which  he 
published  to  the  world  as  his  own,  a  fact  that  has  been 
amply  proved,  in  the  astronomical  ephemeris  for  17vS8, 
by  Dr.  Zach,  astronomer  to  the  duke  of  Saxe  Gotha,  from 
manuscripts  which  he  found  in  1784  at  the  seat  of  the  earl 
of  Egremont  at  Petworth,  a  descendant  of  the  above-men- 
tioned earl  of  Northumberland.  These  papers  also  show 
that  Mr.  Harriot  was  an  astronomer  as  well  as  an  algebraist, 
As  to  his  religion,  Wood  says,  that,  "  notwithstanding 
his  great  skill  in  mathematics,  he  had  strange  thoughts  of 
the  Scripture,  always  undervalued  the  old  story  of  the 
Creation  of  the  World,  and  could  never  believe  that  trite 
position,  *  Ex  nihilo  nihil  fit.'  He  made  a  Philosophical 
Theology,  wherein  he  cast  off  the  Old  Testament,  so  that 
consequently  the  New  would  have  uo  foundation.  He  was 
a  deist;  and  his  doctrine  he  did  impart  to  the  earl,  and  to 
sir  Walter  Raleigh,  when  he  was  compiling  the  '  History 
of  the  World,'  and  would  controvert  the  matter  with  emi- 
nent divines  of  those  times:  who,  therefore,  having  no 
good  opinion  of  him,  did  look  on  the  manner  of  his  death, 
as  a  judgment  upon  him  for  those  matters,  and  for  nullify, 
ing  the  Scripture."  Wood  borrowed  all  this  from  Aubrey, 
without  mentioning  his  authority;  and  it  has  been  answered, 
that  Harriot  assures  us  himself,  that  when  he  was  with  the 

170  HARRIOT. 

first  colony  settled  in  Virginia,  in  every  town  where  he 
came,  "  he  explained  to  them  the  contents  of  the  Bible, 
&c.  And  though  I  told  them,"  says  he,  "  the  book  ma- 
terially and  of  itself  was  not  of  such  virtue  as  I  thought 
they  did  conceive,  but  only  the  doctrine  therein  contained  ; 
yet  would  many  be  glad  to  touch  it,  to  embrace  it,  to  kiss 
it,  to  hold  it  to  their  breasts  and  heads,  and  stroke  over 
all  their  bodies  with  it,  to  shew  their  hungry  desires  of 
that  knowledge  which  was  spoken  of."  To  which  we  may 
add,  that,  if  Harriot  was  reputed  a  deist,  it  is  by  no 
means  probable  that  Dr.  Corbet,  an  orthodox  divine*  and 
successively  bishop  of  Oxford  and  Norwich,  sending  a 
poem,  dated  December  9,  1618,  to  sir  Thomas  Aylesbury, 
when  the  comet  appeared,  should  speak  of 

" Deep  Harriot's  mine, 

In  which  there  is  no  dross,  but  all  refine." 

Nor  is  it  likely  that  his  noble  executors,  sir  Thomas 
Aylesbury  and  Robert  Sidney,  viscount  Lisle,  would  have 
suffered  an  inscription  to  be  engraved  upon  his  monument 
in  St.  Christopher's  church,  which  might  have  been  con* 
tradicted  by  all  the  town,  if  it  had  been  false,  and  which, 
upon  the  supposition  of  his  being  an  infidel,  would  have 
been  ridiculous  : 

"  Qui  omnes  scientias  calluit,  &  in  omnibus  excelluit : 

Mathematicis,  Philosophicis,  Theologicis, 

Veritatis  indagator  studiosissimus, 

Dei  Triniunius  cultor  piissimus."  l 

HARRIS  (GEORGE),  an  English  civilian,  chancellor  of 
the  dioceses  of  Durham,  Hereford,  and  Llandaff,  and 
commissary  of  Essex,  Herts,  and  Surrey,  was  the  son  of 
Dr.  John  Harris,  bishop  of  Llandaff,  who  died  in  1738. 
The  time  of  his  son's  birth  we  have  not  been  able  to  ascer- 
tain. He  was,  however,  a  member  of  Oriel  college,  Ox- 
ford, where  he  took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  laws  in  May 
1745,  and  that  of  doctor  in  the  same  faculty  in  May  1750, 
in  which  last  year  he  was  admitted  into  the  college  of  ad- 
vocates. Here  he  proved  himself  an  eminent  pleader,  al- 
though not  a  masterly  orator,  and  enriched  himself  by 
very  extensive  practice.  He  died  at  his  house  in  Doctors' 
Commons,  April  19,  1796,  leaving  his  very  extensive  pro- 
perty mostly  to  charitable  uses.  Among  the  very  muni- 

1  Biop.  Brit.— GSeig's  Suppl.  to  Encycl.  Britannica.— Button's  Dictionary.— 
Lcttert  l.y  emioent  persons,  1812,  3  vols.  8vo. 

HARRIS.  17  I 

ficent  items  in  his  will,  were  40,000/.  to  St.  George's  hos- 
pital ;  20,000/.  to  Hetherington's  charity  for  the  blind  ; 
15,000/.  to  the  Westminster  lying-in  hospital,  and  5000/. 
to  the  Hereford  infirmary.  He  also  was  in  his  life-time  a 
benefactor  to  the  funds  of  the  society  of  advocates.  In 
1752  he  published  a  pamphlet,  entitled  "  Observations 
upon  the  English  Language,  in  a  letter  to  a  friend,"  8vo, 
relating  to  the  common  mistakes  in  spelling,  pronunciation, 
and  accent.  This  was  anonymous  ;  but  he  afterwards  pub- 
lished with  his  name,  "  D.  Justiniani  Institutionum,  Libri 
quatuor;  and  a  translation  of  them  into  English,  with 
notes,"  1756,  4to,  a  work  which  did  him  great  credit,  and 
was  thought  peculiarly  adapted  for  the  improvement  of 
young  law  students.  A  second  edition  appeared  in  176 1.1 

HARRIS  (JAMES),  esq.  an  English  gentleman  of  very 
uncommon  parts  and  learning,  was  the  eldest  son  of  James 
Harris,  esq.  of  the  Close  of  Salisbury,  by  his  second  wife 
the  lady  Elizabeth  Ashley,  who  was  third  daughter  of  An- 
thony  earl  of  Shaftesbury,  and  sister  to  the  celebrated 
author  of  the  Characteristics,  as  well  as  to  the  Hon.  Mau- 
rice Ashley  Cooper,  the  elegant  translator  of  Xenophon's 
Cyropaedia.  He  was  born  July  20,  1709.  The  early  part 
of  his  education  was  received  at  Salisbury,  under  the  rev. 
Mr.  Hele,  master  of  the  grammar-school,  in  the  Close, 
who  was  long  known  and  respected  in  the  West  of  England 
as  an  instructor  of  youth.  From  Mr.  Hele's  school,  at  the 
age  of  sixteen,  he  was  removed  to  Oxford,  where  he  passed 
the  usual  number  of  years  as  a  gentleman  commoner  of 
Wadham  college.  His  father,  as  soon  as  he  had  finished 
his  academical  studies,  entered  him  at  Lincoln's-Inn,  not 
intending  him  for  the  bar,  but,  as  was  then  a  common 
practice,  meaning  to  make  the  study  of  the  law  a  part  of 
bis  education. 

When  he  had  attained  his  twenty-fourth  year,  his  father 
died.  This  event,  by  rendering  him  independent  in  for- 
tune, and  freeing  him  from  ail  controul,  enabled  him  to 
exchange  the  study  of  the  law  for  other  pursuits  that  ac- 
corded better  with  his  inclination.  The  strong  and  de- 
cided bent  of  his  mind  had  always  been  towards  the  Greek 
and  Latin  classics.  These  he  preferred  to  every  other  sort 
of  reading;  and  to  his  favourite  authors  he  now  applied 

1  Gent.  Ma£.  LXVI.— Coot*'*  Catalogue  of  Civilians.— Monthly  and  Critical 

17£  H  A  R  R  I  S. 

himself  with  avidity,  retiring  from  London  to  the  house  in 
which  his  family  had  very  long  resided  in  the  Clo*e  of 
Salisbury,  for  the  sake  of  enjoying  without  interruption 
his  own  mode  of  living. 

His  application  during  fourteen  or  fifteen  years  to  the 
best  writers  of  antiquity  continued  to  be  almost  unremit- 
ting, and  his  industry  was  such  as  is  not  often  exceeded. 
He  rose  always  very  early,  frequently  at  four  or  five  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  especially  during  the  winter,  and  by  these 
means  he  was  enabled  to  mix  occasionally  in  the  society  of 
Salisbury  and  its  neighbourhood,  without  too  great  a  sacri- 
fice of  his  main  object,  the  acquisition  of  ancient  literature. 
But  it  was  not  until  many  years  after  his  retirement  from 
London,  that  he  began  to  read  Aristotle  and  his  commen-? 
tators,  or  to  inquire,  so  deeply  as  he  afterwards  did,  into 
the  Greek  philosophy.     He  had  imbibed  a  prejudice,  very 
common   at  that  time  even  among  scholars,  that  Aristotle 
was  an  obscure  and  unprofitable  author,  whose  philosophy 
had  been  deservedly  superseded  by  that  of  Mr.  Locke,  a 
notion  which  his  own  writings  have  since  contributed  to 
correct,  with   no  small   evidence   and   authority. — In    the 
midst,  however,  of  his  literary  labours  he  was  not  inattentive 
to  the  public  good,  but  acted  regularly  and  assiduously  as 
a  magistrate  for  the  county  of  Wilts;  giving,. in  that  capa- 
city, occasional   proofs  of  a   manly   spirit   and    firmness, 
without  which  the  mere  formal  discharge   of   magisterial 
duty  is  often  useless  and  inefficient. 

The  first  fruit  which  appeared  to  the  world  of  so  many 
years  spent  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge,  was  a  volume 
published  in  1744,  containing  "Three  Treatises.  The  first 
concerning  Art. — The  second  concerning  Music,  Painting, 
and  Poetry. — The  third  concerning  Happiness."  These 
treatises,  in  addition  to  their  merit  as  original  compositions, 
are  illustrated  by  a  variety  of  learned  notes  and  observa- 
tions, elucidating  many  difficult  passages  of  ancient  writers, 
the  study  and  examination  of  whom  it  was  his  earnest  wish 
to  promote  and  to  facilitate.  Lord  Monboddo,  speaking 
>fr  the  dialogue  upon  Art,  praises  it,  as  containing  "  the 
best  specimen  of  the  dividing,  or  diaeretic  manner,  as  the 
ancients  called  it,  that  is  to  be  found  in  any  modern  book 
with  which  he  is  acquainted." 

In  July  1745  he  was  married  to  miss  Elizabeth  Clarke, 

aughter  and  eventually  heiress  of  John  Clarke,  esq    of 

Sandford,  near  Bridgewater,  in  the  county  of  Somerset, 

HARRIS.  173 

Five  children  were  the  issue  of  this  marriage,  of  whom  two 
daughters,  and  a  son,  the  present  lord  Malmsbury,  sur-> 
vived  their  father. — This  change  in  his  state  of  life  by  no 
means  withdrew  his  attention  from  those  studies  in  which 
he  had  been  used  to  take  so  great  delight,  and  which  he 
had  cultivated  with  such  advantage  and  reputation ;  for  in 
1751  he  published  another  work,  entitled  "  Hermes,  or  a 
philosophical  inquiry  concerning  Universal  Grammar,"  8vo. 
Of  this  work,  Dr.  Lowth,  the  late  bishop  of  London,  says, 
"  Those  who  would  enter  deeply  into  the  subject  (of  uni- 
versal grammar)  will  find  it  fully  and  accurately  handled, 
with  the  greatest  acuteness  of  investigation,  perspicuity  of 
explication,  and  elegance  of  method,  in  a  treatise  entitled 
Hermes,  by  James  Harris,  esq.  the  most  beautiful  exam- 
ple of  analysis  that  has  been  exhibited  since  the  days  of 
Aristotle."  What  first  led  Mr.  Harris  to  a  deep  and  ac- 
curate consideration  of  the  principles  of  universal  grammar, 
was  a  book  which  he  held  in  high  estimation,  and  has  fre- 
quently quoted  in  his  Hermes,  the  "  Minerva"  of  Sanciius. 
To  that  writer  he  confessed  himself  indebted  for  abund- 
ance of, valuable  information,  of  which  it  appears  that  he 
knew  well  how  to  profit,  and  to  push  his  researches  on  the 
subject  of  grammar  to  a  much  greater  length,  by  the  help 
of  his  various  and  extensive  erudition.  Mr.  Harris's  sys- 
tem in  this  work  still  maintains  its  ground  in  the  estima- 
tion of  most  men  of  taste,  notwithstanding  the  coarse  at- 
tack made  on  it  by  Home  Tooke. 

.  From  the  period  of  his  marriage  until  176-1,  he  conti- 
nued to  live  entirely  at  Salisbury,  except  in  the  summer, 
when  he  sometimes  retired  to  his  house  at  Darnford,  near 
that  city.  It  was  there  that  he  found  himself  most  free 
from  the  interruption  of  business,  and  of  company,  and  at 
leisure  to  compose  the  chief  part  of  those  works  which  were 
the  result  of  his  study  at  other  seasons.  His  time  was  di- 
vided between  the  care  of  his  family,  in. which  he  placed 
his  chief  happiness,  his  literary  pursuits,  and  the  society 
of  bis  friends  and  neighbours,  with  whom  he  kept  up  a 
constant  and  cheerful  intercourse.  The  superior  taste  and 
skill  which  he  possessed  in  music,  and  his  extreme  fond- 
ness for  hearing  it,  led  him  to  attend  to  its  cultivation  in. 
his  native  place  with  uncommon  pains  and  success;  in- 
Somuch,  that  under  his  auspices,  not  only  the  annual  mu- 
sical festival  in  Salisbury  flourished  beyond  most  institu- 
tions of  the  kind,  but  even  the-ordinary  subscription-con- 

174  H  A  R  R  I  S. 

certs  were  carried  on,  by  his  assistance  and  directions, 
with  a  spirit  and  effect  seldom  equalled  out  of  the  metro- 
polis. Many  of  the  beautiful  selections  made  from  the  best 
Italian  and  German  composers  for  these  festivals  and  con- 
certs, and  adapted  by  him,  sometimes  to  words  selected 
from  Scripture,  or  from  Milton's  "  Paradise  Lost,"  some- 
times to  compositions  of  his  own,  have  survived  the  occa- 
sions on  which  they  were  first  produced,  and  are  still  in 
great  estimation.  Two  volumes  of  these  selections  have 
been  lately  published  by  Mr.  Corfe,  organist  of  Salisbury 
cathedral;  the  rest  remain  in  manuscript  in  possession  of 
lord  Malmsbury. 

In  1761,.  by  the  interest  of  his  near  relation,  the  late 
Edward  Hooper,  esq.  of  Hum  court  in  Hampshire,  he  was 
chosen  one  of  the  representatives  in  parliament  for  the 
borough  of  Christ-church,  which  seat  he  retained  to  the 
day  of  his  death.  The  year  following  he  accepted  the 
office  of  one  of  the  lords  of  the  admiralty,  from  whence  he 
was  promoted  in  1763  to  be  a  lord  of  the  treasury.  He 
remained  in  that  situation  until  the  ministry  with  which  he 
was  connected  went  out  of  office  in  1 765  ;  and  after  that 
time  he  did  not  hold  any  employment  until  1774,  when  he 
became  secretary  and  comptroller  to  the  queen.  This 
appointment  was  always  valued  by  him  exceedingly ;  not 
only  by  reason  of  the  handsome  and  flattering  manner  in 
which  it  was  conferred  upon  him  by  her  majesty,  but  also 
on  account  of  the  frequent  occasions  it  afforded  him  of  ex- 
periencing her  majesty's  gracious  kindness  and  condescen- 
sion, of  which  he  had  a  very  high  sense,  and  which  were 
continued  to  him,  without  interruption,  to  the  end  of  his 
life  ;  for  in  her  service  he  died. 

Although  assiduous  in  the  discharge  of  his  parliamentary 
duty,  and  occasionally  taking  a  share  in  debates,  he  never 
contracted  any  violent  spirit  of  party.  He  abhorred  faction 
of  every  kind  ;  nor  did  he  ever  relinquish,  for  public  busi- 
ness, those  still  more- interesting  pursuits  which  had  made 
the  delight  and  occupation  of  his  earlier  years.  If  they 
were  somewhat  intermitted  during  the  sitting  of  parliament, 
he  renewed  them  with  increased  relish  and  satisfaction  on 
his  return  into  the  country.  In  1775  he  published  his 

Philosophical  Arrangements,"  a  part  only  of  a  larger 
work  that  he  had  meditated,  but  did  not  finish,  upon  the 
peripatetic  logic.  So  far  as  relates  to  the  «  Arrangement'* 
ot  ideas  it  u  complete;  but  it  has  other  objects  also  ia 

HARRIS.  175 

view.  It  combats  with  great  force  and  ability,  the  athe- 
istical doctrines  of  chance  and  materialism,  doctrines  which 
we  have  seen  revived  in  France,  under  the  specious  garb 
of  modern  philosophy,  and  which  issuing  thence,  over- 
spread a  great  part  of  Europe ;  destroying  the  happiness 
of  mankind,  by  subverting,  in  every  part  of  their  progress, 
the  foundations  of  morality  and  religion. 

The  last  of  Mr.  Harris's  productions  was  printed  in  1780, 
by  the  name  of  "  Philological  Inquiries,"  but  not  pub- 
lished sooner  than  1781.  It  is  a  more  popular  work  than  any 
of  his  former  ones ;  and  contains  rather  a  summary  of  the 
conclusions  to  which  the  philosophy  of  the  ancients  had 
conducted  them  in  their  critical  inquiries,  than  a  regular 
and  perfect  system.  The  principles  on  which  those  con- 
clusions depend  are  therefore  omitted,  as  being  of  a  more 
abstruse  nature  than  was  agreeable  to  his  design,  which 
was  to  teach  by  illustration  and  example,  not  by  strict 
demonstration.  "  Indeed  this  publication,"  says  his  bio- 
grapher, "  is  not  only  a  retrospective  view  of  those  studies 
which  exercised  his  mind  in  the  full  vigour  of  his  life,  but 
likewise  a  monument  of  his  affection  towards  many  of  his 
intimate  friends.  I  cannot,  therefore,  but  consider  it  as  a 
pleasing  proof  of  a  mind  retaining,  at  an  advanced  age,  a 
considerable  degree  of  its  former  energy  and  activity,  to- 
gether with  what  is  still  more  rarely  to  be  found,  an  un- 
diminished  portion  of  its  candour  and  benevolence." 

Before  this  last  volume  was  entirely  concluded,  his 
health  began  to  be  very  much  impaired.  He  never  en- 
joyed a  robust  constitution  ;  but  for  some  time,  towards 
the  end  of  his  life,  the  infirmities  under  which  he  laboured 
had  gradually  increased.  His  family  at  length  became 
apprehensive  of  a  decline,  symptoms  of  which  were  very 
apparent,  and  by  none  more  clearly  perceived  than  by 
himself.  This  was  evident  from  a  variety  of  little  circum- 
stances, but  by  no  means  from  any  impatience  or  fretful- 
ness,  nor  yet  from  any  dejection  of  spirits,  such  as  are 
frequently  incident  to  extreme  weakness  of  body,  espe- 
cially when  it  proves  to  be  the  forerunner  of  approaching 
dissolution.  On  the  contrary,  the  same  equable  and  placid 
temper  which  had  distinguished  him  throughout  his  whole 
life,  the  same  tender  and  affectionate  attention  to  his  sur- 
rounding family,  which  he  had  unceasingly  manifested 
while  in  health,  continued,  without  the  smallest  change 
or  abatement,  to  the  very  last;  displaying  a  mind  tho- 

176  KAURIS. 

roughly  at  peace  with  itself,  and  able  without  disturbance 
or  dismay  to  contemplate  the  awful  prospect  of  futurity. 
After  his  strength  had  been  quite  exhausted  by  illness,  he 
expired  calmly  on  the  22d  of  December,  1780,  in  the 
$eventy-second  year  of  his  age.  His  remains  were  depo- 
sited in  the  north  aile  of  the  cathedral  church  of  Salis- 
bury, near  those  of  his  ancestors,  and  a  monument  was- 
soon  after  erected  to  his  memory. 

In  1801  his  son,  lord  Malmsbury,  published  a  magni- 
ficent edition  of  the  works  before  mentioned  in  two  volumes 
quarto,  with  two  fine  portraits  and  other  plates.  Prefixed 
is  an  affectionate  biographical  sketch,  from  which  the  pre- 
sent article  has  been  taken.  This  is  concluded  by  the 
noble  author  with  the  following  general  view  of  Mr.  Har- 
ris's character,  which,  from  every  information,  we  have 
reason  to  think  is  just  and  impartial. 

"  The  distinction  by  which  he  was  most  generally  known, 
and  by  which  he  is  likely  to  survive  to  posterity,  is  that  of 
a  Man  of  Learning.  His  profound  knowledge  of  Greek, 
which  he  applied  more  successfully,  perhaps,  than  any 
modern  writer  has  done,  to  the  study  and  explanation  of 
ancient  philosophy,  arose  from  an  early  and  intimate  ac- 
quaintance with  the  excellent  poets  and  historians  in  that 
language.  They,  and  the  best  writers  in  the  Augustan 
age,  were  his  constant  and  never-failing  recreation.  By 
his  familiarity  with  them,  he  was  enabled  to  enliven  and  to 
illustrate  his  deeper  and  more  abstruse  speculations,  as 
every  page  almost  (of  his  works)  will  abundantly  testify. 
But  his  attainments  were  not  confined  to  ancient  philo- 
sophy and  classical  learning.  He  possessed  likewise  a  ge- 
neral knowledge  of  modern  history,  with  a  very  distin- 
guishing taste  in  the  line  arts,  in  one  of  which,  as  before 
observed,  he  was  an  eminent,  proficient.  His  singular  in- 
dustry empowered  him  to  make  these  various  acquisitions, 
without  neglecting  any  of  the  duties  which  he  owed  to  his 
family,  his  friends,  or  his  country.  I  am  in  possession  of 
such  proofs,  besides  those  already  given  to  the  public,  of 
my  father's  laborious  study  and  reflection,  as  I  apprehend, 
are  very  rarely  to  be  met  with.  Not  only  was  he  accus- 
tomed, through  a  long  series  of  years,  to  make  copious  ex- 

cts  from  the  different  books  which  he  read,  and  to  write 
critical  remarks  and  conjectures  on  many  of  the  passages 
extracted,  but  he  was  also  in  the  habit  of  regularly  cam- 
muting  to  writing  such  reBections  as  arose  out  of  his  study, 

HARRIS.  177 

which  evince  a  mind  carefully  disciplined,  and  anxiously 
bent  on  the  attainment  of  self-knowledge  and  self-govern- 
ment. .  And  yet,  though  habituated  to  deep  thinking  and 
laborious  reading,  he  was  generally  cheerful  even  to  play- 
fulness. There  was  no  pedantry  in  his  manners  or  conver- 
sation, nor  was  he  ever  seen  either  to  display  his  learning 
with  ostentation,  or  to  treat  with  slight  or  superciliousness 
those  less  informed  than  himself.  He  rather  sought  to 
make  them  appear  partakers  of  what  he  knew,  than  to  mor- 
tify tnern  by  a  parade  of  his  own  superiority.  Nor  had  he 
any  of  that  miserable  fastidiousness  about  him  which  too 
often  disgraces  men  of  learning,  and  prevents  their  being 
amused  or  interested,  at  least  their  choosing  to  appear  so, 
by  common  performances  and  common  events. 

"  It  was  with  him  a  maxim,  that  the  most  difficult,  and 
infinitely  the  preferable,  sort  of  criticism,  both  in  litera- 
ture and  the  arts,  was  that  which  consists  in  finding  out 
beauties  rather  than  defects  ;  and  although  he  certainly 
wanted  not  judgment  to  distinguish  and  to  prefer  superior 
excellence  of  any  kind,  he  was  too  reasonable  to  expect  id 
should  very  often  occur,  and  too  wise  to  allow  himself  to 
be  disgusted  at  common  weakness  or  imperfection.  He 
thought,  indeed,  that  the  very  attempt  to  please,  however 
it  might  fall  short  of  its  aim,  deserved  some  return  of 
thanks,  some  degree  of  approbation  ;  and  that  to  endea- 
vour at  being  pleased  by  such  efforts,  was  due  to  justice, 
to  good-nature,  and  to  good  sense. 

"  Far  at  the  same  time  from  that  presumptuous  conceit 
which  is  solicitous  about  mending  others,  and  that  morose- 
iiess  which  feeds  its  own  pride  by  dealing  in  general  cen- 
sure, he  cultivated  to  the  utmost  that  great  moral  wisdom, 
by  which  we  are  made  humane,  gentle,  and  forgiving ; 
thankful  for  the  blessings  of  life,  acquiescent  in  the  afflic- 
tions we  endure,  and  submissive  to  all  the  dispensations  of 
Providence.  He  detested  the  gloom  of  superstition,  and 
the  persecuting  spirit  by  which  it  is  so  often  accompanied  ; 
but  he  abhorred  still  more  the  baneful  and  destructive  sys- 
tem of  modern  philosophy  ;  and  from  his  early  solicitude 
to  inspire  me  with  a  hatred  of  it,  it  would  almost  seem  that 
he  foresaw  its  alarming  approach  and  fatal  progress. 

"  JVIy  father's  affection  to  every  part  of  his  family  was 
exemplary  and  uniform.  As  a  husband,  a  parent,  a  master, 
he  was  ever  kind  and  indulgent ;  and  it  deserves  to  be 
mentioned  to  his  honour,  that  he  thought  it  no  interrup- 


173  H  A  R  R  I  S. 

tion  of  his  graver  occupations,  himself  to  instruct  his 
daughters,  by  exercising  them  daily  both  in  reading  and 
composition,  and  writing  essays  for  their  improvement, 
during  many  of  their  younger  years.  No  man  was  a  better 
judge  of  what  belonged  to  female  education,  and  the  ele- 
gant accomplishments  of  the  sex,  or  more  disposed  to  set 
a  high  value  upon  them.  But  he  had  infinitely  more  at 
heart,  that  his  children  should  be  early  habituated  to  the 
practice  of  religion  and  morality,  and  deeply  impressed 
with  their  true  principles.  To  promote  this  desirable 
end,  he  was  assiduous  both  by  instruction  and  example ; 
being  himself  a  constant  attendant  upon  public  worship, 
and  enforcing  that  great  duty  upon  every  part  of  his  fa- 
mily. The  deep  sense  of  moral  and  religious  obligation 
which  was  habitual  to  him,  and  those  benevolent  feelings 
which  were  so  great  a  happiness  to  his  family  and  friends, 
had  the  same  powerful  influence  over  his  public  as  his 
private  life.  He  had  an  ardent  zeal  for  the  prosperity  of 
his  country,  whose  real  interests  he  well  understood  ;  and 
in  his  parliamentary  conduct  he  proved  himself  a  warm 
friend  to  the  genuine  principles  of  religious  and  civil 
liberty,  as  well  as  a  firm  supporter  of  every  branch  of  our 
admirable  constitution."1 

HARRIS  (.JOHN),  the  first  compiler  of  a  "  Dictionary 
of  Arts  and  Sciences1'  in  this  country,  was  born  about 
1667,  and  received  his  education  at  St.  John's  college,  in 
the  university  of  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of 
B.  A.  in  1687,  and  that  of  master  in  1691.  Having  taken 
orders  in  the  church,  he  obtained  considerable  preferments. 
He  was  first  instituted  into  the  rectory  of  Barming,  which 
he  resigned  for  St.  Mildred,  Bread-street,  London  ;  he 
had  also  the  perpetual  curacy  of  Stroud,  near  Rochester, 
in  Kent,  and  he  was  prebendary  of  Rochester  cathedral. 
He  was  a  fellow,  secretary,  and  vice-president  to  the  royal 
society.  In  1698  he  preached  the  course  of  Boyle's  lec- 
tures, which  was  published  (see  Collection  of  Boyle's  Lec- 
tures, Feb.  1739,  vol.  I.  p.  356—425)  ;  and  in  the  next 
year  he  took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  Dr.  Harris  also  pub- 
lished several  single  sermons,  viz.  a  sermon  on  the  Fast, 
1701,  with  another  on  the  Fast,  1703,  4to;  a  sermon  entitled 
<  The  Modest  Christian's  Duty  as  to  indifferent  things  in 
the  worship  of.  God,"  1705,  4to ;  another  on  "The  law- 

'  Life  as  above. 

HARRIS.  179 

fulness  and  use  of  Public  Fasting,"  1706,  4to ;  "  The 
evil  and  mischief  of  a  Fiery  Spirit,"  a  sermon  published  in 
1710,  4to ;  another  on  the  Rebellion  in  1715,  8vo;  and  a 
sermon  on  the  Accession,  1715,  4-to.  He  also  published  a 
"Collection  of  Voyages  and  Travels,  with  a  number  of 
engravings,"  afterwards  improved  and  republished  by  Dr. 
Campbell ;  a  "  Treatise  on  the  Theory  of  the  Earth,"  in 
1697  ;  a  "  Treatise  on  Algebra,"  in  1702  ;  a  "  Translation 
of  Pardie's  Geometry  into  English,"  2d  edit.  1702.  At 
this  time  it  appears  that  Dr.  Harris  "  lived  and  taught  ma- 
thematics at  his  house  in  Amen-Corner."  He  published 
also,  "  Astronomical  Dialogues,"  the  third  edition  of  which 
appeared  in  1795;  but  the  work  for  which  he  was  most 
eminently  distinguished,  and  which  entitles  him  to  ho- 
nourable notice,  was  his  "  Lexicon  Technicum,"  or  "  An 
Universal  Dictionary  of  Arts  and  Sciences,"  in  2  vols.  fol. 
published  in  1708;  from  which  originated  all  the  other 
dictionaries  of  science  and  cyclopaedias  that  have  since  ap- 
peared. He  was  followed,  at  a  considerable  interval  of 
time,  in  this  department  of  literature,  by  Mr.  Ephrairn 
Chambers,  whose  Cyclopedia,  with  all  the  improvements 
it  has  received,  has  long  maintained  distinguished  reputa- 
tion. We  are  concerned  to  be  obliged  to  add,  that  though 
Dr.  Harris  was  a  man  of  unquestionable  abilities  and  at- 
tainments, and  of  great  literary  application,  he  was  charge- 
able with  culpable  imprudence  in  his  conduct,  and  not- 
withstanding the  preferments  he  enjoyed,  he  was  generally 
in  distress.  He  died  Sept.  7,  1719,  leaving  unfinished  the 
66  History  of  Kent,"  which  was  published  in  folio  soon  after 
his  death,  and  which,  though  it  had  engaged  his  attention, 
more  or  less,  for  eight  years,  is  extremely  inaccurate. 
Mr.  Gough  says  (British  Topography,  vol.  I.  p.  445),  "  Drt 
Harris  died  an  absolute  pauper  at  Norton-court,  and  was 
buried  in  Norton  church,  at  the  expence  of  John  God- 
frey, esq.  who  had  been  his  very  good  friend  and  bene- 

HARRIS  (ROBERT),  president  of  Trinity-college,  Ox- 
ford, was  born  at  Broad  Campden,  in  Gloucestershire,  in 
1578,  and  sent  for  education  to  the  free-school  of  Chip* 
ping-Campden,  where  owing  to  irregular  conduct  of  the 
masters  and  their  frequent  changes,  he  appears  to  have 

«  Rees's  Cyclopaedia.— Gent.  Mag.  LXXXIV.—Cole's  MS  Athena 
Mus.— Gouge's  Topography,— Nichols's  Bowyer, 

180  H  A  R  R  I  S. 

profited  little.  From  thence  he  was  removed  to  the  city 
of  Worcester,  and  lastly  to  Magdalen-hall,  Oxford,  which 
was  preferred  from  his  relationship  to  Mr.  Robert  Lyster, 
then  principal,  a  man  somewhat  popishly  inclined.  Here, 
however,  he  had  a  tutor  of  a  different  stamp,  a  reputed 
puritan,  under  whom  he  studied  with  great  assiduity.  Al- 
though his  parents  designed  him  for  the  law,  as  soon  as  he 
took  his  bachelor's  degree,  he  determined  to  make  trial  of 
his  talents  for  the  pulpit,  and  went  to  Chipping-Campden, 
where  he  preached  a  sermon  which  gave  satisfaction. 
He  afterwards  officiated  for  a  clergyman  in  Oxfordshire, 
and  in  both  cases  without  being  ordained.  At  length  he 
was  examined  by  bishop  Barlow,  who  found  him  a  very 
accomplished  Greek,  and  Latin  scholar,  and  he  had  the 
living  of  Hanweli  given  him,  near  Ban  bury,  in  Oxford- 
shire. During  his  residence  here  he  was  often  invited  to 
London,  and  preached  at  St.  Paul's  cross,  also  before  the 
parliament,  and  on  other  public  occasions.  He  had  also 
considerable  offers  of  preferment  in*  London,  but  preserved 
his  attachment  to  Hanweli,  where  he  was  extremely  useful 
in  confirming  the  people's  minds,  then  much  unsettled,  in 
the  reformed  religion,  as  well  as  in  attachment  to  the 
church  of  England,  although  he  afterwards  concurred  with 
those  who  overthrew  it  so  far  as  to  accept  preferment 
under  them.  On  the  commencement  of  the  civil  war, 
tjie  tranquillity  of  his  part  of  the  country  was  much  dis- 
turbed by  the  march  of  armies,  and  himself  obliged  at  last 
to  repair  to  London,  after  his  premises  were  destroyed  by 
the  soldiery.  On  his  arrival  in  London,  he  became  a 
member  of  the  assembly,  but  appears  to  have  taken  no 
active  part  in  their  proceedings.  ¥.or  some  time,  Han- 
\vell  having  now  been  taken  from  him,  he  officiated  at  the 
parish-church  of  St.  Botolph,  Bishopsgate-street,  until  the 
rilling  powers  ordered  him  to  Oxford,  as  one  of  the  re- 
forming visitors.  Here  during  the  visitation  of  the  earl  of 
Pembroke,  the  chancellor  of  the  university,  he  was  ad- 
mitted;  D.  D.  and  president  of  Trinity-college  in  April 
1,648,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  Hannibal  Potter,  who  was  ejected 
by  the  visitors.  This  situation  he  retained  until  his  death, 
Uec.  11,  1658,.  in  his  eightieth  year.  He  was  buried  in^ 
Trinity-college  chapel,  with  an  inscription  from  the  ele-" 
gant  pen  of  Dr.  Bathurst,  one  of  his  successors,  and  con- 
taming  praises  of  his  conduct  as  a  president  more  than  suf- 
ficient to  answer  the  charges  brought  against  him  by  others. 

HARRIS.  181 

The  only  words  Dr.  Bathurst  is  said  to  have  struck  out  are 
these  in  Italics,  "  per  decennium  hujus  collegii  Prseses 
sternum  cdebrandus"  nor  was  this  alteration  made  in  the 
epitaph  itself,  but  in  Wood's  MS.  of  the  "  Hist,  et  Anti- 
quitates  Univ.  Oxon."  The  only  fault  of  which  Dr.  Harris 
can  be  accused,  and  which  was  very  common  with  other 
heads  of  houses  put  in  by  the  parliamentary  visitors,  was 
taking  exorbitant  fines  for  renewals  of  college  leases,  by 
which  they  almost  sold  out  the  whole  interest  of  >the  col- 
lege in  such  estates.  On  the  other  hand  he  appears  to  have 
made  some  liberal  grants  of  money  to  the  posterity  of  the 
founder,  sir  Thomas  Pope.  "  One  is  surprized,"  says 
Warton,  "  at  those  donations,  under  the  government  of 
Dr.  Robert  Harris,  Cromwell's  presbytenan  president. 
But  Harris  was  a  man  of  candour,  and  I  believe  a  majority 
of  the  old  loyal  fellows  still  remained."  Durham,  the  au- 
thor of  Harris's  life,  gives  him  the  character  of  "  a  man  of 
admirable  prudence,  profound  judgment,  eminent  gifts 
and  graces,  and  furnished  with  all  qualifications  which 
might  render  him  a  complete  man,  a  wise  governor,  a 
profitable  preacher,  and  a  good  Christian."  He  appears 
to  have  very  little  relished  some  of  the  innovations  of  his 
time,  particularly  that  easy  and  indiscriminate  admission 
into  the  pulpits,  which  filled  them  with  illiterate  enthusiasts 
of  every  description.  His  works,  consisting  of  sermons 
and  pious  treatises,  were  collected  in  1  vol.  fol.  published 
in  1654.1 

HARRIS,  or  HARRIES  (WALTER),  a  learned  English 
physician,  the  son  of  a  tradesman  at  Gloucester,  was  born 
there  about  164-7,  and  educated  at  Winchester  school.  In 
1666  he  was  admitted  perpetual  fellow  of  New-college; 
Oxford,  without  passing  through  the  year's  probation,  in 
consequence  of  his  being  of  the  founder's  kin.  Having, 
however,  embraced  the  Roman  catholic  religion,  he  re- 
signed his  fellowship  in  1673,  and  went  to  France,  where, 
either  at  Doway  or  Paris,  he  took  his  doctor's  degree.  In 
1676  he  returned  to  London,  and  began  practice  chiefly 
among  the  Roman  catholics  ;  but  when  in  consequence  of 
Oates's  plot,  in  1678,  all  o.f  that  persuasion  were  ordered 
to  leave  the  metropolis,  he  renounced  the  errors  of  popery, 
and  wrote  in  1679  a  pamphlet  entitled.  "A  Farewell  to 

1  Ath.  O?f.  vol.  II.— Wood's  Annals  and  Colleges  and  Halls. — Wood's  Life, 
1772,  8vo,  p.  230.— Harris's  Life,  by  Durham,  1660,  12mo.— Warton's  Life  of, 
Bathurst,  p.  146,  and  of  sir  Thomas  Pope,  p.  446. 

182  H  A  R  R  I  S. 

Popery,"  Lond.  4to,  On  the  revolution,  he  was  appointed 
physician  to  king  William  III.  at  the  recommendation  of 
the  celebrated  Tillotson.  Of  his  attendance  on  the  king, 
he  himself  informs  us  of  this  circumstance,  that  being  in 
his  majesty's  chamber,  he  took  the  liberty,  in  the  presence 
of  the  lords  in  waiting,  to  find  fault  with  the  custom  of 
binding  every  morning  the  king's  feet,  which  were  very 
much  swelled.  He  said  that  by  this  means  the  humours 
falling  into  the  feet  would  be  driven  back  into  the  viscera. 
Another  anecdote  he  gives  of  himself,  which  perhaps  would 
have  come  with  a  better  grace  from  any  one  else,  is,  that 
Dr.  Goodall,  president  of  the  college  of  physicians,  told 
him  one  day  that  he  envied  him  (Dr.  Harris)  more  than  he 
envied  any  body  else,  because  he  was  always  easy  in  his 
mind,  and  free  from  anxious  cares.  He  appears  to  have 
had  very  considerable  practice,  and  was  a  fellow  of  the 
college,  and  censor  in  1689.  The  time  of  his  death  we 
have  not  been  able  to  discover,  but  he  was  alive  in  1725, 
when  he  published  his  "  Dissertationes  Medicae  et  Chirur- 
gicae,  habitae  in  amphitheatre  collegii  regalis,"  in  the  title- 
page  to  which  he  styles  himself  "  Praeses  natus,  et  profes- 
sor Chirurgiae."  His  other  publications  were,  1.  "  Phar- 
macologia  anti-empirica,"  Lond.  1683,  8vo.  2.  "  De 
morbis  acutis  infantum,"  1689,  8vo,  often  reprinted,  and 
translated  into  English  by  Cockburn,  in  1693,  and  by 
IMartyn  in  1742,  and  into  French  by  Devaux.  In  his 
<l  Dissertationes  medicae"  are  some  valuable  papers  on  va- 
rious medical  topics,  and  he  is  a  strong  advocate  for  inocu- 
lation for  the  small-pox.1 

HARRIS  (WILLIAM),  a  biographical  compiler,  was  the 
son  of  a  tradesman  at  Salisbury,  who  probably  was  a  dis- 
senter. He  was  born  in  that  city  in  1720,  and  received 
his  education  at  an  academy  kept  at  Taunton  by  messrs. 
Grove  and  Amory,  men  of  learning  and  note,  as  dis- 
senting teachers.  An  early  love  of  books,  and  a  thirst  for 
knowledge,  rendered  application  easy  and  profitable ;  and 
he  was  thought  qualified  to  preach  before  he  was  nineteen 
years  of  age.  He  first  officiated  to  a  congregation  at  St. 
Loo,  in  Cornwall,  and  was  afterwards  invited  to  another  in 
the  city  of  Wells,  where  he  was  ordained  in  1741.  With- 
in a  few  years,  his  marriage  to  a  Miss  Bovet  of  Honiton, 

«f  h-A|hf*  °X<  -To1'  Iv*""~"  Diss«rtationes  Medic®,"  in  which  are  som«  particulars 
of  bis  life,  written  by  himself. 

HARRIS.  183 

occasioned  his  removal  to  that  town ;  and  his  ministerial 
labours  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  were  confined  to  a  very 
small  congregation  at  Luppit,  in  the  neighbourhood.  To 
what  denomination  of  dissenters  he  belonged  we  are  not 
told.  The  strain  of  his  discourses  is  said  to  have  been 
plain  and  practical,  but  none  of  them  have  been  published, 
and  he  appears  to  have  soon  courted  fame  in  a  different 

His  political,  if  not  his  religious  creed,  led  him  to  study 
the  history  of  the  seventeenth  century,  which  in  his  time 
had  received  few  of  the  lights  that  have  since  been  thrown 
upon  it ;  and  what  he  read,  he  read  with  the  eager  eye  of 
a  nonconformist,  desirous  to  rescue  his  brethren  from  ob- 
loquy, and  afford  them  a  larger  share  in  the  merit  of  per- 
petuating the  liberties  of  this  kingdom.  With  this  view, 
he  resolved  to  become  the  biographer  of  the  English  branch 
of  the  Stuart  family,  and  of  Cromwell,  and  to  assign  to 
each  their  agency  in  the  production  of  those  great  events 
in  the  seventeenth  century,  the  rebellion,  the  restoration, 
and  the  revolution. 

His  preliminary  attempt  was  on  a  singular  subject,  the 
"  Life  of  Hugh  Peters,"  which,  as  he  published  it  with- 
out his  name,  has  escaped  the  notice  of  the  collectors  of 
his  works,  but  is  prefixed  to  the  late  edition  of  his  "  Lives" 
as  the  first  in  the  order  of  time,  and  essentially  connected 
with  one  of  the  subjects  of  his  future  inquiries.  In  this 
life  he  professed  to  follow  "  the  manner  of  Bayle,"  and  it 
might  have  been  thought  that  its  aukward  appearance  in 
print  would  have  shown  Dr.  Harris  that  his  choice  was  in- 
judicious ;  but,  for  whatever  reason,  he  followed  the  same 
in  his  subsequent  works.  The  Life  of  Peters  was  published 
in  1751,  and  in  1753  appeared  his  Life  of  James  I.;  in 
1753,  that  of  Charles  I.;  in  1761,  that  of  Cromwell ;  and 
in  1765,  that  of  Charles  II. ;  this  last  in  2  vols.  8vo.  It 
was  his  design  to  have  completed  this  series  with  a  Life  of 
James  II.,  but  he  was  interrupted  by  an  illness  which  ter- 
minated fatally  in  February  1770,  in  the  fiftieth  year  of 
his  age.  His  degree  of  D.  D.  was  procured  for  him  from 
the  university  or  Glasgow,  in  1765,  by  his  friend  Mr. 
Thomas  Holiis,  who  had  assisted  him  in  his  various  un- 
dertakings, by  many  curious  and  interesting  communi- 
cations, and  the  use  of  scarce  books  and  pamphlets.  Dr. 
Birch  and  other  gentlemen  in  London  seem  also  to  have 
contributed  liberally  to  his  stock  of  historical  materials. 

18*  HARRIS. 

It  is  indeed  as  a  collection  of  such,  that  these  Lives  have 
been  principally  valued,  for  Dr.  Harris  cannot  be  ranked 
among  elegant  writers,  nor  can  it  be  gravely  asserted  that 
he  is  always  impartial.  His  reasonings  are  strongly  tinged 
with  his  early  prejudices,  but  his  facts  are  in  general  nar- 
rated with  fidelity,  and  the  evidence  on  both  sides  is  given' 
without  mutilation.1 

HARRISON  (JOHN),    a  most  accurate  mechanic,  the 
celebrated  inventor  of  the  famous  time-keeper  for  ascer- 
taining the  longitude  at  sea,  and  also  of  the  compound  or 
gridiron-pendulum ;  was  born  at  Foulby,  near  Pontefract 
in  Yorkshire,  in  1693.     His   father    was   a   carpenter,  in 
which  profession   the  son  assisted  ;  occasionally  also,  ac- 
cording to  the  miscellaneous  practice  of  country  artists, 
surveying  land,  and   repairing  clocks  and  watches ;   and 
young    Harrison   always  was,    from    his  early    childhood, 
greatly  attached   to  any  machinery  moving  by  wheels.     In 
1700  he  removed  with  his  father  to  Barrow,  in  Lincoln- 
shire ;  where,  though  his  opportunities  of  acquiring  know- 
ledge were  very  few,  he  eagerly  improved  every  incident 
from  which  he  might  collect  information  ;  frequently  em- 
ploying all  or  great  part  of  his  nights  in  writing  or  drawing : 
and  he  always  acknowledged  his  obligations  to  a  clergy- 
man who  came  every  Sunday  to  officiate  in  the  neighbour- 
hood, who  lent  him  a  MS  copy  of  professor  Sanderson's 
lectures ;  which  he  carefully  and  neatly  transcribed,   with 
all  the  diagrams.     His  native  genius  exerted  itself  superior 
to  these  solitary  disadvantages;  for,  in  1726,  he  had  con- 
structed two  clocks,  mostly  of  wood,  in  which  he  applied 
the  escapement  and  compound  pendulum  of  his  own  in- 
vention :  these  surpassed  every  thing  then  made,  scarcely 
erring  a  second  in  a  month.     In  1728  he  came  up  to  Lon- 
don with  the  drawings  of  a  machine  for  determining  the 
longitude  at  sea,  in  expectation  of  being  enabled  to  exe- 
cute one  by  the  board  of  longitude.     Upon  application  to 
Dr.  Halley,  the  astronomer  royal,  he  referred  him  to  Mr. 
George  Graham,  who  advised   him  to  make  his  machine 
before  applying  to  that  board.     He  accordingly  returned 
home  to  perform  his  task;  and  in  1735  came  to  London, 
again  with  his  first  machine,  with  which  he  was  sent  to 
Lisbon  the  next  year  to  make  trial  of  it.     In  this  short 
voyage  he  corrected  the  dead  reckoning  about  a  degree 

1  Life  prefixed  to  the  edition  of  his  Works,  1814,  5  vojs.  8vo,, 


and  a  half;  a  success  which  procured  him  both  public  and 
private  encouragement.  About  17 '69  he  completed  his 
second  machine,  of  a  construction  much  more  simple  than 
the  former,  and  which  answered  much  better  :  this,  though 
not  sent  to  sea,  recommended  Mr.  Harrison  yet  stronger 
to  the  patronage  of  his  friends  and  the  public.  His  third 
machine,  which  he  produced  in  1749,  was  still  less  com- 
plicated than  the  second,  and  more  accurate,  as  erring 
only  3  or  4  seconds  in  a  week.  This  he  conceived  to  be 
the  ne  plus  ultra  of  his  attempts  ;  but,  by  endeavouring  to 
improve  pocket-watches,  he  found  the  principles  he  ap- 
plied to  surpass  his  expectations  so  much,  as  to  encou- 
rage him  to  make  his  fourth  time-keeper,  which  is  in  the 
form  of  a  pocket-watch,  about  six  inches  diameter.  With 
this  time- keeper  his  son  made  two  voyages,  the  one  to 
Jamaica,  and  the  other  to  Barbadoes  ;  in  which  experi- 
ments it  corrected  the  longitude  within  the  nearest  limits 
required  by  the  act  of  the  12th  of  queen  Anne;  and  the 
inventor  had,  therefore,  at  different  times,  more  than  the 
proposed  reward,  receiving  from  the  board  of  longitude  at 
different  times  almost  24,000/.  besides  a  few  hundreds  from 
the  East  India  company,  &c.  These  four  machines  were 
given  up  to  the  board  of  longitude.  The  three  former  were 
not  of  any  use,  as  all  the  advantages  gained  by  making 
them,  were  comprehended  in  the  last :  being  worthy  how- 
ever of  preservation,  as  mechanical  curiosities,  they  are 
deposited  in  the  royal  observatory  at  Greenwich.  The 
fourth  machine,  emphatically  distinguished  by  the  name  of 
The  Time-keeper,  was  copied  by  the  ingenious  Mr.  Kendal ; 
and  that  duplicate,  during  a  three  years  circumnavigation 
of  the  globe  in  the  southern  hemisphere  by  captain  Cook, 
answered  as  well  as  the  original. 

The  latter  part  of  Mr.  Harrison's  life  was  employed  in 
making  a  fifth  improved  time-keeper,  o-n  the  same  prin- 
ciples with  the  preceding  one ;  which,  after  a  ten  weeks 
trial,  in  1772,  at  the  king's  private  observatory  at  Rich- 
mond, erred  only  4|  seconds.  Within  a  few  years  of  his 
death,  his  constitution  visibly  declined  ;  and  he  had  fre- 
quent fits  of  the  gout,  a  disorder  that  never  attacked  him 
before  his  77th  year.  His  constitution  at  last  yielding  to 
the  infirmities  of  old  age,  he  died  at  his  house  in  Red  Lion 
square,  March  24,  1776,  at  eighty-three  years  of  age. 

Like  many  other  mere  mechanics,  Mr.  Harrison  found  a 
difficulty  in  delivering  his  sentiments  in  writing  (at  least  in 


the  latter  periods  of  his  life,  when  his  faculties  were  much 
impaired)  in  which  he  adhered  to  a  peculiar  and  uncouth 
phraseology.  This  was  but  too  evident  in  his  "  Descrip- 
tion concerning  such  mechanism  as  will  afford  a  nice  or 
true  Mensuration  of  Time,"  &c.  1775,  8vo.  This  small 
work  includes  also  an  account  of  his  new  musical  scale ; 
being  a  mechanical  division  of  the  octave,  according  to  the 
proportion  which  the  radius  and  diameter  of  the  circle  have 
respectively  to  the  circumference.  He  had  in  his  youth 
been  the  leader  of  a  band  of  church-singers ;  had  a  very 
delicate  ear  for  music  ;  and  his  experiments  on  sound,  with 
a  curious  monochord  of  his  own  improvement,  it  has  been 
said,  were  not  less  accurate  than  those  he  was  engaged  in 
for  the  mensuration  of  time. l 

HARRISON  (WILLIAM),  an  English  historian,  was  a 
native  of  London,  and  educated  at  Westminster  school, 
under  the  celebrated  Alexander  Nowell.  He  afterwards 
studied  at  both  universities,  but  in  what  colleges  seems 
doubtful.  Wood  suspects  Christ  Church  for  Oxford,  and 
Baker  mentions  one  of  this  name  a  bachelor  of  arts  of  St. 
John's,  Cambridge;  but  the  date,  1571,  is  obviously  too 
late  for  our  Harrison.  He  says  himself  that  both  univer- 
sities "  are  so  clear  to  him  that  he  cannot  readily  tell  to 
which  of  them  he  owes  most  good  will."  After  leaving 
Cambridge  he  became  domestic  chaplain  to  sir  William 
Brooke,  knt.  lord-warden  of  the  Cinque  Ports,  and  baron 
ot  Cobham  in  Kent,  who  is  supposed  to  have  given  him  the 
living  of  Radwinter,  in  Essex,  in  Feb.  1558,  which  he  held 
until  his  death  in  the  end  of  1592  or  beginning  of  1593. 
He  wrote  a  "  Historical  Description  of  the  Island  of  Bri- 
tain," published  in  Holiingshed's  Chronicles;  and  "A 
Chronology"  mentioned  by  Hollingshed.  He  translated 
also  "  The  Description  of  Scotland,"  from  Hector  Boe- 
thius,^  which  is  prefixed  to  Hollingshed's  "  Hist,  of  Scot- 
land." Wood  says  he  obtained  a  canonry  of  Windsor,  and 
was  buried  there,  leaving  several  children  by  his  wife  Ma- 
nan,  daughter  of  Will.  Isebrand,  ofAnderne,  in  Picardy. 
His  turn  appears  to  have  been  more  for  compiling  ancient 
history  than  topography ;  for  in  his  dedication  to  lord 
Cobham  he  says,  "  Indeed  I  must  needs  confess,  that  un- 
1  now  of  late,  except  it  were  from  the  parish  where  I 
dwell  unto  your  honour  in  Kent,  or  out  of  London,  where 
I  was  born,  unto  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  where  I  have 

1  Ann.  Register  for  1777.— Mutton's  Dictionary. 


been  brought  up,  I  have  never  travelled  forty  miles  forth 
right  and  at  one  journey  in  all  my  life."  ] 

HARRISON  (WILLIAM),  a  young  gentleman  high  in 
esteem,  and  (as  Swift  expresses  it)  "  a  little  pretty  fellow, 
With  a  great  deal  of  wit,  good  sense,  and  good  nature," 
was  educated  at  Winchester,  and  was  afterwards  of  New 
college,  Oxford,  of  which  he  became  a  fellow.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  been  employed  in  private  tuition,  which  was 
not  a  very  profitable  employment.  He  had  no  other  in- 
come than  40l.  a  year  as  tutor  to  one  of  the  duke  of  Queens- 
bury's  sons.  In  this  employment  he  fortunately  attracted 
the  favour  of  Dr.  Swift,  whose  generous  solicitations  with 
Mr.  St.  John  obtained  for  him  the  reputable  employment 
of  secretary  to  lord  Raby,  ambassador  at  the  Hague,  and 
afterwards  earl  of  Stafford.  A  letter  of  his,  whilst  at 
Utrecht,  dated  December  16,  1712,  printed  inthedean's 
works,  informs  us  that  his  office  was  attended  with  much 
vexation  and  little  advantage.  Even  in  Jan.  13,  1713,  when 
he  brought  over  the  barrier  treaty,  and,  as  Swift  says,  was 
the  queen's  minister,  entrusted  in  affairs  of  the  greatest 
importance,  he  had  not  a  shilling  in  his  pocket  to  pay  his 
hackney  coach.  He  died  soon  after  this,  Feb.  14,1712-13. 
See  the  "Journal  to  Stella"  of  that  and  the  following  day, 
where  Dr.  Swift  laments  his  loss  with  the  most  unaffected 
sincerity.  Mr.  Tickell  has  mentioned  him  with  respect, 
in  his  "Prospect  of  Peace;"  and  Dr.  Young,  in  the 
beautiful  close  of  an  "  Epistle  to  lord  Lansdown,"  most 
pathetically  bewails  his  loss.  Dr.  Birch,  who  has  given 
a  curious  note  on  Mr.  Harrison's  "  Letter  to  Swift," 
has  confounded  him  with  Thomas  Harrison,  M.  A.  of 
Queen's  college.  In  the  "  Select  Collection,"  by  Nichols, 
are  some  pleasing  specimens  of  his  poetry;  which, 
with  "  Woodstock-Park"  in  Dodsley's  "  Collection,"  and 
an  "Ode  to  the  duke  of  Marlborough,  1707,"  in  Dun- 
combe's  "  Horace,"  are  all  the  poetical  writings  that  are 
known  of  this  excellent  young  man,  who  figured  both  as 
an  humourist  and  a  politician  in  the  fifth  volume  of  the 
"  Tatler,"  of  which  (under  the  patronage  of  Bolingbroke, 
Henley,  and  Swift)  he  was  professedly  the  editor. — There 
was  another  William  Harrison,  author  of  "  The  Pilgrim, 
or  the  happy  Convert,  a  pastoral  tragedy,"  1709.* 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  Bliss's  edition. — Tanner. — Leland's  Collectanea,  Praef.  p. 
55,  58,  77. 

«  Nichols's  Poems,  vol.  IV.  and  VII.— British  Essayists,  rol.  I.  Pref.— Swift's 
Works,  see  Index. 

188  H  A  R  S  N  E  T. 

HARSNET  (SAMUEL),  a  learned  English  prelate,  suc- 
cessively bishop  of  Chichester  and  Norwich,  and  archbishop 
.of  York,  the  son  of  William  Harsnet,  a  baker  at  Colchester, 
was  born  in  that  town,  and  baptised  June  20,  1561.  He 
was  probably  sent  to  the  free-school  of  Colchester,  but  was 
admitted  Sept.  8,  1576,  of  King's  college,  Cambridge, 
whence  he  removed  to  Pembroke- hall,  of  which  he  became 
a  scholar,  and  was  elected  fellow  Nov.  27,  1583.  He  took 
his  degree  of  B.A.  in  1580,  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  15'84. 
Three  years  after,  in  March  1586-7,  he  was  elected  master 
of  the  free-school  in  Colchester,  but,  preferring  the  prose- 
cution of  his  studies  at  Cambridge,  he  resigned  this  office 
in  November  1588,  and  returned  to  Pembrdke-hall,  where 
he  studied  divinity,  in  which  indeed  he  had  made  great 
progress  before,  and  had  been  admitted  into  holy  orders, 
as  appears  by  a  sermon  preached  by  him  at  St.  Paul's  cross, 
Oct.  27,  1584,  on  the  subject  of  predestination.  In  1592 
he  served  the  office  of  proctor,  and  five  years  after  became 
chaplain  to  Dr.  Bancroft,  bishop  of  London,  by  whose  fa- 
vour he  obtained  the  rectory  of  St.  Margaret  Fish-street, 
London,  which  he  resigned  in  1604  ;  and  the  vicarage  of 
Chigwell  in  Essex,  which  he  resigned  in  1605,  but  conti- 
nued to  reside  at  Chigwell,  where  he  had  purchased  a 
house  and  estate,  now  the  property  and  residence  of  his 
descendant  Mrs.  Fisher.  In  1598  he  was  collated  to  the 
prebend  of  Mapesbury  in  St.  Paul's,  and  Jan.  1602  to  the 
archdeaconry  of  Essex,  all  in  bishop  Bancroft's  disposal. 
In  April  1604,  sir  Thomas  Lucas  of  Colchester  presented 
him  to  the  rectory  of  Shenfield  in  that  county.  The  year 
following,  upon  the  resignation  of  bishop  Andrews,  he 
was  chosen  master  of  Pembroke-hall,  which  he  held  until 
1616,  when  he  resigned  in  consequence  of  the  society 
having  exhibited  to  the  king  an  accusation  branching  into 
fifty-seven  articles.  Many  of  these,  Le  Neve  says,  were 
scandalous,  and  the  proof  evident ;  but,  as  Le  Neve  was 
iiot  able  to  procure  a  sight  of  tHem,  we  are  not  enabled  to 
judge.  They  do  not,  however,  appear  to  have  injured  his 
interest  at  court.  He  had  been  consecrated  bishop  of 
Chichester  in  J609,  and  was  now,  in  1619,  three  years 
after  he  quitted  Pembroke-hall,  translated  to  Norwich,  on 
the  death  of  Dr.  Overall.  In  1624  we  find  him  again  ac- 
cused in  the  house  of  commons  of  "  putting  down  preach- 
ing ;  setting  up  images ;  praying  to  the  east;"  and  other 
articles  which  appear  to  have  involved  him  with  the  puri- 

H  A  R  S  N  E  T.  189 

tans  of  his  diocese,  but  which  he  answered  to  the  satis- 
faction of  the  parliament  as  well  as  of  the  court.  On  the 
death  of  Dr.  Montague,  he  was  translated  to  the  arch- 
bishopric of  York  in  1628,  and  in  Nov.  1629,  was  sworn  of 
the  privy  council.  These  dignities,  however,  he  did  not 
enjoy  long,  dying  atMorton-on-the-marsh,  Gloucestershire, 
while  on  a  journey,  May  25,  1631.  He  was  buried  at 
Chigwell  church,  agreeably  to  his  own  desire,  where  his 
effigies  is  still  to  be  seen  fixed  on  the  north  side  of  the 
chancel,  against  the  wall.  He  left  several  charitable  lega- 
cies ;  and  a  year  or  two  before  his  death  founded  and  en- 
dowed a  free  school  at  Chigwell,  and  some  alms-houses  : 
the  history  of  his  school  may  be  seen  in  Lysons's  "  Envi- 
rons." He  bequeathed  his  library  to  the  corporation  of 
Colchester  for  the  use  of  the  clergy.  Besides  the  ser- 
mon above  noticed,  the  only  other  occasion  on  which  Dr. 
Harsnet  appeared  as  a  writer,  was  in  writing  some  pamph- 
lets to  expose  the  impostures  of  one  John  Darrell,  who 
pretended  to  have  the  power  of  casting  out  devils.  Bishop 
Harsnet's  character,  from  what  we  have  related,  appears  to 
be  equivocal  ;  it  is  said  he  was  equally  an  enemy  to  puri- 
tanism  and  to  popery ;  and,  according  to  Fuller,  was  the 
first  who  used  the  expression  conformable  puritans,  i.  e. 
those  who  conformed  out  of  policy,  and  yet  dissented  in 
their  judgments.1 

HARTE  (WALTER),  an  English  poet  and  divine,  was 
the  son  of  a  father  of  both  his  names,  who  was  fellow  of 
Pembroke  college,  Oxford,  prebendary  of  Wales,  canon, 
of  Bristol,  and  vicar  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Taunton,  So- 
mersetshire. Refusing  to  take  the  oaths  after  that  revolu- 
tion which  placed  a  new  family  on  the  throne,  he  relin- 
quished *all  his  preferments,  in  1691,  and  retired  to  Kent- 
bury  in  Buckinghamshire,  where  he  died  Feb.  10,  1736, 
aged  eighty-five.  His  son  informs  us,  that  when  judge 
Jeffries  came  to  Taunton -assizes  in  1685,  to  execute  his 
commission  upon  the  unfortunate  persons  concerned  in 
Monmouth's  rebellion,  Mr.  Harte,  then  minister  of  St. 
Mary  Magdalen's,  waited  on  him  in  private,  and  remon- 
strated much  against  iiis  severities.  The  judge  listened 
to  him  calmly,  and  with  some  attention,  and  though  he 

had  never  seen  him  before,  advanced  him  in  a  few  months 


1  Biog.  Brit. — Le  Neve's  Lives  of  the  Archbishops. — Fuller's  Ch,  Hist,  book 
XI. — Strype's  Whitgift,  p.  473,  494. — Lysons's  Environs. 

190  II  A  R  T  E. 

to  a  prebendal  stall  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Bristol.  Old 
Mr.  Harte  was  so  much  respected  for  his  piety  and  learn- 
ing, that  the  prelates  Kidder,  Hooper,  and  Wynne,  who 
successively  filled  the  see  of  Bath  and  Wells,  contrived 
that  he  should  receive  the  profits  of  his  prebend  of  Wells 
as  long  as  he  lived  ;  and  Mr.  Simon  Harcourt,  afterwards 
lord  chancellor,  offered  him  a  bishopric  in  queen  Anne's 
time,  which  he  declined  with  grateful  acknowledgments. 
According  to  his  son's  account,  he  was  a  most  laborious 
student,  employing  ten  or  twelve  hours  a  day,  without  any 
interruption,  but  that  of  casual  sickness,  for  fifty  years 
successively.  His  principal  business  was  in  referring  every 
difficult  part  of  Scripture  to  those  particular  passages  in 
the  fathers  and  eminent  modern  divines  who  had  explain- 
ed them  expressly  or  occasionally. 

The  time  of  our  poet's  birth  has  not  been  settled.  A 
writer  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  fixes  it  about  1707, 
but  an  earlier  date  will  correspond  better  with  circum- 
stances. If  he  was  born  in  1707,  his  lines  to  lady  Hert- 
ford must  have  been  written  at  eleven,  which  is  highly 
improbable,  yet  there  is  some  difficulty  in  adjusting  the 
date  of  this  poem.  In  Lintot's  edition,  it  is  subscribed 
Sept.  30,  1725;  but  Francis,  the  late  marquis  of  Hertford, 
was  born  in  1719,  a  year  after  his  father's  marriage,  and 
when  Mr.  Harte,  according  to  the  above  account,  could 
have  been  only  eleven  years  of  age.  We  have  his  own 
authority  that  all  the  poems  published  in  this  volume  were 
written  when  he  was  under  nineteen,  consequently  the 
date  of  1725  must  be  an  error,  especially  if  Collins's  ac- 
count of  the  Hertford  family  be  correct  But  here,  too, 
there  is  something  that  requires  explanation,  as  the  title  of 
Beauchamp  was  not  conferred  on  the  family  for  many  years 
after  the  publication  of  these  poems. 

He  received  his  education  at  Marlborough  school,  under 
the  rev.  Mr.  Hildrop,  to  whom  he  dedicates  the  few  divine 
poems  in  the  volume  published  in  1727.  At  what  time  he 
went  to  Oxford  does  not  appear,  but  he  took  his  master's 
degree  June  30,  1720,  according  to  the  last  edition  of  the 
graduates  of  that  university,  a  clear  proof  that  he  must 
have  been  born  long  before  1707.  With  Pope  he  ac- 
quired an  early  intimacy,  and  shared  rather  more  of  his 
friendship  than  that  poet  was  wont  to  bestow  on  his  bre- 
thren. Pope  encouraged  his  poetical  enthusiasm,  and  in- 
serted many  lines  in  his  poems ;  and  Harte  repaid  the  in- 

HART  E.  191 

structions  of  so  distinguished  a  preceptor,  by  compliments 
introduced,  not  without  elegance  and  propriety,  in  his  Es- 
says on  Painting  and  on  Satire,  and  elsewhere. 

In  1727,  he  published  the  volume  of  poems,  already 
mentioned,  dedicated  to  the  gallant  and  eccentric  earl  of 
Peterborough,  who  was,  as  the,  author  acknowledges,  the 
first  "  who  took  notice  of  him."  This  volume  was  ushered 
in  by  a  very  numerous  list  of  subscribers,  among  whom  is 
the  name  of  Alexander  Pope,  for  four  copies.  An  edition 
of  these  poems  may  be  sometimes  picked  up,  dated  1739, 
and  printed  for  John  Cecil,  instead  of  Bernard  Lintot,  the 
original  publisher.  As  the  same  list  of  subscribers  is  re- 
peated, it  is  probable  that  these  were  the  remaining  copies 
bought  at  Lintot's  sale  (who  died  in  1737),  and  published 
with  a  new  title-page. 

In  1730  he  published  his  "  Essay  on  Satire,"  8vo,  and 
in  1735  the  "  Essay  on  Reason,"  folio,  to  which  Pope  con- 
tributed very  considerably,  although  no  part  of  his  share 
can  be  exactly  ascertained,  except  the  first  two  lines.  He 
afterwards  published  two  sermons,  the  one  entitled  "  The 
Union  and  Harmony  of  Reason,  Morality,  and  Revealed 
Religion,"  preached  at  St.  Mary's,  Oxford,  February  27, 
1736-7,  which  excited  so  much  admiration,  or  curiosity, 
as  to  pass  through  five  editions.  The  other  was  a  "  Fast- 
sermon,"  preached  at  the  same  place,  Jan.  9,  1739-40. 
He  was  afterwards  vice-principal  of  St.  Mary-hall,  and  in 
so  much  reputation  as  a  tutor,  that  lord  Lyttelton,  who 
was  one  of  his  earliest  friends,  recommended  him  to  the  earl 
of  Chesterfield,  as  a  private  and  travelling  preceptor  to  his 
natural  son.  With  this  young  man,  to  whom  his  lordship 
addressed  those  letters  which  have  so  much  injured  his 
reputation,  Mr.  Harte  travelled  from  1746  to  1750.  Lord 
Chesterfield  is  said  to  have  procured  for  him  a  canonry  of 
Windsor,  in  1751,  "  with  much  difficulty,"  arising  from  his 
college  connections,  St.  Mary-hall,  of  which  Dr.  King 
was  principal,  being  at  that  time  noted  for  jacobitism. 

In  1759,  he  published  his  "  History  of  Gustavus  Adol- 
phus,"  2  vols.  4to,  a  work  on  which  he  had  bestowed  much 
labour,  and  in  which  he  has  accumulated  very  valuable 
materials.  An  edition  was  soon  published  in  German  by 
George  Henry  Martini,  with  a  preface,  notes,  and  correc- 
tions from  the  pen  of  the  translator  John  Gottlieb  Bohme, 
Saxon  historiographer,  and  professor  of  history  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Leipsic.  Its  success,  however,  at  home  was  far 

192  H  A  R  T  E. 

inferior  to  his  hopes,  although  sufficient  to  encourage  him 
to  publish  an  8vo  edition  in  1763,  corrected  and  improved. 
At  this  time  he  resided  at  Bath,  dejected  and  dispirited 
between  real  and  imaginary  distempers.  In  November 
1766,  a  paralytic  stroke  deprived  him  of  the  use  of  his 
right  leg,  affected  his  speech,  and  in  some  degree  his 
bead.  He  employed,  however,  his  intervals  of  health,  in 
preparing  "  The  Amaranth"  for  the  press,  which  was  pub- 
lished in  1767.  In  the  following  year,  he  had  entirely  lost 
the  use  of  his  left  side,  and  languished  in  this  melancholy 
condition  till  March  1774,  when  he  breathed  his  last,  hav- 
ing just  outlived  the  publication  of  the  celebrated  letters 
addressed  to  his  pupil,  Mr.  Stanhope,  but  which,  it  is 
hoped,  he  did  not  see.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was 
vicar  of  St.  Austel  and  St.  Blazy  in  Cornwall. 

Dr.  Maty  expresses  his  wonder,  that  lord  Chesterfield 
should  not  have  chosen  a  tutor  who  understood  a  little  bet- 
ter the  external  decorations  which  his  lordship  prized  so 
highly.  "  Harte,"  says  this  biographer,  "  had  none  of  the 
amiable  connecting  qualifications,  which  the  earl  wished 
in  his  son."  "  It  was  impossible  he  should  succeed  in 
finishing  the  polish  of  his  education  in  the  manner  lord 
Chesterfield  wished  ;  and  it  is  a  matter  of  astonishment 
that  the  earl  should  not  have  perceived  how  much  the 
tutor's  example  must  have  defeated  his  precepts.  The 
three  principal  articles  he  recommended  to  his  son,  were 
his  appearance,  his  elocution,  and  his  style.  Mr.  Harte, 
long  accustomed  to  a  college  life,  was  too  aukward  both  in 
his  person  and  address  to  be  able  to  familiarize  the  graces 
with  his  young  pupil.  An  unhappy  impediment  in  his 
speech,  joined  to  his  total  want  of  ear,  rendered  him 
equally  unfit  to  perceive  as  to  correct  any  defects  of  pro- 
nunciation, a  careful  attention  to  which  was  so  strongly 
recommended  in  all  lord  Chesterfield's  letters,  as  abso- 
lutely necessary  for  an  orator." 

All  this,  however,  lord  Chesterfield  knew,  and  yet  ap- 
pointed Mr.  Harte,  appears  to  have  been  perfectly  satis-, 
fied  with  his  conduct,  and  treated  him  with  great  kindness 
and  condescending  familiarity  as  long  as  he  lived.  Dr. 
Maty  seems  to  have  forgot  that  Harte  left  his  pupil  before 
his  lordship  had-  fully  developed  that  abominable  plan  of 
hypocrisy  and  profligacy,  which,  notwithstanding  his  bio- 
grapher's softenings,  has  irrecoverably  disgraced  his  me- 
mory; and  as  it  is  acknowledged  that  Mr.  Stanhope  did 

H  A  R  T  E.  193 

not  practise  the  system  which  his  father  so  elegantly  and 
artfully  recommended,  let  us  hope  that  he  was  preserved 
by  the  better  foundation  Mr.  Harte  had  laid. 

His  <«  Life  of  Gustavus  Adolphus,"  it  must  be  allow- 
ed, was  a  very  unfortunate  publication.  He  had  learn- 
ing, industry,  and  the  spirit  of  research  ;  and  he  had  ac- 
quired a  considerable  degree  of  political  and  military 
knowledge.  He  had,  besides,  access  to  the  most  valuable 
materials,  and  his  work  may  be  considered  as  in  many  re- 
spects original.  But  either  through  affectation,  or  by 
means  of  «oaie  desultory  course  of  reading  in  every  lan- 
guage but  his  own,  he  was  led  to  adopt  a  style  peculiarly 
harsh  and  pedantic,  and  often  unintelligible,  by  the  irre- 
gular construction  of  his  sentences,  by  new  words  of  his 
own  coinage,  or  by  old  words  used  in  a  new  sense.  The 
wonder  is,  that  in  all  this  he  fancied  himself  "  writing  in 
a  style  less  laboured  and  ornamental  than  is  usually  exhi- 
bited by  the  fluent  writers  of  the  present  age."  George 
Hawkins,  his  bookseller,  we  are  told,  sometimes  objected 
to  his  uncouth  words  or  phrases,  while  the  work  was  in  the 
press,  but  Harte  refused  to  change  them,  and  used  to  add 
with  a  complacent  sneer,  "  George,  that's  what  we  call 
writing  !"  It  is  such  writing,  however,  as  we  do  not  find 
in  liis  Sermons  printed  in  1737  and  1740,  far  less  in  his 
"  Essays  on  Husbandry,"  which  ought  to  have  been  men- 
tioned as  printed  in  1764,  and  which,  with  very  few  ex- 
ceptions, are  distinguished  for  perspicuity  of  style,  and 
far  more  elegance  than  that  subject  is  generally  supposed 
:o  admit. 

The  "  Life  of  Gustavus"  probably  employed  many  of 
his  years,  at  least  the  subject  must  have  occupied  his  mind 
for  a  very  considerable  time  before  he  began  to  collect  his 
materials.  The  undertaking  was  suggested  to  him  by  lord 
Peterborow,  with  whom  he  could  have  had  no  communica- 
tion except  previously  to  the  year  1734,  when  his  lord- 
ship's growing  infirmities  deprived  him  of  the  pleasures  of 
society,  and  in  the  following  year,  of  life,  When  travelling 
with  Mr.  Stanhope,  our  author  procured  access  to  various 
sources  of  information,  and  dwelt  so  long  on  his  subject 
with  a  fond  regard,  that  when  he  found  how  coolly  his 
work  was  received  by  the  world,  and  how  harshly  by  the 
critics,  he  became  uneasy,  fretful,  and,  according  to  lord 
Chesterfield,  seriously  ill  with  disappointment.  Dr.  John- 
son was  of  opinion,  that  the  defects  of  his  history  proceeded 


194  HART  K. 

not  from  imbecility,  but  from  foppery ;  and  it  is  certain 
that  the  critics*  while  they  pointed  out  the  defects  in  his 
style,  paid  due  encomiums  on  the  merit  of  the  history  in 
other  respects. 

According  to  Boswell,  Dr.  Johnson  said  u  he  was  exces- 
sively vain.  He  put  copies  of  his  book  in  manuscript  into 
the  hands  of  lord  Chesterfield  and  lord  Granville,  that  they 
might  revise  it.  Now  how  absurd  was  it  to  suppose  that 
two  such  noblemen  would  revise  so  big  a  manuscript.  Poor 
man!  he  left  London  the  day  of  the  publication  of  his 
book,  that  he  might  be  out  of  the  way  of  the  great  praise 
he  was  to  receive;  and  he  was  ashamed  to  return,  when  he, 
found  how  ill  his  book  had  succeeded.  It  .was  unlucky  in 
coming  out  the  same  day  with  Robertson's  History  of  Scot- 
land."— Not  the  same  day,  for  Robertson's  history  was 
published  a  month  sooner,  but  Hume's  "House  of  Tudor1* 
came  out  the  same  week  ;  and  after  perusing  these,  poor 
Harte's  style  could  not  certainly  be  endured.  It  was  not, 
however,  so  very  absurd  to  submit  his  manuscript  to  lord 
Chesterfield  or  lord  Granville,  if  they  permitted  him  ;  and 
the  former  certainly  did  peruse  it,  although  he  might  think 
it  too  generally  contaminated  for  a  few  friendly  hints  or 

With  Pope,  Harte  appears  to  have  been  on  very  inti- 
mate terms,  and  we  find  his  encomiastic  lines  among  the 
testimonies  of  authors  prefixed  to  the  "  Dunciad."  He 
had  even  attained  so  much  character  both  as  a  poet  and  a 
philosopher,  that  the  "  Essay  on  Man"  was  at  first  attri- 
buted to  him.  It  may  not  be  impertinent  to  introduce  here 
an  anecdote,  related  by  Dr.  Warton,  who  was  very  inti- 
mate with  Harte.  "  Pope  told  Mr.  Harte,  that  in  order  to 
disguise  his  being  the  author  of  the  second  epistle  of  the 
Essay  on  Man,  he  made,  in  the  first  edition,  the  following 
bad  rhyme  : 

"  A  cheat !  a  whore  !  that  starts  not  at  the  name, 

Jn  all  the  inns  of  court,  or  Drury-lane." 

And  Harte  remembered  to  have  often  heard  it  urged,  in 
inquiries  about  the  author,  whilst  he  was  unknown,  that  it 
was  impossible  it  could  be  Pope's,  on  account  of  this  very 
passage."— Warton,  it  may  be  added,  always  spoke  with 
respect  of  Harte's  abilities. 

From  every  evidence,  he  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of 
extensive  learning,  and  acquainted  not  only  with  the  best 
authors  of  his  time,  but  with  the  classics,  the  fathers  of 

H  A  R  T  E.  195 

the  church,  and  other  eminent  writers  of  antiquity,  which 
Dr.  Maty,  rather  inconsiderately,  calls  "  Gothic  erudition.7' 
It  is  true  that  he  often  discovers  that  kind  of  reading  which 
is  seldom  read,  but  the  illustrations  he  has  appended  to 
the  poems  in  "  The  Amaranth,"  from  the  fathers,  &c.  are 
generally  apt  and  judicious.  Towards  the  close  of  life,  he 
cheered  his  painful  and  solitary  hours  by  devotional  read- 
ing, He  died  unmarried,  and  at  one  time  seems  to  have 
considered  the  married  state  as  unfavourable  to  the  exer- 
tions of  genius.  In  his  "  Essay  on  Painting,"  he  very  un- 
gallantly  recommends  that  the  artist  should  be 

"  Untouch'd  by  cares,  uncumber'd  with  a  wife." 

Notwithstanding  the  unfortunate  reception  of  his  history, 
he  projected  another  undertaking  of  the  same  kind.  This 
we  learn  from  the  concluding  passage  of  his  Gustavus,  in 
which  he  says  his  intention  was  to  carry  the  history  of 
Germany  down  to  the  peace  of  Munster,  but  that  he  was 
deterred  by  the  magnitude  of  the  undertaking.  He  adds, 
however,  in  a  note,  that  he  had  completed  the  history  of 
the  thirty  years'  war,  from  the  breaking  out  of  the  troubles 
in  Bohemia  in  1618,  to  the  death  of  Gustavus  in  1632. 
These  papers,  with  whatever  else  he  left,  are  supposed  to 
have  fallen  into  the  hands  of  his  servant  Edward  Dore,  who 
afterwards  kept  an  inn  at  Bath.  Dore  and  his  family  are 
no  more,  and  the  manuscripts  are  probably  irrecoverably 
lost.  We  have  his  own  authority  also,  that  he  intended  to 
have  written  a  criticism  on  the  poetry  of  Dryden,  which 
he  seems  to  have  appreciated  with  just  taste.  The  adver- 
tisement to  "  Religious  Melancholy,"  from  which  this  in- 
formation is  taken,  is  inserted  almost  entire,  by  Dr.  War- 
ton  in  his  edition  of  Pope,  as  the  result  of  a  conference 
between  Pope  and  Harte. 

Harte's  poems,  in  general  are  entitled  to  considerable 
praise,  although  it  may  probably  be  thought  that  he  was  a 
better  critic  than  a  poet,  and  exhibited  more  taste  than 
genius.  His  attachment  to  Pope  led  him  to  an  imitation 
of  that  writer's  manner,  particularly  in  the  "  Essay  on  Rear 
son,"  and  that  on  "  Satire."  His  "  Essay  on  Reason"  has 
been  somewhere  called  a  fine  philosophical  poem.  It  might 
with  more  propriety  be  called  a  fine  Christian  poem,  as  it 
has  more  of  religion  than  philosophy,  and  might  be  aptly 
entitled  An  Essay  on  Revelation.  The  "  Essay  on  Satire" 
has  some  elegant  passages,  but  is  desultory,  and  appears 
to  have  been  written  as  a  compliment  to  the  "  Dunciad"  of 

o  2 

196  HAUTE. 

Pope,  whose  opinions  he  followed  as  far  as  they  respected 
the  merits  of  the  dunces  whom  Pope  libelled. 

For  his  "  Essay  on  Painting,"  he  pleads  that  it  was  writ- 
ten at  intervals,  upon  such  remarks  as  casually  occurred  itv 
his  reading,  and  is  therefore  deficient  in  connection.  He 
adds  that  he  had  finished  the  whole  before  he  saw  Du 
Fresnoy,  which  may  readily  be  believed.  He  discovers, 
however,  a  very  correct  notion  of  an  art  which  was  not  at 
that  time  much  studied  in  this  country,  and  has  laid  down 
many  precepts  which,  if  insufficient  to  form  a  good  painter, 
will  at  least  prevent  the  student  from  falling  into  gross  im- 
proprieties. So  much  knowledge  of  the  art,  and  acquaint- 
ance with  the  works  of  the  most  eminent  painters,  argues  a, 
taste  surprizing  at  his  early  age.  He  had  some  turn  for 
drawing,  and  made  several  sketches  when  abroad,  which 
were  afterwards  engraved  as  head  pieces  for  the  poems  in 
the  "  Amaranth."  In  this  essay,  he  delights  in  images 
which,  although  in  general  pleasing  and  just,  are  perhaps 
too  frequently,  and  as  it  were  periodically,  introduced. 
With  all  his  admiration  of  Pope,  he  was  not  less  attached 
to  Dryden  as  a  model ;  and  if  he  has  less  harmony  than 
Pope,  has  at  the  same  time  less  monotony. 

The  "  Amaranth"  was  written,  as  he  informs  us,  te  for 
his  private  consolation  under  a  lingering  and  dangerous 
state  of  health.'1  There  is  something  so  amiable,  and  we 
may  add,  so  heroic  in  this,  that  it  is  impossible  not  to  make 
every  allowance  for  defects ;  but  this  collection  of  poems  does 
not  upon  the  whole  stand  so  much  in  need  of  indulgence 
as  may  be  expected.  Some  of  them  were  sketched  when 
he  was  abroad,  and  now  were  revised  and  prepared,  and 
others  may  perhaps  be  the  effusions  of  a  man  in  sickness 
and  pain.  Yet  there  are  more  animated  passages  of  ge- 
nuine poetry  scattered  over  this  volume,  than  we  find  in 
his  former  works.  The  whole  of  the  "  Amaranth"  is  of 
the  serious  cast,  such  as  became  the  situation  of  the  au- 
thor. We  have,  indeed,  heard  of  authors  who  have  sported 
with  unusual  glee  in  their  moments  of  debility  and  decay, 
and  seemed  resolved  to  meet  death  with  an  air  of  good  hu- 
mour and  levity.  Such  a  state  of  mind,  where  it  does 
really  occur,  and  is  not  affectation,  is  rather  to  be  won- 
dered at  than  envied.  It  is  not  the  feeling  of  a  rational 
and  an  immortal  creature.1 

1  Gent  Mag.  see  Index.— Chesterfield's  Letters  and  Miscellanies —Bowles's 
5<mion  of  Pope.— Johnson  and  Chalmers's  English  Poets,  1810,  21  vais. 

HARTLEY.  197 

HARTLEY  (DAVID),  an  ingenious  physician  and  phU 
losopher,  the  son  of  a  clergyman  at  Armley,  in  York- 
shire, was  born  Aug.  30,  1705.  After  being  for  some 
time  at  a  private  school,  he  was  admitted  of  Jesus-college 
Cambridge,  in  1720,  and  was  afterwards  elected  a  fellow 
of  that  society.  He  took  his  degree  of  A.  B.  in  1725,  and 
that  of  A.  M.  in  1729.  He  was  originally  intended  for  the 
church,  but  having  some  scruples  as  to  subscription  to  the 
thirty-nine  articles,  gave  up  that  design,  although  through- 
out the  whole  of  his  life  he  femained  in  communion  with 
the  church  -of  England.  He  now  directed  his  studies  to 
the  medical  profession,  in  which  he  became  eminent  for 
skill,  integrity,  and  charitable  compassion.  His  mind  was 
formed  to  benevolence  and  universal  philanthropy  ;  and 
he  exercised  the  healing  art  with  anxious  and  equal  fidelity 
to  the  poor  and  to  the  rich.  He  commenced  practice  at 
Newark,  in  Nottinghamshire,  whence  he  removed  to 
Bury  St.  Edmund's,  in  Suffolk  ;  and  after  this  he  settled 
for  some  time  in  London.  His  last  residence  was  at 

Dr.  Hartley  was  industrious  and  indefatigable  in  the 
pursuit  of  all  collateral  branches  of  knowledge^  and  lived 
in  personal  intimacy  with  the  learned  men  of  his  age. 
The  bishops  Law,  Butler,  and  Warburton,  and  Dr.  Jortin, 
were  his  intimate  friends,  and  he  was  much  attached  to 
bishop  Hoadiy.  Among  his  other  friends  or  correspond- 
ents may  be  mentioned  Dr.  Hales,  Mr.  Hawkins  Browne, 
Dr.  Young,  Dr.  Byrom,  and  Mr.  Hooke  the  Roman  his- 
torian. Pope  was  also  admired  by  him,  not  only  as  a  man 
of  genius,  but  as  a  moral  poet  ;  yet  he  soon  saw  the  hand 
of  Bolingbroke  in  the  "  Essay  on  Man."  Dr.  Hartley's 
genius  was  penetrating  and  active ;  his  industry  indefati- 
gable ;  his  philosophical  observations  and  attentions  un- 
remitting. From  his  earliest  youth  he  was  devoted  to  the 
sciences,  particularly  to  logic  and  mathematics.  He  stu- 
died mathematics,  together  with  natural  and  experimental 
philosophy,  under  the  celebrated  professor  Saunderson. 
He  was  an  enthusiastic  admirer  and  disciple  of  sir  Isaac 
Newton  in  every  branch  of  literature  and  philosophy,  na- 
tural and  experimental,  mathematical,  historical,  and  re- 
ligious. His  first  principles  of  logic  and  metaphysics  he 
derived  from  Locke.  He  took  the  first  rudiments  of  his 
own  work,  the  "  Observations  on  Man,'7  from  Newton  and 
Locke  ;  the  doctrine  of  vibrations,  as  instrumental  to  sen- 

198  HARTLEY. 

sation  and  motion,  from  the  former,  and  the  principle  of 
association  originally  from  the  latter,  further  explained  in 
a  dissertation  by  the  rev.  Mr.  Gay.  He  began  this  work 
when  about  twenty-five  years  of  age,  and  published  it  in 
1749,  when  about  forty-three  years  of  age,  under  the  title 
of  "  Observations  on  Man,  his  frame,  his  duty,  and  his 
expectations,"  2  vols.  8vo.  His  biographer  informs  us 
that  "  he  did  not  expect  that  it  would  meet  with  any  ge- 
neral or  immediate  reception  in  the  philosophical  world, 
or  even  that  it  would  be  much  read  or  understood  ;  neither 
did  it  happen  otherwise  than  as  he  had  expected.  But  at 
the  same  time  he  did  entertain  an  expectation  that  at  some 
distant  period  it  would  become  the  adopted  system  of  fu- 
ture philosophers."  In  this,  however,  he  appears  to  have 
been  mistaken.  We  know  of  no  "  future"  philosophers 
of  any  name,  who  have  adopted  his  system.  Dr.  Priestley, 
indeed,  published  in  1775  "  Hartley's  Theory,  &c.  with 
Essays  on  the  subject  of  it,"  but  all  he  has  done  in  this  is 
to  convince  us  of  his  own  belief  in  materialism,  and  his 
earnest  desire  to  prove  Hartley  a  materialist,  who  dreaded 
nothing  so  much,  although  it  must  be  confessed  that  hie 
doctrines  have  an  apparent  tendency  to  that  conclusion. 
Since  that  time,  Hartley's  work  was  nearly  forgotten,  until 
1791,  when  an  edition  was  published  by  his  Son,  in  a  hand- 
some 4to  volume,  with  notes  and  additions,  from  the 
German  of  the  rev.  Herman  Andrew  Pistorius,  rector  of 
Poseritz,  in  the  island  of  Rugen  ;  and  a  sketch  of  the  life 
and  character  of  Dr.  Hartley.  The  doctrine  of  vibrations, 
upon  which  he  attempts  to  explain  the  origin  and  propa- 
gation of  sensation,  although  supported  by  much  inge- 
nious reasoning,  is  .not  only  built  upon  a  gratuitous 
assumption,  but  as  Haller  has  shewn, it  attributes  properties 
to  the  medullary  substance  of  the  brain  and  nerves,  which 
are  totally  incompatible  with  their  nature. 

Dr.  Hartley  was  the  author  of  some  medical  tracts  re- 
lative to  the  operation  of  Mrs.  Stephens' s  medicine  for  the 
stone,  a  disease  with  which  he  was  himself  afflicted  ;  he 
was,  indeed,  principally  instrumental  in  procuring  for  Mrs. 
Stephens  the  five  thousand  pounds  granted  by  parliament 
for  discovering  the  composition  of  her  medicine,  which 
was  published  in  the  Gazette  in  June,  1739.  In  1738  he 
published  "  Observations  made  on  ten  persons  who  have 
taken  the  Medicament  of  Mrs.  Stephens;"  and  in  1739  his 
'  View  of  the  present  Evidence  for  and  against  Mrs.  Ste- 

HARTLEY.  199 

phens's  Medicine  as  a  Solvent  for  the  Stone,  containing 
155  Cases,  with  some  Experiments  and  Observations," 
and  a  "  Supplement  to  the  View  of  the  present  Evidence/' 
&c.  His  own  case  is  the  123d  in  the  above-mentioned 
"  View  ;"  but,  notwithstanding  any  temporary  relief  which 
he  might  receive  from  the  medicine,  he  is  said  to  have 
died  of  the  stone,  after  having  taken  above  two  hundred 
pounds  weight  of  soap,  which  is  the  principal  ingredient 
in  its  composition.  In  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  Fe- 
bruary, 1746,  Dr.  Hartley  published  with  his  name,  u  Di- 
rections for  preparing  and  administering  Mrs.  Stephens's 
Medicine  in  a  solid  Form."  He  is  also  said  to  have  written 
in  defence  of  inoculation  for  the  small-pox,  against  the 
objections  of  Dr.  Warren,  of  Bury  St.  Edmund's;  and 
some  papers  of  his  are  to  be  met  with  in  the  Philosophical 
Transactions.  He  died  at  Bath,  August  28,  1757,  aged 
fifty-two.  He  was  twice  married,  and  left  issue  by  both 

The  philosophical  character  of  Dr.  Hartley,  says  his  Son, 
is  delineated  in  his  works.     The  features  of  his  private  and 
personal  character  were  of  the  same  complexion.     It  may 
with  peculiar  propriety  be  said  of  him,  that  the  mind  was 
the  man.     His  thoughts  were  not  immersed  in  worldly  pur- 
suits or  contentions,  and  therefore  his  life  was  not  event- 
ful or  turbulent,  but  placid,  and  undisturbed  by  passion  or 
violent  ambition.     From  his  earliest  youth  his  mental  am- 
bition  was  pre-occupied  by  pursuits  of  science.     His  hours 
of  amusement  were  likewise  bestowed  upon  objects  of  taste 
and  sentiment.     Music,  poetry,  and  history,  were  his  fa- 
vourite recreations.     His  imagination  was  fertile  and  cor- 
rect, his  language  and  expression  fluent  and  forcible.     His 
natu/al  temper  was  gay,  cheerful,  and  sociable.     He  was 
addicted  to  no  vice  in  any  part  of  his  life,  neither  to  pride, 
nor  to  sensuality,  nor  intemperance,  nor  ostentation,  nor 
envy,  nor  to  any  sordid  self-interest;  but  his   heart  was 
replete  with   every  contrary  virtue.     The  virtuous  prin- 
ciples which  are  instilled  in  his  works,  were  the  invariable 
and  decided  principles  of  his  life  and  doctrine.     His  per- 
son was  of  the  middle  size,  and  well  proportioned.     His 
complexion  fair,  his  features  regular  and  handsome.     His 
countenance   open,    ingenuous,    and  animated.     He  was 
peculiarly  neat  in  his  person  and  attire.     He  was  an  early 
riser,  and  punctual  in  the  employments  of  the  day  ;   me- 
thodical iu  the  order  and  disposition  gf  his  library,,  papers. 

200  HARTLEY. 

and  writings,  as  the  companions  of  his  thoughts,  but  with- 
out any  pedantry,  either  in  these  habits,  or  in  any  other 
part  of  his  character.  His  behaviour  was  polite,  easy,  and 
graceful ;  but  that  which  made  his  address  peculiarly  en- 
gaging, was  the  benevolence  of  heart  from  which  that  po- 
liteness flowed.  He  never  conversed  with  a  fellow-creature 
without  feeling  a  wish  to  do  him  good.  He  considered  the 
moral  end  of  our  creation  to  consist  in  the  performance  of 
the  duties  of  life  attached  to  each  particular  station,  to 
which  all  other  considerations  ought  to  be  inferior  and  sub- 
ordinate; and  consequently  that  the  rule  of  life  consists  in 
training  and  adapting  our  faculties,  through  the  means  of 
moral  habits  and  associations,  to  that  end.  In  this  he  was 
the  faithful  disciple  of  his  own  theory;  and  by  the  obser- 
vance of  it  he  avoided  the  tumult  of  worldly  vanities  and 
their  disquietudes,  and  preserved  his  mind  in  sincerity  and 
vigour,  to  perform  the  duties  of  life  with  fidelity,  and 
without  distraction.  His  whole  character  was  eminently 
and  uniformly  marked  by  sincerity  of  heart,  simplicity  of 
manners,  and  manly  innocence  of  mind.1 

HARTLIB  (SAMUEL),  an  ingenious  writer  on  agricul- 
ture in  the  seventeenth  century,  was  the  son  of  a  Polish 
merchant,  who,  when  the  Jesuits  prevailed  in  that  country, 
was  obliged  to  remove  himself  into  Prussia,  where  he  settled 
and  built  the  first  house  of  credit  at  Elbing,  and  his  grand- 
father, the  deputy  of  the  English  company  at  Dantzick, 
brought  the  English  company  to  Elbing;  whence  that 
town  came  by  trade  to  the  splendour  and  result  which  it 
afterwards  attained.  His  family,  indeed,  was  of  a  very 
ancient  extraction  in  the  German  empire,  there  having- 
been  ten  brothers  of  the  name  cf  Hartlib.  Some  of  them 
were  privy-counsellors  to  the  emperor,  some  to  other  in- 
ferior princes  ;  some  syndics  of  Ausperg  and  Norimberg. 

He  was  the  issue  of  a  third  wife,  his  father  having  mar- 
ried two  Polonian  ladies  of  noble  extraction.  This  third 
wife  seems  to  have  been  an  English  woman,  for  she  had 
two  sisters  very  honourably  married  here  ;  one,  first  to 
Mr.  Clark,  son  of  a  lord  mayor,  and  afterwards  to  a  "  very- 
rich  knight,  sir  Richard  Smith,  one  of  the  king's  privy- 
council,  she  bringing  him  a  portion  of  10,000/.  ;  after  his 
death,  she  married  a  third  time  sir  Edward  Savage,  and 

1  Life  by  bis  Son,  wbo  died  at  Bath,  but  too  recently  for  us  to  obtain  an  ac- 
count of  him. — Reid's  Essays  on  the  Intellectual  Powers,  p.  84,  et  seqq 

Munth.  Rev.  vols.  LIU.  LIV,  aud  LYI.—WatsonVHist.  of  Halifax. 

H  A  R  T  LIB.  201 

was  made  one  of  the  ladies  of  honour  to  the  king's  mother. 
Her  daughter  married  sir  Anthony  Irby,  at  Boston,  "  a 
knight  of  4  or  50001.  sterling  a  year."  The  other  sister 
married  Mr.  Peak,  a  younger  brother.  Warton  says, 
Hartlib  came  over  into  England  about  1640.  In  1641  he 
published  "  A  relation  of  that  which  hath  been  lately  at- 
tempted, to  procure  ecclesiastical  peace  among  Protes- 
tants," Lond.  1641. 

In  1645  he  published  "The  Discourse  of  Flanders  Hus- 
bandry," 4to,  about  24  pages ;  not  then  knowing  who 
was  the  author;  the  "  Legacy"  to  his  sons,  which  relates 
also  to  the  cultivation  of  their  estates,  consists  of  three 
4to  pages,  and  was  written  on  the  author's  death -bed, 
1645.  The  author  was  sir  Richard  Weston,  whom  Harte 
apprehends  to  be  the  sir  Richard  Weston  "  who  was  am- 
bassador from  England  to  Frederick  V.  elector  Palatine, 
and  king  of  Bohemia,  in  1619,  and  present  at  the  famous 
battle  of  Prague,  concerning  which  a  curious  relation  of 
his,  by  way  of  letter,  is  still  preserved  in  MS."  It  is  re- 
marked in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  that  England 
has  profited  in  agriculture  to  the  amount  of  many  millions, 
by  following  the  directions  laid  down  in  this  little  treatise, 
which  has  always  been  looked  upon  as  a  capital  performance 
in  husbandry. 

About  1750,  a  piece  was  ignorantly  published  under  sir 
R.  Weston's  name,  entitled  "  A  treatise  concerning  the 
Husbandry  and  Natural  History  of  England,"  8vo,  which 
is  a  poor  jejune  abridgment  of  "  Hartlib's  Legacy."  It 
seems  that  Hartlib  afterwards,  in  order  to  enlarge  and  bet- 
ter explain  this  famous  discourse,  published  another  edi- 
tion, and  annexed  Dr.  Beati's  annotations  to  it. 

In  1652  Hartlib  published  "  His  Legacy,  or  an  enlarge- 
ment of  the  discourse  of  Husbandry  used  in  Brabant  and 
Flanders,"  Lond.  4to.  This  work  was  only  drawn  up  at 
Hartlib's  request;  and  passing  through  his  correction  and 
revision,  was  published  by  him.  It  consists  of  one  general 
answer  to  the  following  query,  namely,  u  what  are  the 
actual  defects  and  omissions,  as  also  the  possible  improve- 
ments, in  English  husbandry  ?"  The  real  author  was  Ro- 
bert Child.  To  it  are  annexed  various  correspondences 
from  persons  eminent  for  skill  in  agriculture  at  this  time  ; 
as  C.  D.  B.  W.  R.  H.  T.  Underbill,  Henry  Cruttenden,  W. 
Potter,  &c.  as  also  the  "  Mercurius  Laetificans ;"  and 
twenty  large  experiments  by  Gabriel  Plattes  ;  together 

202  H  A  K  T  L  I  B. 

with  annotations  on  the  legacy  by  Dr.  Arnold  Beati,  and 
replies  to  the  animadversions  by  the  author  of  the  Legacy. 
In  the  preface  Hartlib  laments  greatly  that  no  public  di- 
rector of  husbandry  was  established  in  England  by  autho- 
rity ;  and  that  we  had  not  adopted  the  Flemish  custom  of 
letting  farms  upon  improvement.  Cromwell,  as  Harte 
says,  in  consequence  of  this  admirable  performance,  al- 
lowed Hartlib  a  pension  of  IQOl.  a  year;  and  it  was  the 
better  to  fulfil  the  intentions  of  his  benefactor,  that  lie 
procured  Dr.  Beati's  excellent  annotations  before-men- 
tioned, with  the  other  valuable  pieces  from  his  numerous 

Hartlib  says  himself,  "  As  long  as  I  have  lived  in  Eng- 
land, by  wonderful  providences,  I  have  spent  yearly  out 
of  my  own  betwixt  3  and  409/.  a  year  sterling;  and  when 
I  was  brought  to  public  allowances,  I  have  had  from  the 
parliaments  and  councils  of  state  a  pension  of  300/.  sterling 
a  year,  which  as  freely  I  have  spent  for  their  service,  and 
the  good  of  many."  He  says  he  "erected  a  little  academy 
for  the  education  of  the  gentry  of  this  nation,  to  advance 
piety,  learning,  morality,  and  other  exercises  of  industry, 
not  usual  then  in  common  schools."  This  probably  occa- 
sioned Milton's  "  Tractate  on  Education,"  about  1646, 
addressed  to  him ;  and  "  Two  letters  to  him  on  the  same 
subject,  by  sir  William  Petty,"  Lond.  1647,  1648,  4to. 
Walter  Blythe,  the  author  of  "  The  Improver  Improved," 
1653,  4to,  says  that  Hartlib  lodged  and  maintained  Speed 
in  his  house,  whilst  he  composed  his  book  of  improvements 
in  husbandry. 

"  About  the  time,"  observes  Harte,  "  when  Hartlib 
flourished,  seems  to  be  an  rera  when  English  husbandry 
rose  to  high  perfection  ;  for  the  preceding  wars  had  made 
the  country  gentry  poor,  and  in  consequence  thereof  in- 
dustrious ;  though  sometimes  the  reverse  of  this  happens 
in  many  kingdoms.  But  these  wise  men  found  the  culti- 
vation of  their  own  lands  to  be  the  very  best  posts  they 
could  be  fixed  in.  Yet,  in  a  few  years,  when  the  resto- 
ration took  place,  all  this  industry  and  knowledge  were 
turned  into  dissipation  and  heedlessness ;  and  then  hus- 
bandry passed  almost  entirely  into  the  hands  of  farmers." 
Hartlib  wrote  a  little  treatise  "  on  Setting  Land,"  which 
is  much  esteemed  ;  and  some  attribute  to  him  "  Adam's 
Art  Revived,"  though  that  work  seems  to  belong  more 
properly  to  Sir  H.  Platt.  He  also  wrote  "  A  true  and 

H  A  R  T  L  I  B.  203 

ready  way  to  learn  the  Latin  Tongue,'*  16 54-,  4to.  "  A 
Vindication  of  Mr.  John  Durie,"  1650,  4to,  three  sheets; 
and  published  "  Twisse's  doubting  Conscience  resolved," 
1652,  8vo.  He  was  also  author  of  "  The  reformed  Com- 
mon-wealth of  Bees,  with  the  reformed  Virginian  Silk- 
worm," Lond.  1655,  4to  ;  and  of  "  Considerations  con- 
cerning England's  Reformation  in  Church  and  State,14 
1647,  4to. 

He  was  consulted  in  a  book  called  "  Chemical,  Medi- 
cinal, and  Chirurgical  Addresses  to  Samuel  Hartlib." 
Lond.  1655,  8vo,  and  again  in  a  pamphlet  "  On  Motion 
by  Engines,"  1651.  There  were  also  "  Letters  to  Hart- 
lib  from  Flanders,"  1650,  4to.  Dury,  Hartlib's  friend, 
whom  Whitlock  calls  a  "  German  by  birth,  a  good  scholar, 
and  a  great  traveller,"  was  appointed  in  1649  deputy- 
librarian,  under  Whitlock,  of  what  had  been  the  royal  li- 
brary. Dury  was  Milton's  friend  and  correspondent.  On 
the  restoration,  all  Hartlib's  public  services  were  forgotten. 
In  Dec.  1662,  his  pension  was  700/.  in  arrears;  and  in  a 
letter  to  lord  Herbert,  he  complains  "  he  had  nothing  to 
keep  him  alive,  with  two  relations  more,  a  daughter  and  a 
nephew,  who  were  attending  his  sickly  condition."  About 
the  same  time  he  presented  a  petition  to  the  house  of  com- 
mons, by  the  name  of  Samuel  Hartlib,  sen.  setting  forth 
his  services,  and  praying  relief;  in  which,  among  other 
things,  he  says,  that  for  thirty  years  and  upwards  he  had 
exerted  himself  in  procuring  "  rare  collections  of  MSS.  in 
all  the  parts  of  learning,  which  he  had  freely  imported, 
transcribed,  and  printed,  and  sent  to  such  as  were  most 
capable  of  making  use  of  them  ;  also  the  best  experiments 
in  husbandry  and  manufactures,  which  by  printing  he  hath 
published  for  the  benefit  of  this  age  and  posterity."  The 
event  of  these  applications,  and  the  time  of  the  death  of 
this  ingenious  man,  is  unknown.  Sprat,  in  his  history  of 
the  royal  society,  says  nothing  of  Hartlib,  who  seems  to 
have  been  an  active  promoter  of  that  institution.  Nor  is 
it  less  remarkable,  that  he  never  mentions  Milton's  "Trac- 
tate of  Education,"  although  he  discusses  the  plan  of  Cow- 
ley's  philosophical  college.  Harte  intended  to  republish 
Hartlib's  tracts,  and  those  with  which  he  was  concerned  ; 
and  Warton  had  seen  his  collection.1 

1  Qent.    Mag.    LXXU.  p.  12.— Censura  Litcraria,  vol.  III.— Wartoa's  Mil- 
to»,  pp.  1 16,  59(5. — flarte's  Essays  on  Agriculture,  &c. 

204-  H  A  R  T  M  A  N. 

HARTMAN  (JOHN  ADOLPHUS),  a  learned  divine,  was 
born  in  1680,  at  Minister,  of  catholic  parents.  After  hav- 
ing been  several  years  a  Je.uit,  he  turned  protestant  at 
Cassel  in  1715,  was  soon  after  made  professor  of  philo- 
sophy and  poetry,  and,  in  1722,  appointed  professor  of 
history  nnd  rhetoric  at  Marpurg,  where  he  died  in  1744. 
His  most  esteemed  works  are,  "  Hist.  Hassiaca,"  3  vols. ; 
"  Vita?  Pontificum  Romanorum  Victoris  III.  Urbani  II.  Pas- 
calis  II.  Gelasii  II.  Callisti  II.  Honorii  II.;"  "  State  of  the 
Sciences  in  Hesse,"  in  German  ;  "  Praecepta  eloquentiae 
rationalis,"  &c.  He  has  also  left  above  eighty  "  Academical 
Discourses."  He  must  be  distinguished  from  GEORGE  Hart- 
man,  a  German  mathematician,  who,  in  1540,  invented 
the  bombarding-staff,  "  Baculus  Bombardicus,"  and  was 
author  of  a  treatise  on  perspective,  reprinted  at  Paris,  1 556, 
4to  ;  and  from  WOLFGANG  Hartman,  who  published  the  An- 
nals of  Augsburg,  in  folio,  1596.1 

HARTSOEKER  (NICHOLAS),  an  eminent  mathema- 
tician, was  born  at  Goud?,  in  Holland,  March  26,  1656. 
His  father  intended  him  for  the  ministry,  but  the  young 
man  had  an  early  disposition  for  contemplating  the  heavenly 
bodies,  which  engrossed  his  whole  attention,  and  finding, 
at  the  age  of  thirteen  or  fourteen,  that  without  some  know- 
ledge of  the  mathematics  he  could  make  no  satisfactory 
progress  in  this  study,  he  saved  his  boyish  allowance  and 
presents  in  money,  and  applied  to  a  teacher  of  the  mathe- 
matics, who  promised  to  be  very  expeditious,  and  kept  his 
word.  Under  him  he  first  learned  to  grind  optic  glasses, 
and  at  length,  partly  by  accident,  was  enabled  to  improve 
single  microscopes  by  using  small  globules  of  glass,  melted 
in  the  flame  of  a  candle.  By  these  he  discovered  the  ani- 
malculse  in  semine  humano,  which  laid  the  foundation  of  a 
new  system  of  generation. 

In  the  mean  time,  in  obedience  to  his  father's  request, 
be  spent  some  years  at  Leyden  and  Amsterdam  in  the 
study  of  the  belies  lettres,  Greek,  philosophy,  and  ana- 
tomy, until  1672,  when  he  resumed  his  microscopical  ob- 
servations at  Amsterdam,  and  communicated  his  clisco^ 
veries  respecting  the  animalcules  to  Huygens,  who  pub- 
lished them  in  the  "  Journal  des  Savans"  without  mention- 
ing Hartsoeker.  Hartsoeker,  indignant  at  being  thus  de- 
prived of  the  honours  of  invention,  determined  to  avow 

1  Diet.  Hist— Moreri. 

H  A  R  T  S  O  E  K  E  R.  20A 

himself  the  inventor  of  the  new  microscope,  and  the  first 
observer  of  the  animalcules  ;  and  sent  a  letter  to  that  pur- 
pose to  the  same  literary  journal.  The  editor,  however, 
had  the  precaution  to  send  it  privately  to  Huygens,  who, 
after  reprimanding  Hartsoeker  for  his  rashness  in  being 
prejudiced  against  him  by  envious  and  interested  persons, 
drew  up  a  memoir  for  the  journal,  in  which  he  did  his  young 
friend  all  the  justice  he  could  desire. 

Hartsoeker  being  now  at  Paris,  and  observing  that  the 
telescopical  glasses  of  the  observatory  there  were  not  large 
enough,  made  some  attempts  to  improve  them,  which,  al- 
though not  successful  at  first,  procured  him  the  good 
opinion  and  encouragement  of  Cassini;  flattered  by  whom 
he  soon  made  good  glasses  of  all  sizes,  and  at  length  one 
of  six  hundred  feet  focus,  which,  on  account  of  its  rarity, 
he  never  would  part  with.  As  to  these  glasses  of  so  long 
a  focus,  he  one  day  told  Varignon  and  the  abbe  St.  Pierre, 
that  he  thought  it  impossible  to  form  them  in  a  bason,  but 
that  by  trying  pieces  of  glass  intended  to  be  quite  flat,  one 
might  happen  to  meet  with  some  that  were  segments  of  a 
sphere  of  a  very  long  radius,  and  that  he  had  in  this  man- 
ner met  with  one  of  twelve  hundred  feet  focus;  that  this 
sphericity  depended  upon  some  insensible  unevennesses  in 
the  tables  of  polished  iron  upon  which  the  melted  glass  is 
stretched  out,  or  on  the  manner  of  loading  the  gFasses  to 
polish  them  one  against  another;  and  that  these  trials  were 
more  tedious  than  difficult;  which  was  all  he  chose  at  this 
time  to  communicate. 

In  1694  he  published  at  Paris,  his  first  work,  under  the 
title  of  "  Essai  de  Dioptrique,"  in  which  he  demonstrate* 
with  great  perspicuity  the  whole  theory  of  that  science, 
as  far  as  regards  spherical  glasses,  for  he  rejects  all  other 
figures  as  useless.  He  then  adds  the  methods,  many  of 
them  peculiar  to  himself,  of  grinding  and  polishing  glasses, 
and  the  names  and  quantities  of  the  ingredients  to  be  made 
use  of  for  forming  them  ;  and  a  general  system  of  refrac- 
tion, along  with  his  experiments,  leading  him  to  the  dif- 
ferent refrangibiiity  of  the  rays  of  light,  he  pretends  to 
have  been  the  first  to  assign  their  different  velocities  as 
the  cause  of  it.  Thus  his  essay  on  dioptrics  is  likewise 
an  essay  on  the  first  principles  of  natural  philosophy.  He 
reckons  but  two  elements,  one  a  substance,  infinite,  per- 
fectly fluid,  always  in  motion,  and  no  part  of  which  is  ever 
perfectly  separated  from  the  rest ;  the  other  a  collection  of 
little  bodies  different  in  .size  and  figure,  perfectly  hard  and 

20S  H  A  R  T  S  O  E  K  E  R. 

unalterable,  confusedly  swimming  in  the  fluid  element, 
where  they  meet,  unite,  and  become  the  different  sensible 
bodies.  With  these  two  elements  he  forms  every  thing, 
and  accounts  for  the  weight  and  hardness  of  bodies,  as  he 
does  elsewhere,  from  the  same  system,  for  their  elasticity. 
There  are  other  opinions  advanced  by  him,  which  the  more 
advanced  state  of  the  science  has  proved  erroneous ;  but 
this  work  at  that  time  procured  him  the  esteem  of  many 
men  of  learning,  particularly  father  Malebranche  and  the 
marquis  de  L'Hopital,  who,  finding  him  well  versed  in  the 
old  geometry,  would  fain  have  gained  him  over  to  the  new 
geometry  of  infinites,  to  which  they  were  partial  ;  but  he 
considered  it  of  little  service  in  natural  philosophy,  and 
had  not  a  better  opinion  of  any  of  the  more  abstruse  parts 
of  algebra.  Encouraged,  however,  by  the  success  of  his 
Dioptrics,  he  two  years  alter  published,  at  Paris,  his  "  Prin- 
cipes  cle  Physique,"  in  which  he  explains  at  large  the  sys- 
tem he  had  already  given  in  miniature,  adding  to  it  his 
own  sentiments  and  those  of  many  others  on  some  subjects 
which  he  had  not  before  handled,  the  whole  forming  a 
course  of  natural  philosophy,  which,  by  avoiding  too  great 
minuteness,  he  has  rendered  sufficiently  perspicuous. 

On  the  revival  of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris, 
in  1699,  he  was  named  a  foreign  associate,  and  was  soon 
after  chosen  member  of  the  royal  society  of  Berlin,  but  he 
never  used  either  of  these  titles,  or  any  other,  in  any  of 
the  works  he  afterwards  published.  It  is  probable,  how- 
ever, that  they  were  of  some  service  to  his  reputation  at 
least,  especially  on  the  following  occasion.  Peter  the 
Great,  on  his  arrival  at  Amsterdam,  having  applied  to  the 
magistrates  of  that  city  for  a  person  capable  of  instructing 
him  in  those  branches  of  learning  he  was  desirous  of  ac- 
quiring, they  named  Hartsoeker  for  that  purpose;  and  he 
became  so  agreeable  to  the  czar,  that  that  monarch  would 
have  prevailed  upon  him  to  follow  him  to  Moscovy.  But 
the  length  of  the  journey  for  a  numerous  family,  and  the 
difference  between  the  Russian  manners  and  those  of  the 
people  among  whom  he  had  hitherto  lived,  hindered  him 
from  accepting  the  proposal.  The  magistrates  of  Amster- 
dam, to  acknowledge  the  honour  he  had  done  to  their 
choice  of  him  upon  this  occasion,  erected  a  small  obser- 
vatory for  him  on  one  of  their  bastions,  which  was  a  hand- 
some compliment  to  him,  although  at  little  expence. 

In  1704,  after  very  pressing  solicitations,  he  went  to 
the  court  of  the  elector  Palatine,  who  appointed  him  his 


first  ma&ematiciau,  and  honorary  professor  of  philosophy 
in  the  university  of  Heidelberg.  Here  he  published,  in 
1707  and  1708,  his  lectures,  under  the  title  ot  "  Conjee- 
tures  Physiques,"  and  then  took  his  leave  for  a  time  of  the 
electorate,  in  order  to  visit  other  parts  of  Germany,  or 
study  natural  history,  and  mines  in  particular.  At  Cassel 
he  repeated  the  experiments  made  by  Mr.  Hamberg  with 
the  landgrave's  burning  glass  constructed  by  Mr.  Tschirn- 
haus,  but  without  being  able  to  vitrify  even  lead,  insomuch 
that  he  absolutely  denied  the  fact,  affirming  that  what 
Hamberg  took  for  vitrified  gold  was  a  substance  issuing 
from  the  charcoal  tbat  supported  it,  mixed  perhaps  with 
some  of  the  heterogeneous  parts  of  the  metal  itself. 

From  Hesse  Cassel  Hartsoeker  repaired  to  Hanover, 
where  Leibnitz,  the  professed  friend  of  all  men  of  learning, 
presented  him  to  the  elector,  afterwards  George  I.  and  the 
electoral  princess,  the  late  queen  Caroline,  who  gave  him 
a  very  gracious  reception.  About  this  time,  the  elector 
palatine  hearing  speak  of  the  burning-glass  of  M.  Tschirn- 
haus,  asked  Mr.  Hartsoeker  if  he  could  make  him  such  a 
one.  Upon  this  he  caused  three  to  be  cast,  and  having 
soon  finished  them,  the  elector  presented  him  with  the 
largest,  which  was  three  feet  and  five  inches  Rhinland 
measure  jn  diameter,  nine  feet  focus,  and  this  focus  per- 
fectly circular,  of  the  size  of  a  louis  d'or,  and  so  pon- 
derous, that  two  men  could  with  difficulty  move  it. 

In  1710  he  published  a  volume  entitled  "  Eclaircisse- 
ments  sur  les  conjectures  physiques,"  being  answers  to 
objections,  most  of  which  he  attributes  to  Leibnitz ;  and 
two  years  after  he  published  another  volume  by  way  of 
sequel  to  it,  and  in  1722  a  collection  of  several  separate 
pieces  on  the  same  subject.  ^In  these  three  works  he  at- 
tacked, very  freely,  several  celebrated  names  in  the  re- 
public of  letters,  protesting  all  the  while,  that  if  he  did  not 
esteem  them,  he  would  have  given  himself  no  trouble  about 
them,  and  that  they  were  very  welcome  to  criticize  upon 
him  in  their  turn.  But,  in  spite  of  this  apology,  he  could 
not  conceal  an  irritable  temper,  and  considerable  virulence 
in  his  manner  of  treating  them.  Neither  Newton,  Leib- 
nitz, Huygens,  or  the  other  members  of  the  royal  academy 
of  sciences  at  Paris,  escaped  him  on  this  occasion.  The 
academy,  however,  notwithstanding  such  behaviour,  to- 
lerated him  as  one  of  her  members,  and  considered  him  as 
subject  to  fits  of  ill  humour,  while  the  several  members, 
instead  of  answering  him,  pursued  their  researches. 

208  H  A  R  T  S  O  E  K  E  R. 

In  the  second  work  he  takes  up  and  extends  his  favourite 
system  of  plastic  souls.  In  man,  according  to  him,  the 
rational  soul  issues  its  orders,  and  a  vegetative  soul,  which  is 
the  plastic,  not  only  intelligent,  but  more  intelligent  than 
even  the  rational,  immediately  executes  these  orders,  be- 
sides  superintending  or  carrying  on  the  whole  animal  oeco- 
nomy  of  the  circulation  of  liquids,  nutrition  and  accretion  ; 
operations,  in  his  opinion,  above  the  reach  of  mere  me- 
chanics. But  it  was  immediately  objected  that  rational 
soul,  that  vegetative  soul,  is  ourselves,  and  how  can  we 
do  all  these  things  without  knowing  it  ?  This  difficulty  he 
solves  by  a  comparison,  which  is  at  least  ingenious.  Sup- 
pose, says  he,  a  dumb  man  alone  in  a  room,  and  servants 
placed  in  the  adjacent  rooms  to  wait  upon  him.  He  is 
made  to  understand  that  when  he  has  a  mind  to  eat,  he 
has  only  to  strike  the  floor  with  his  stick.  Accordingly  he 
strikes,  and  immediately  sees  his  table  covered  with  dishes. 
Now  how  can  he  conceive  that  this  noise,  which  he  has  not 
heard,  and  of  which  he  has  not  even  any  idea,  should  have 
brought  the  servants  to  him  ?  Hartsoeker,  not  content  with 
attributing  these  intelligent  plastic  souls  to  men  and  ani- 
mals, gives  them  to  plants,  and  even  to  the  celestial  bodies. 

The  elector  Palatine  dying  in  1716,  Hartsoeker  quitted 
the  palatine  court  the  year  following,  when  the  dowager 
clectress,  a  princess  of  the  house  of  Medicis,  in  whom  a 
taste  for  learning  was  hereditary,  returned  to  Italy,  her 
native  country.  As  soon  as  the  landgrave  of  Hesse  saw 
him  disengaged,  he  did  him  the  honour  to  solicit  him  a 
second  time  to  come  and  reside  with  him.  But  Hartsoeker 
thought  his  days  too  few  to  spend  in  a  court,  and  there- 
fore, removed  to  Utrecht,  where  he  undertook  a  course  of 
natural  philosophy,  and  made  an  extract  of  all  the  curious 
and  useful  observations  buried  here  and  there  among  a 
heap  of  useless  matter  in  Lewenhoeck's  letters.  And  hav- 
ing received  some  reproaches  from  Paris  on  account  of  the 
freedoms  which  he  had  taken  with  the  royal  academy  of 
sciences,  he  began  to  draw  up  an  apology,  but  did  not 
live  to  finish  it.  He  died  Dec.  10,  1725.  Fontenelle  says 
he  was  brisk,  facetious,  obliging,  but  of  an  easy  temper, 
which  his  artful  friends  often  abused,  and  which  betrayed 
him  into  those  critical  asperities  which  are  too  frequent  in 
his  works. l 

1  His  Elog*,  by  Fontenelle,  translated  in  Martin's  Biog.  Philosophies.— 
Chaufepie. — Niceron,  vol.  V1H. 


HARTZHEIM  (JOSEPH),  a  celebrated  Jesuit,  was  born 
at  Cologne  in  1694,  of  a  patrician  family,  and  taught  the 
belles  lettres  there  until  he  went  to  Milan,  on  being  ap- 
pointed professor  of  Greek  and  Hebrew.  On  his  return  to 
his  own  country,  he  acquired  much  celebrity  as  a  preacher 
and  as  a  professor  of  philosophy  and  divinity.  He  died  in 
1763;  his  principal  works  were,  l."Summa  historic  omnis 
ab  exordio  rerum  ad  annum  a  Christo  nato  1718,"  Luxem- 
bourg, 1718,  ISmo.  2.  "  De  initio  metropoleos  ecclesias- 
ticae  Coloniae,  &c.  disquisitio,"  Cologne,  1731,  4to.  3. 
"  Bibliotheca  scriptorum  Coloniensium,"  ibid.  1747,  folio. 
4.  "Dissertationes  decem  historico-criticx  in  sacram  scrip* 
turam,"  fol.  5.  "  Inscriptionis  Herseliensis  Ubio-Romanse 
explanatio,"  Cologne,  1745,  8vo.  He  was  also  employed 
for  many  years  of  his  life  in  the  publication  of  a  collection 
of  the  "  Councils  of  the  church  of  Germany,"  which  had 
been  projected  by  Schannat,  a  learned  ecclesiastic,  who 
had  collected  materials  for  the  purpose.  These,  on  his 
death,  were  put  into  the  hands  of  Hartzheim,  who  after  aug- 
menting and  reducing  them  to  order,  published  the  first 
four  volumes.  The  work  was  afterwards  continued  by 
Scholl  and  Neissen.1 

HARVEY  (GABRIEL),  a  caustic  wit  of  the  Elizabethan 
period,  and  the  butt  of  the  wits  of  his  time,  was  born  about 
1545.  His  father,  although  a  rope-maker  by  trade,  was 
of  a  good  family,  and  nearly  related  to  sir  Thomas  Smith, 
the  celebrated  statesman.  He  was  educated  at  Christ's 
college,  Cambridge,  and  for  some  time  at  Pembroke  hall, 
and  took  both  his  degrees  in  arts.  He  afterwards  obtained 
a  fellowship  in  Trinity-hall,  and  served  the  office  of  proc- 
tor in  the  university.  Having  studied  civil  law,  he  ob- 
tained his  grace  for  a  degree  in  that  faculty,  and  in  1585 
was  admitted  doctor  of  laws  at  Oxford,  which  he  com- 
pleted in  the  following  year,  and  practised  as  an  advocate 
in  the  prerogative  court  of  Canterbury  at  London.  As  -A 
poet  and  a  scholar,  he  had  great  merit.  His  beautiful 
poem,  signed  Hobbinol,  prefixed  to  the  "  Faerie  Queene," 
bespeaks  an  elegant  and  well-turned  mind;  and  among  his 
works  are  several  productions  of  great  ingenuity  and  pro- 
found research.  But  he  had  too  much  propensity  to  vul- 
gar abuse;  and  having  once  involved  himself  with  his 
envious  and  railing  contemporaries  Nash  and  Greene, 

1  Diet  Hist.— Saxii  Oncoiait. 


210  HARVEY. 

came  their  equal  in  this  species  of  literary   warfare.     He 
afforded    the ai,   howe?er,  sufficient  advantage,  by   having 
turned  almanack-maker  and  a  prophetic   dealer  in  earth- 
qu  ikes  and  prodigies,  things  which  must  not  be  altogether 
reierred  to  the  credulity  of  the  times,   since  they  were  as 
aptly  ridiculed  then  by   his  opponents,  as  they  would  be 
now,  did  any  man  of  real  knowledge  and  abilities  become 
so  absurd  as  to  propagate  the  belief  in  them.      His  highest 
honour  was  in  having  Spenser  for  his  intimate  friend  ;   nor 
was  he  less  esteemed  by  sir  Philip  Sidney,  as  appears   by 
the  interesting  account  Mr.  Todd   has   given   ot    Harvey's 
correspondence  in  his  excellent  Life  of  Spenser.     For  an 
equally  curious  account   of  Harvey's  literary  quarrels  with 
Nash,   &c.  the  reader  may  be  referred  with  confidence  to 
one  of  the  most  entertaining  chapters  in  Mr.  DTsraeli's 
"  Calamities  of  Authors."     He  is  supposed  to  have  died  in 
1630,  aged  about  eighty-five.     Among  his   works   which 
provoked,  or  were  written  in  answer  to,  the  attacks  of  his 
contemporaries,  we  may  enumerate,    1.  "Three  proper  and 
wittie  letters  touching  the  Earthquake,  and  our  English  re- 
formed versifying,"  Lond.  1.080,  4to.     2.  "  Two  other  very 
commendable   Letters  touching  artificial  versifying,"  ibid. 
15SO,  4to.      Harvey    boasted    his    being    the    inventor   of 
English   hexameters,  which   very  jnstly   exposed   him    to 
ridicule.     3.   "  Foure  Letters,  and  certain  Sonnets,  touch- 
ing   Robert   Greene   and   others,"    ibid.    1592.     His    un- 
iiKinlv  treatment  of  Greene  has  been  noticed  with  proper 
indignation  by   sir  E.  Brydges  in  his  reprint  of  Greene's 
*'  Groatsworth  of  Wit,"  and  by  Mr.  Haselwood  in  his  life 
of  that  poet   in  the  "  Censura  Literaria."     5.   "  Pierce's 
Supererogation,  or  a  new  prayse  of  the  old  Asse,  with  an 
advertisement  for  Pap.  Hatchet  and  Martin  Marprelate," 
ibid.  1593,  &c.     This  war  ol  scurrility  was  at  length  ter- 
minated  by   an   order   of  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
"  that  all  Nashe's  books  and  Dr.  Harvey's  bookes  be  taken 
wheresoever   they   be    found,  and  that  none   of  the   said 
bookes  be  ever  printed  hereafter."     Among  his  more  cre- 
ditable performances,  Tanner  has  enumerated,  1.  "Rhetor, 
sive  dtiorutn  dterum  oratio  de  natura,  arte  et  exercitatione 
rbetorica,"  Lond.  1577,  4to.     2.  "  Ciceronianus,  vel  oratio 
post  reditum  habita  Cantabrigise  ad  suos  auditores,"   ibid. 
1577,  <Ko.  3.  "  Gratulatio  Vatdenensium,  lib.  IV.  ad  Eliza- 
betham  reginam,"  ibid.  1578.     4.  "  Smithus,  vel  musarum 

HARVEY.  21 L 

lachrymze  pro  obitu  honoratiss.  viri  Thorn  se  Smith,"  ibid. 
1578,  4to.  * 

HARVEY  (GIDEON),  an  English  physician,  was  born  in 
Surrey,  acquired  the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues  in  ihe 
Low  Countries,  and  was  admitted  of  Exeter-college,  Ox- 
ford, in  Ib55.  Afterwards  he  went  to  Leyden,  and  studied 
under  Vanderlinden,  Vanhorn,  and  Vorstius,  all  of  them 
professors  of  physic,  and  men  of  eminence.  He  was 
taugbt  chemistry  there  by  a  German,  and,  at  the  same 
place,  learned  the  practical  part  of  chirurgery,  and  the 
trade  of  an  apothecary.  After  this  he  went  to  France,  and 
thence  returned  to  Holland,  where  he  was  admitted  fellow 
of  the  college  of  physicians  at  the  Hague ;  being-,  at  that 
time,  physician  in  ordinary  to  Charles  II.  in  his  exile. 
He  afterwards  returned  to  London,  whence  he  was  sent,  in 
1659,  with  a  commission  to  Flanders,  to  be  physician  to 
the  English  army  there ;  where  staying  till  he  was  tired  of 
that  employment,  he  passed  through  Germany  into  Italy, 
spent  some  time  at  Padua,  Bologna,  and  Rome,  and  then 
returned  through  Switzerland  and  Holland  to  England. 
Here  he  became  physician  in  ordinary  to  his  majesty;  and, 
after  king  William  came  over,  was  made  physician  of  the 
Tower.  At  this  time  there  was  a  great  debate  who  should 
succeed  to  this  office,  and  the  contending  parties  were  so 
equally  matched  in  their  interests  and  pretensions,  that  it 
was  extremely  difficult  to  determine  which  should  have  the 
preference.  The  matter  was  at  length  brought  to-a  com- 
promise ;  and  Dr.  Harvey  was  promoted,  because  he  was 
in  appearance  sickly  and  infirm,  and  his  death  was  ex- 
pected in  a  few  months.  He  survived,  however,  not  only 
his  rivals,  but  all  his  contemporary  physicians,  and  died 
after  he  had  enjoyed  his  office  above  fifty-years.  He  wrote 
several  medical  treatises,  which  never  have  been  in  any 
esteem.  Unlike  his  predecessor  of  the  same  name,  whose 
modesty  equalled  his  knowledge,  and  who  never  proceeded 
a  step  without  fact  and  experiment,  Gideon  Harvey  was 
a  vain  and  hypothetical  prater  throughout.  Under  pretence 
of  reforming  the  art  of  medicine,  he  attacked  the  charac- 
ters of  the  most  eminent  physicians  of  the  time,  combining: 
the  most  insulting  sarcasms  with  many  glaring  falsehoods 
and  absurdities  ;  and  although,  in  the  general  war  which, 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. — Warton's  Hist,  of   Poetry. — Todd's   Life  of  Spenser.- 
D' Israeli's  Calamities. 

P   2 

212  HARVEY. 

he  waged,  he  justly  attacked  many  abuses  which  then 
prevailed  in  the  profession,  yet  he  often  committed  great 
errors  of  judgment.  His  principal  work,  part  of  which  was 
published  in  1683,  and  part  in  1686,  was  entitled  "The 
Conclave  of  Physicians,  detecting  their  intrigues,  frauds, 
and  plots  against  the  patients,"  &c.  * 

HARVEY  (WILLIAM),  an  eminent  English  physician, 
who  first  discovered  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  was  born 
of  a.  good  family  at  Folkstone,  in  Kent,  April  2,  156^. 
At  ten  years  of  age  he  was  sent  to  the  grammar-school  at 
Canterbury,  and  at  fourteen  removed  thence  to  Caius  col- 
lege, in  Cambridge,  where  he  spent  about  six  years  in 
the  study  of  logic  and  natural  philosophy,  as  preparatory 
to  the  study  of  physic.  He  then  travelled  through  France 
and  Germany,  to  Padua  in  Italy;  where,  having  studied 
physic  under  Minadous,  Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente,  and 
Casserius,  he  was  created  doctor  of  physic  and  surgery  in 
that  university,  1602.  He  had  a  particular  regard  for  Fa- 
bricius, often  quotes  him  in  terms  of  the  highest  respect ; 
and  declares,  that  he  was  the  more  willing  to  publish  his 
book,  "  De  Motu  Cordis,"  because  Fabricius,  who  had 
learnedly  and  accurately  delineated  in  a  particular  treatise 
almost  all  the  parts  of  animals,  had  left  the  heart  alone 
untouched.  Soon  after,  returning  to  England,  he  was  in- 
corporated M.  D.  at  Cambridge,  and  went  to  London  to 
practise,  and  married.  In  1604,  he  was  admitted  candi- 
date of  the  college  of  physicians  in  London  ;  and  three 
years  after  fellow,  and  physician  to  St.  Bartholomew's  hos- 
pital. In  1615,  he  was  appointed  lecturer  of  anatomy  and 
surgery  in  that  college  ;  and  the  year  after  read  a  course  of 
lectures  there,  the  original  MS.  of  which  is  extant  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  is  entitled,  "  Prcelectiones  anatom. 
universal,  per  me  Gulielmum  Harvaeiunu  medicum  Londi- 
nensem,  anat.  &  chirurg.  professorem."  This  appoint- 
ment of  lecturer  was  probably  the  more  immediate  cause 
of  the  publication  of  his  grand  discovery  of  the  circulation 
of  the  I  id.  The  date  of  this  promulgation  is  not  abso- 
lutely a  -tained  :  it  is  commonly  said  that  he  first  dis- 
closed is  opinion  on  the  subject  in  1619;  but  the  index 
of  his  MS,  containing  the  propositions  on  which  the  doc- 
trine is  founded,  refers  them  to  April  1616.  Yet  with  a 
patience  and  caution,  peculiarly  characteristic  of  the  sound 

'  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Granger,  vol.  IV,— -Rees's  Cyclopa-dia. 

H  A  E  V  E  Y.  213 

philosopher,  he  withheld  his  opinions  from  the  world,  until 
reiterated  experiment  had  amply  confirmed  his  doctrine, 
and  had  enabled  him  to  demonstrate  it  in  detail,  and  to 
advance  every  proof  of  its  truth  of  which  the  subject  is 

In  1628  he  published  at  Francfort  his  "  Exercitatio  ana- 
tomicade  motu  cordis  &  sang  inis;"  dedicated  to  Charles  I. 
There  follows  also  another  dedication  to  the  college  of 
physicians,  in  which  he  observes,  thiit  he  had  frequently 
before,  in  his  "  Anatomical  Lectures,"  declared  his  new 
opinion  concerning  the  motion  and  use  of  the  heart,  and 
the  circulation  of  the  blood ;  and  for  above  nine  years  had 
confirmed  and  illustrated  it  before  the  college,  by  reasons 
and  arguments  grounded  upon  ocular  d  moustration,  and 
defended  it  from  the  objections  of  the  most  skilful  anato- 
mists. This  discovery  was  of  such  vast  importance  to  the 
whole  art  of  physic,  that  as  soon  as  men  were  satisfied, 
which  they  were  in  a  tew  years,  that  it  could  not  be  con- 
tested, several  put  in  for  the  prize  themselves,  and  a  great 
many  affirmed  the  disc  very  to  be  due  to  others.  Some 
asserted,  that  father  Paul  was  the  first  discoverer  of  the 
circulation,  but  being  too  much  suspected  tor  hetero- 
doxies already,  durst  not  make  it  public,  for  fear  of  the 
inquisition.  Honoratus  Faber  professed  himself  to  be  the 
author  of  that  opinion  ;  and  Vander  Linden,  who  published 
an  edition  of  Hippocrates,  about  the  middle  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  took  a  great  deal  of  pains  to  prove,  that 
this  father  of  physic  knew  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  and 
that  Harvey  only  revived  it*.  But  the  honour  of  the  dis- 
covery has  been  sufficiently  asserted  and  confirmed  to 
Harvey  ;  and,  says  Freind,  "  as  it  was  entirely  owing  to 
him,  so  he  has  explained  it  with  all  the  clearness  imagin- 
able :  and,  though  much  has  been  written  upon  tuat  sub- 
ject since,  I  may  venture  to  say,  his  own  book  is  the 
shortest,  the  plainest,  and  the  most  convincing,  of  any,  as 
we  may  be  satisfied,  it'  we  look  into  the  many  apologies 
written  in  defence  of  the  circulation." 

In  1632  he  was  made  physician  to  Charles  I.  as  he  had 
been  before  to  king  James  ;  and,  adhering  to  the  royal 
cause  upon  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil  wars,  attended 

*  In  our  time  Dr.  William  Hunter  See  his   "  Two  Introductory   Lectures 
seems  to  have  stood  alone  in  an  at-  to   his  last  course  of  Anatomical  Lee- 
tempt  to  deprecia  e  (he  merit  of  Har-  tures,"  published  in  1784,  4to. 
vey  as  the  discoyerer  of  the  circulation. 

214  HARVEY. 

his  majesty  at  the  battle  of  Edge-hill,  and  thence  to  Ox- 
ford ;  where,  in  1642,  he  was  incorporated  M.  D.  Inr 
V645  the  king  procured  him  to  be  elected  warden  of  Mer- 
ton-college  in  that  university  ;  but,  upon  the  surrender- 
ing of  Oxford  the  year  after  to  the  parliament,  he  left  that 
office,  and  retired  to  London.  In  1651  he  published  his 
book,  entitled  "  Exercitationes  de  Generatione  anima- 
limn."  This  is  a  curious  work,  and  had  certainly  been 
more  so,  but  for  some  misfortune,  by  which  his  papers 
perished,  during  the  time  of  the  civil  wars.  For  although 
he  had  both  leave  and  an  express  order  from  the  parlia- 
ment to  attend  his  majesty  upon  his  leaving  Whitehall, 
yet  his  house,  in  London,  was  in  his  absence  plundered 
of  all  the  furniture;  and  his  "Adversaria,"  with  a  great 
number  of  anatomical  observations,  relating  especially  to 
the  generation  of  insects,  were  taken  away.  This  loss  he 
lamented  several  years  after  in  terms  which  show  how  he 
felt  it. 

In  the  following  year,  1652,  Harvey  had  the  satisfaction 
of  seeing  his  merits  acknowledged  by  his  brethren  in  an 
unusual  and  most  honourable  manner :  by  a  vote  of  the 
college  his  bust  in  marble  was  placed  in  their  hall,  with  a 
suitable  inscription  recording  his  discoveries.  He  returned 
this  compliment,  by  presenting  to  the  college,  at  a  splen- 
did entertainment  to  which  he  invited  the  members,  an 
elegantly  furnished  convocation-room,  and  a  museum  filled 
with  choice  books  and  chirurgical  instruments,  which  he 
had  built,  at  his  own  expence,  in  their  garden.  On  the 
resignation  of  Dr  Prujeau,  in  1654,  Harvey  was  unani- 
mously nominated  to  the  presidency,  but  he  declined  the 
offer  on  account  of  his  age  and  infirmities.  He  still,  how- 
ever, frequented  the  meetings  of  the  college ;  and  his  at- 
tachment to  that  body  was  shewn  more  conspicuously  in 
1656,  when,  at  the  first  anniversary  feast  instituted  by 
himself,  he  gave  up  his  paternal  estate  of  fifty-six  pounds 
per  annum  in  perpetuity,  for  their  use.  The  particular 
purposes  of  this  donation  were,  the  institution  of  an  an- 
nual feast,  at  which  a  Latin  oration  should  be  spoken  in 
commemoration  of  the  benefactors  of  the  college,  a  gra- 
tuity for  the  orator,  and  a  provision  for  the  keeper  of  his 
library  and  museum.  His  old  age  was  afflicted  with  in- 
firmities, especially  with  most  excruciating  attacks  of  the 
gout;  but  he  lived  to  complete  his  eighty-eighth  year,  ac- 
COrding  to  his  epitaph,  and  expired  on  the  3d  of  June 

HARVEY.  215 

1658,  in  great  tranquillity  and  self-possession.  He  was 
buried  in  the  chapel  of  Hampstead,  belonging  to  tbe  church 
of  Great  Samfurd  in  Essex,  where  there  is  a  monument 
erected  over  his  grave  with  a  Latin  inscription. 

The  private  character  of  this  great  man  appears  to  have 
been  in  every  respect  worthy  of  his  public  reputation. 
Cheerful,  candid,  and  upright,  he  lived  on  terms  of  great 
harmony  with  his  friends  and  brethren,  and  exhibited  no 
spirit  of  rivalry  or  hostility  in  his  career.  He  spoke  mo- 
destly of  his  own  merits,  and  generally  treated  his  contro- 
versial antagonists  with  temperate  and  civil  language, 
often  very  different  from  their  own.  He  wrote  in  a  re- 
markably perspicuous  Latin  style,  which  is  flowing  and 
even  eloquent  where  the  subject  allows  of  ornament.  The 
college  of  physicians  very  properly  honoured  his  memory 
by  a  splendid  edition  of  all  his  works  in  quarto,  1766,  to 
which  a  Latin  life  of  the  author  was  prefixed,  elegantly 
written  by  Dr.  Laurence.1 

HARWOOD  (EDWARD),  a  dissenting  clergyman,  was 
born  in  1729,  and  having  passed  with  reputation  through 
his  grammatical  learning,  he  was  entered  as  student  for 
the  profession  of  a  dissenting  minister,  in  the  academy 
supported  by  Mr.  Coward's  funds.  Upon  quitting  this 
place,  he  engaged  as  an  assistant  to  a  boarding-school  at 
Peck  ham,  and  preached  occasionally  for  some  neighbouring 
ministers  in  and  out  of  London.  During  this  period  of 
his  life  he  studied  very  diligently  the  Greek  and  Roman 
classics,  to  which  he  was  devoted  through  life.  In  1754 
he  undertook  the  care  of  a  grammar-school  at  Congleton, 
in  Cheshire,  and  preached  for  some  years  on  alternate 
Sundays,  to  two  small  societies  in  the  vicinity  of  that 
town.  In  1765  he  removed  to  Bristol,  and  in  about  five 
years  he  was  obliged,  as  he  pretended,  to  quit  his  situation 
on  account  of  his  principles  as  an  Arian  and  Arminian, 
being  for  some  time  scarcely  able  to  walk  along  the  streets 
of  Bristol  without  insult ;  but  the  truth  was,  that  a  charge 
of  immorality  was  brought  against  him,  which  he  never  sa- 
tisfactorily answered,  and  which  sufficiently  accounted  for 
his  unpopularity.  He  had  previously  to  this,  in  1768,  ob- 
tained the  degree  of  D.  D.  from  the  university  of  Edin- 
burgh, and  with  this  he  came  to  London,  and  obtained 

1  B,iog.  Brit. — Rees's  Cyclopedia. — Some  anecdotes  of  Harvey,  by  Aubrey, 
are  given  in  the  "  Letters  by  eminent  persons,"   18J3,  3  volsr  Svu.-r- 
$iog.  Memoirs  of  Medicine. 

216  H  A  R  W  O  O  D. 

employment  as  a  literary  character,  and  also  as  an  instruc- 
tor in  the  Greek  and  Latin  classics.  He  died  miserably 
poor,  in  1794,  after  having  been  confined  many  years  in 
consequence  of  a  paralytic  attack.  He  was  author  of 
many  works,  the  most  important  of  which  is  "  A  View  of 
the  various  Editions  of  the  Greek  and  Roman  Classics," 
which  has  been  several  times  reprinted,  and  has,  as  well  as 
his  "  Introduction  to  the  New  Testament,"  been  translated 
into  several  foreign  languages.  His  other  works  were 
pamphlets  on  the  Arian  and  Socinian  controversy,  if  we 
except  an  edition  of  the  Greek  Testament,  2  vols.  8vo, 
and  a  "  Translation  of  the  New  Testament,"  into  modern 
English,  which  exhibits  an  extraordinary  proof  of  want  of 
taste  and  judgment.1 

HASE  (THEODORE  DE),  an  eminent  doctor  and  minister 
of  Bremen,  son  of  Cornelius  de  Hase,  minister  and  pro- 
fessor of  divinity  at  Bremen,  and  Sarah  Wolter,  a  lady 
distinguished  by  her  learning,  and  her  knowledge  of  He- 
brew, was  born  November  30,  1682,  and  was  appointed 
professor  of  belles-lettres  at  Hanau,  but  recalled  to  Bre- 
men the  following  year,  to  be  minister  and  professor  of 
Hebrew,  and  admitted  D.  D.  at  Francfort  upon  Oder  in 
1712,  though  absent;  and  member  of  the  royal  society  at 
Berlin  in  1718.  In  1723  he  was  made  professor  of  divinity 
at,  Bremen,  and  died  there  April  25,  1731.  He  left  a 
volume  of  "  Dissertations,"  which  are  much  esteemed  ;  and 
assisted  M.  Lampe  in  a  journal  begun  under  the  title  of 
"  Bibliotheca  Historico-Philologico-Theoiogica,"  and  con- 
tinued under  that  of  "  Musieum  Historico-Philologico- 
Theologicum."  His  brother  JAMES  was  also  a  man  of 
considerable  erudition.  He  published  many  classical 
tracts,  which  were  well  received  by  the  learned.  He  died 
in  1723.2 

HASENMULLER  (DANIEL),  a  native  of  Holstein,  was 
.born  July  3,  1651,  and  educated  partly  at  home  and 
partly  at  Lubeck.  He  made  such  progress  in  the  Greek 
and  oriental  languages,  that  he  was  in  1683  appointed  to 
the  professorship  of  the  Greek  language  at  the  university 
of  Kiel,  to  which  was  added  that  of  the  Hebrew  and  ori- 
ental languages;  but  he  died  before  he  had  completed  his 
fortieth  year,  May  29,  1691.  His  principal  works  are, 

LXIIL  and  LXlV.-Rees's  Cyclopedia. 
.  German,  vol.  XXIJ.-Moreri.-Saxii  Onomast. 


1.  "  Dissertatio  de  Linguis  Orientalibus,"  Leipsic,  1677, 
8vo.  2.  "  Henrici  Opitii  synasmus  restitutus,"  ibid.  1678, 
and  1691,  4to.  3.  "  Biblia  parva  Gneca,  in  quibus  dicta 
insigniora  omnia  ex  Versione  Septuagintavirali  secundum 
ordmem  librorum  biblicorum  observatum  in  biblis  parvis 
Opitianis,  cum  cura  exhibentur,"  Kilon,  1686,  I2mo. 
4.  An  edition  with  notes  of  "  Mich.  Pselli  de  operatione 
Dsemonum."  5.  "  Janua  Hebraismi  aperta,"  Kilon,  169 1.1 

HASSELQUIST  (FREDERICK),  one  of  the  favourite 
pupils  of  Linnaeus,  and  eminently  distinguished  by  hisillus" 
trations  of  the  natural  history  and  medicine  of  the  Levant, 
was  born  at  Toernvalla,  in  East  Gothland,  Jan.  3d,  1722. 
He  was  the  son  of  a  poor  curate,  who  died  at  an  early  age, 
and  whose  widow,  on  account  of  mental  and  corporeal  in- 
firmities, was  obliged  to  be  placed  in  the  hospital  at  Vad- 
stena.  Her  brother,  a  worthy  clergyman  of  the  name  of 
Pontin,  educated  young  Hasselquist  with  his  own  children, 
at  the  school  of  Linkoeping;  but  he  was  soon  deprived  of 
this  benefactor,  and  was  obliged  to  become  the  tutor  of 
young  children  till  he  was  old  enough  to  go  to  the  univer- 
sity;  and  by  a  similar  plan  he  was  enabled  to  support  him- 
self after  he  entered  at  Upsal,  in  1741.  Here  he  soon 
took  a  decided  turn  for  physic  and  natural  history,  and 
had  some  talents  for  poetry ;  and  such  was  his  diligence, 
that  his  superiors  procured  him,  in  1746,  a  royal  stipend  or 
scholarship.  In  June  1747,  he  published  his  thesis,  en- 
titled "  Vires  Plantarum,"  setting  forth  the  erroneous  and 
often  foolish  principles  on  which  plants  had  formerly  been 
employed  in  medicine,  and  suggesting  a  truly  philosophi- 
cal one  iii  their  natural  botanical  affinities. 

In  one  of  his  botanical  lectures  in  1747,  Linnaeus  hap- 
pening to  speak  of  Palestine,  one  of  the  most  important 
and  interesting  countries  to  the  philosopher  as  well  as  the 
divine,  but  of  whose  productions  we  had  less  knowledge 
than  of  those  of  India,  the  zeal  of  young  Hasselquist  became 
instantly  excited.  In  vain  did  his  preceptor,  secretly  de- 
lighted with  his  enthusiasm,  represent  to  him  the  difficulties 
of  the  undertaking,  the  distance,  the  dangers,  the  expence, 
and  above  ail  the  weak  state  of  his  own  health,  particularly 
of  his  lungs.  Hasselquist's  first  step  was  to  solicit  assist- 
ance to  defray  the  expences  of  his  journey,  but  the  whole 
he  obtained  is  represented  as  far  inadequate  to  his  under- 

•  Moreri.— Niceron,  vol.  XLH. 

218  H  A  S  S  E  L  Q,  U  I  S  T. 

taking.  He  began,  however,  to  learn  the  oriental  tongues, 
at  the  same  time  that  he  was  completing  his  academical 
studies,  reading  lectures,  and  obtaining  the  degree  of 
licentiate  in  physic.  The  faculty,  considering  his  merit  and 
circumstances,  Would  not  aliow  him  to  he  at  any  expence 
on  this  occasion,  any  more  than  for  his  attendance  on  the 
lectures  of  the  professors.  The  degree  of  doctor  of  physic 
was  afterwards  conferred  on  him  during  his  absence  at  Cairo, 
March  8th,  »75!,  \vithtne  same  honourable  and  delicate 
attention  to  his  peculiar  situation.  In  the  spring  of  174-9 
he  went  to  Stockholm,  read  lectures  on  botany  there  during 
the  summer,  and  so  far  recommended  himself  to  public  no- 
tice, that  the  company  of  merchants  trailing  to  the  Le- 
vant, offered  him  a  free  passage  to  Smyrna  in  one  of  their 
ships,  in  which  he  set  sail  August  7th,  arriving  at  Smyrna 
on  the  27th  of  November,  1749.  He  kept  a  regular  journal 
©f  his  voyage.  Touching  at  Gottenburgh,  he  there  met 
Toreen,  just  returned  from  China  with  abundance  of  trea- 
sures for  his  master  Linnaeus,  in  whose  works  they  have  at 
various  times  been  communicated  to  the  public. 

At  Smyrna  Hasselquist  nret  with  the  kindest  reception 
from  his  relation,  Mr.  Rydelius,  the  Swedish  consul,  as 
well  as  from  the  French  consul,  M.  Peysonel,  one  of  the 
first  who  suspected  the  animal  nature  of  corals.  He  spent 
the  winter  in  noticing  every  thing  he  could  meet  with  re- 
specting the  main  objects  of  his  pursuit,  in  this  place  and 
its  neighbourhood,  as  well  as  the  religious  ceremonies  and 
manners  of  the  people.  He  visited  the  house  and  garden, 
once  occupied  by  the  famous  Sherard,  at  Sedekio,  near 
Smyrna,  but  found  no  traces  of  any  great  care  having  been 
taken  to  adorn  the  garden,  or  to  store  it  with  exotic  plants. 
He  made  an  excursion  to  Magnesia,  his  quality  of  phy- 
sician causing  him  to  be  received  every  where  with  respect. 
As  the  spring  advanced  he  became  desirous  of  extending 
his  inquiries  ;  and  early  in  May  set  sail  for  Alexandria, 
where  he  arrived  on  the  1 3th.  Here  the  palm-trees,  which 
now  first  presented  themselves  to  his  notice,  excited  him 
to  inquire  into  and  to  verify  the  celebrated  history  of  their 
artificial  impregnation,  of  whicii  he  wrote  a  full  account  to 
Linnaeus.  Having  spent  two  months  in  seeing  all  he  could 
at  Alexandria,  Rosetta,  and  Cairo,  he  visited  the  Egyp- 
tian pyramids  in  July,  brought  from  thence  Chondrilla 
juncea,  the  only  plant  he  could  find,  which  is.  now  in  the 

H  A  S  S  E  L  Q  U  I  S  T.  21$ 

herbarium  of  his  preceptor,  was  hospitably  entertained  by 
the  Arabs,  and  returned  safe  to  Cairo,  where  he  had  after- 
wards an  opportunity  of  seeing  the  caravan  depart  for 
Mecca,  of  which  he  has  given  an  ample  and  interesting 
description,  as  well  as  of  many  other  festivals  and  exhi- 
bitions. He  visited  the  catacombs,  and  examined  many 
mummies  of  the  ancient  Ibis,  by  the  size  of  which  he  was 
induced  to  take  this  famous  bird  to  be  a  species  of  Ardea, 
common  and  almost  peculiar  to  Egypt,  different  from  the 
Tantalus  Ibis  of  Linnaeus.  The  learned  Cuvier,  however, 
has  recently  shewn  that  naturalists  have  been  widely  mis- 
taken on  this  subject,  and  Bruce  alone  has  indicated  the 
real  Ibis. 

Hasselqnist  proceeded,  in  March  1751,  to  'Damiata, 
whence  he  sailed  for  Jaffa,  or  Joppa,  and  arrived  there 
after  a  voyage  of  four  days.  He  had  now  reached  the 
great  theatre  of  his  inquiries,  the  Holy  Land  ;  and  he  en- 
tered upon  the  examination  of  its  productions,  and  their 
sacred  as  well  as  medical  history,  with  all  the  zeal  which 
had  at  first  prompted  him  to  the  journey,  and  which  was 
crowned  with  eminent  success.  Having  spent  near  two 
months  in  this  celebrated  country,  he  sailed  from  Seide 
the  23d  of  May,  for  Cyprus,  from  whence  he  proceeded 
to  Rhodes,  and  to  Stanchio,  the  ancient  Cos,  finally  re- 
turning to  Smyrna  in  the  end  of  July. 

From  time  to  time,  in  the  course  of  his  travels,  he  had 
written  to  LinnaBtis,  and  had  sent  home  various  natural 
curiosities,  as  well  as  several  dissertations,  which  were 
printed  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Upsal  and  Stockholm 
academies.  His  letters  to  various  friends  were  occasionally 
printed,  in  a  periodical  publication  called  Literary  News, 
at  Stockholm  ;  and  in  return  for  the  entertainment  and  in- 
formation he  gave  his  countrymen,  they  contributed  some 
necessary  supplies  towards  his  expensive  undertakings. 
Unfortunately  he  had,  in  the  meanwhile,  sacrificed,  in- 
stead of  restoring  his  health.  He  flattered  himself,  as  all 
in  his  condition  do,  and  thought  that  a  winter's  repose  at 
Smyrna  might  restore  him.  He  tried  the  country  air  and 
a  milk  diet,  but  he  wasted  away  daily,  like  a  lamp  whose 
oil  is  spent,  and  departed  this  life,  Feb.  9,  1752,  at  six  in 
the  evening,  to  the  inexpressible  grief  of  all  who  knew 
him,  in  the  31st  year  of  his  age. 

In  the  course  of  his  expensive  journeys  and  his  illness, 
this  unfortunate  young  man  had  unavoidably  incurred  debts 


beyond  what  his  casual  supplies  from  home  could  liquidate; 
and  the  collections  and  manuscript  notes,  which  still  re- 
mained at  Smyrna,  were  seized  by  his  creditors,  for  a  sum 
amounting  to  14,000  dollars  of  copper-money,  or  about 
350/.  sterling.  This  circumstance  was  no  sooner  made 
known,  through  Linnaeus  and  his  friend  Bteck,  to  the  ac- 
complished queen  of  Sweden,  Louisa  Ulrica,  the  worthy 
sister  of  the  great  Frederick  of  Prussia,  than  she  imme- 
diately redeemed  these  treasures  out  of  her  own  purse, 
gave  Linnaeus  all  the  duplicates,  and  commissioned  him  to 
arrange  and  publish  the  manuscript  journal  and  remarks 
of  his  deceased  pupil ;  a  task  which  he  undertook  with 
alacrity,  and  executed  with  care  and  judgment.  These 
papers  were  given  to  the  public  in  1757,  in  Swedish,  ex- 
cept several  Latin  descriptions,  under  the  title  of  "  Iter 
Palaestinum,"  or  a  Journey  to  the  Holy  Land,  in  one  vo- 
lume, 8vo,  with  a  biographical  preface  by  Linnseus,  who 
subjoined  to  the  work  the  very  interesting  letters  of  Has- 
selquist  to  himself.  This  book  has  been  translated  into 
several  languages,  and  appeared  in  English,  at  London,  in 
1766;  but  this  translation  is  in  many  parts  defective,  es- 
pecially with  regard  to  the  natural  history  and  the  scientific 
names.  In  1758  the  above-mentioned  Dr.  Baeck,  physi- 
cian to  the  queen,  published,  at  Stockholm,  an  oration  in 
praise  of  Hasselquist,  in  8vo. 

Hasselquist  must  ever  rank  high  as  an  original  and  faith- 
ful observer,  not  only  in  his  own  immediate  line  of  study, 
out  in  whatever  came  before  him.  His  illustrations  of  the 
natural  history  of  Scripture  are  above  all  things  valuable 
and  correct.  Far  less  prone  to  go  learnedly  and  inge- 
niously astray  than  his  distinguished  countryman  Olaus 
Celsius,  in  the  "  Hierobotanicon,"  he  has,  by  accurate 
observation  and  plain  sense,  cleared  up  many  difficulties, 
which  commentators,  without  the  former,  and  disdaining 
the  latter,  have  often  embroiled.1 

HASTED  (EDWARD),  the  historian  of  Kent,  was  the 
only  son  of  Edward  Hasted  of  Hawley,  in  Kent,  esq.  bar- 
rister at  law,  descended  paternally  from  the  noble  family 
of  Clifford,  and  maternally  from  the  ancient  and  knightly 
family  of  the  Dingleys  of  Woolverton  in  the  Isle  of  Wight. 
He  was  born  in  1732,  and  probably  received  a  liberal  edu- 
cation ;  but  we  have  no  account  of  his  early  life.  At  one 

1  Rws's  Cyclopaedia,  by  tl»e  President  of  the  Linnsean  Society. 

HASTED.  221 

time  he  possessed  a  competent  landed  property  in  the 
county  of  Kent,  and  sat  in  the  chair  for  a  little  while  at 
the  quarter  sessions  at  Canterbury.  His  laborious  "  His- 
tory of  Kent"  employed  his  time  and  attention  for  upwards 
of  forty  years ;  and  such  was  his  ardour  in  endeavouring 
to  trace  the  descent  of  Kentish  property,  that  he  had  ab- 
stracted with  his  own  hand,  in  two  folio  volumes,  all  the 
wills  in  the  prerogative  office  at  Canterbury.  His  mate- 
rials, in  other  respects,  appear  to  have  been  ample.  He 
had  access  to  all  the  public  offices  and  repositories  of  re- 
cords in  London  ;  to  the  libraries  and  archives  of  the  arch- 
bishop  at  Lambeth,  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Canterbury, 
and  that  at  Surrenden  in  Kent.  He  had  also  the  MS  col- 
lections of  Thorpe,  Le  Neve,  Warburton,  Edmondson, 
Lewis,  Twisden,  and  many  others,  with  much  valuable 
correspondence  with  the  gentlemen  of  the  county.  This 
work  was  completed  in  four  folio  volumes,  1778 — 1799. 
The  whole  exhibits  more  research  than  taste,  either  in  ar- 
ranging the  information,  or  in  style  ;  and  it  is  very  defec- 
tive in  notices  of  manners,  arts,  or  biographical  and  lite- 
rary history.  Its  highest  praise  is  that  of  a  faithful  record 
of  the  property  of  the  country,  and  of  its  genealogical  his- 
tory. During  the  latter  part  of  his  labours,  he  fell  into 
pecuniary  difficulties,  which  are  thought  to  have  prevented 
his  making  a  proper  use  of  his  materials,  and  obliged  him 
to  quit  his  residence  in  Kent.  After  this  he  lived  in  ob- 
scure retirement,  and  for  some  time  in  the  environs  of 
London.  A  few  years  before  his  death,  the  earl  of  Rad- 
nor presented  him  to  the  mastership  of  the  hospital  at  Cor- 
sham  in  Wiltshire,  to  which  he  then  removed  j  and  some 
time  after  by  a  decree  in  the  court  of  chancery,  recovered 
his  estates  in  Kent.  He  died  at  the  master's  lodge  at  Cor- 
sham,  Jan.  14,  1812.  By  Anne  his  wife,  who  died  in  1803, 
Mr.  Hasted  left  four  sons  and  two  daughters,  of  whom  the 
eldest  son  is  vicar  of  Hollingborne,  near  Maidstone  in 
Kent,  and  in  the  commission  of  the  peace  for  that  county.1 
HASTINGS  (LADY  ELIZABETH),  a  lady  of  high  rank 
and  higher  virtues,  the  daughter  of  Theophilus  earl  of 
Huntingdon,  was  born  April  19,  1682.  Her  mother  was 
the  daughter  of  sir  John  Lewis,  of  Ledstone,  in  the  county 
of  York.  The  accession  of  a  large  fortune,  after  the  death 
wf  her  brother  George  earl  of  Huntingdon,  enabled  her  to 

4  Account  by  himself,  Gent.  Mag.  LXXXII.— Cough's  Topography,  &c 


afford  an  illustrious  example  of  active  goodness  and  bene- 
volence. She  fixed  her  principal  residence  at  Ledstone- 
house,  where  she  became  the  patroness  of  merit,  the  be- 
nefactress of  the  indigent,  and  the  intelligent  friend  and 
counsellor  of  the  surrounding  neighbourhood.  Temperate, 
chaste,  and  simple,  in  her  habits,  she  devoted  her  time, 
her  fortune,  and  the  powers  of  her  understanding,  which 
was  of  a  high  order,  to  the  benefit  an4  happiness  of  all 
around  her.  il  Her  cares,'*  says  her  biographer,  "  extend- 
ed even  to  the  animal  creation  ;  while  over  her  domestics 
she  presided  with  the  dispositions  of  apparent,  providing 
for  the  improvement  of  their  minds,  the  decency  of  their 
behaviour,  and  the  propriety  of  their  manners.  She  would 
have  the  skill  and  contrivance  of  every  artificer  used  in  her 
house,  employed  for  the  ease  of  her  servants,  and  that  they 
might  suffer  no  inconvenience  or  hardship.  Besides  pro- 
viding for  the  order,  harmony,  and  peace  of  her  family, 
she  kept  great  elegance  in  and  about  her  house,  that  her 
poor  neighbours  might  not  fall  into  idleness  and  poverty 
for  want  of  employment ;  and  while  she  thus  tenderly  re- 
garded the  poor,  she  would  visit  those  in  the  higher  ranks, 
lest  they  should  accuse  her  of  pride  or  superciliousness." 
Her  system  of  benevolence  was  at  once  judicious  and  ex- 
tensive. Her  benefactions  were  not  confined  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood in  which  she  lived  ;  to  many  families,  in  various 
parts  of  the  kingdom,  she  gave  large  annual  allowances. 
To  this  may  be  added  her  munificence  to  her  relations  and 
friends,  her  remission  of  sums  due  to  her  in  cases  of  dis- 
tress or  straitened  circumstances,  and  the  noble  hospitality 
of  her  establishment.  To  one  relation  she  allowed  five 
hundred  pounds  annually,  to  another  she  presented  a  gift 
of  three  thousand  pounds,  and  to  a  thifd  three  hundred 
guineas.  She  acted  also  with  great  liberality  towards  a 
young  lady  whose  fortune  had  been  injured  in  the  South- 
sea  scheme  :  yet  the  whole  of  her  estates  fell  short  of  three 
thousand  pounds  a-year.  In  the  manors  of  Ledstone, 
Ledsham,  Thorpe-arche,  and  Colhngham,  she  erected 
charity-schools;  and,  for  the  support  of  them  and  other 
charities  she  gave,  in  her  life-time.  Collingham,  Shadwell, 
and  her  estate  at  Burton  Salmon.  Sht  also  gave  WOOL  for 
building  a  new  church  at  Leeds  ;  but,  that  this  donation 
might  not  hurt  the  mother  church  there,  she  afterwards 
offered  a  farm  near  Leeds,  of  23/.  per  annum,  and  capable 
of  improvement,  to  be  settled  on  the  vicar  and  his  succes- 

HASTINGS.  22-3 

sors,  provided  the  town  would  do  the  like  ;  which  the  cor- 
poration readily  agreed  to,  and  to  her  ladyship's  benefac- 
tion added  lands  of  the  yearly  value  of  24/.  tor  Uie  appli- 
cation of  whicn  they  were  to  be  entirely  answerable  to  her 
kindred  This  excellent  lady  also  bequeathed  at  her  death 
considerable  sums  for  charitable  and  public  uses  ;  amongst 
which  were  five  scholarships  in  Queen's  college,  Oxford, 
for  students  in  divinity,  of  28/.  a  year  each,  to  be  enjoyed 
for  five  years,  and,  as  the  rents  should  rise,  some  of  her 
scholars  to  be  capable,  in  time,  of  having  6Ql.  per  annum, 
for  one  or  two  years  after  the  first  term.  She  died  Dec. 
22,  1739.  She  was  fond  of  her  pen,  and  frequently  em- 
ployed herself  in  writing  ;  but,  previous  to  her  death, 
destroyed  the  greater  part  of  her  papers.  Her  fortune, 
beauty,  and  amiable  qualities,  procured  her  many  solici- 
tations to  change  her  state  ;  but  she  preferred,  in  a  single 
and  independent  life,  to  be  mistress  01  her  actions,  and 
the  disposition  of  her  income.1 

HATCHER  (THOMAS),  the  son  of  Dr.  Hatcher,  regius 
professor  of  physic  in  Cambridge,  and  physician  to  queen 
Mary,  flourished  in  the  sixteenth  century,  but  of  his  birth, 
or  death  we  have  no  dates.  He  became  a  fellow  of  Eton 
college  in  1555.  He  is  said  to  have  left  that  fur  Gray's 
inn,  and  to  have  afterwards  studied  physic.  He  compiled 
some  memoirs  of  the  eminent  persons  educated  in  Eton 
college,  in  two  books,  in  a  catalogue  of  all  tne  provosts, 
fellows,  and  scholars,  to  the  year  1572.  Mr.  Harwood 
acknowledges  his  obligations  to  this  work,  but  leaves  us  at 
a  loss  to  understand  its  being  compiled  "  after  the  manner 
of  Bayle."  Hatcher,  however,  he  informs  us,  was  a  very 
able  antiquary,  and  a  learned  and  pious  man.  He  pub- 
lished the  epistles  and  orations  of  his  fellow-collegian, 
Walter  Haddon,  in  a  book  entitled  "  Lucubrationes."  He 
died  in  Lincolnshire.2 

HATFIELD  (THOMAS),  bishop  of  Durham.  Of  this 
great  prelate  we  meet  with  few  accounts  previous  to  his 
promotion  to  the  see  of  Durham,  except  his  being  a  pre- 
bendary of  Lincoln  and  York,  and  secretary  to  Edward  III. 
by  whom  he  appears  to  have  been  much  esteemed.  Be- 
fore this  time  the  popes  had  for  many  years  taken  upon 
them  the  authority  of  bestowing  all  the  bishoprics  in  Eng- 

1  Barnard's    Hist.  Character  of   Lady   Eliz.   Hastings,  1742,    12iuo. — Gent. 
Map.  vol.  VI.  ami  X. — Tatler  with  notes,  vol.  I.  p.  346,  &c. 

2  Harwood's  Alumni  Etonenses. 

224  H  A  T  F  I  E  L  D. 

land,  without  even  consulting  the  king  :  this  greatly  of- 
fended the  nobility  and  parliament,  who  enacted  several 
statutes  against  it,  and  restored  to  the  churches  and  con- 
vents their  ancient  privilege  of  election.  Richard  de  Bury, 
bishop  of  Durham,  dying  April  24,  1345,  king  Edward 
was  very  desirous  of  obtaining  this  see  for  his  secretary 
Hatfield ;  but,  fearing  the  convent  should  not  elect,  and 
the  pope  disapprove  him,  he  applied  to  his  holiness  to 
bestow  the  bishopric  upon  him,  and  thereby  gave  him  an 
opportunity  of  resuming  his  former  usurpations.  Glad  of 
this,  and  of  obliging  the  king,  and  showing  his  power  at 
the  same  time,  the  pope  immediately  accepted  him  ;  ob- 
jections, however,  were  made  against  him  by  some  of  the 
cardinals,  as  a  man  of  light  behaviour,  and  no  way  fit  for 
the  place  ;  to  this  the  pope  answered,  that  if  the  king  of 
England  had  requested  him  for  an  ass,  he  would  not  at 
that  time  have  denied  him :  he  was  therefore  elected  the 
8th  of  May,  and  consecrated  bishop  of  Durham,  10th  of 
July,  1345. 

What  his  former  behaviour,  on  which  the  cardinals 
grounded  their  objections,  may  have  been,  is  uncertain ; 
but  it  is  scarce  to  be  imagined,  that  a  king  of  Edward's 
judgment  and  constant  inclination  to  promote  merit,  would 
have  raised  him  to  such  a  dignity  had  he  been  so  unde- 
serving; nor  would  he  have  employed  him  in  so  many 
affairs  of  consequence  as  he  appears  to  have  done  had  he 
not  been  capable  of  executing  them.  In  1346,  David  king 
of  Scotland,  at  the  head  of  50,000  men,  invaded  England, 
and  after  plundering  and  destroying  the  country  wherever 
he  came,  encamped  his  army  in  Bear-park,  near  Stanhope, 
141  the  county  of  Durham,  from  which  he  detached  parties 
to  ravage  the  neighbouring  country ;  to  repel  these  in- 
vaders, a  great  number  of  the  northern  noblemen  armed 
all  their  vassals,  and  came  to  join  the  king,  who  was  then 
at  Durham;  from  thence  they  marched  against  the  Scots 
in  four  separate  bodies,  the  first  of  which  was  commanded 
by  lord  Percy  and  bishop  Hatfield,  who  on  this  occasion 
assumed  the  warrior,  as  well  as  several  other  prelates.  The 
Scots  were  defeated,  and  their  king  taken  prisoner.  In 
13 54  the  bishop  of  Durham  and  lords  Percy  and  Ralph 
Nevill  were  appointed  commissioners  to  treat  with  the 
Scots  for  the  ransom  of  their  captive  monarch.  In  1355, 
when  king  Edward  went  into  France  at  the  head  of  a  large 
army,  he  was  attended  by  our  prelate;  to  whom,  however, 

H  A  T  F  I  E  L  D.  225 

It  is  more  important  to  mention,  that  Trinity  college,  in 
Oxford,  owed  its  foundation  ;  it  was  at  first  called  Durham 
college,  and  was  originally  intended  for  such  monks  of 
Durham  as  should  chuse  to  study  there,  more  particulars 
of  which  may  be  seen  in  Warton's  Anglia  Sacra.  Wood, 
in  his  Annals,  relates  the  matter  somewhat  differently. 
At  the  dissolution  it  was  granted,  in  1552,  to  Dr.  Owen, 
who  sold  it  to  sir  Thomas  Pope,  by  whom  it  was  refounded^ 
endowed,  and  called  Trinity  college.  Before  Hatfield's 
time,  the  bishops  of  Durham  had  no  house  in  London  to 
repair  to  when  summoned  to  parliament ;  to  remedy  this, 
this  munificent  prelate  built  a  most  elegant  palace  in  the 
Strand,  and  called  it  Durham-house  (lately  Durham-yard), 
and  by  his  will  bequeathed  it  for  ever  to  his  successors  in 
the  bishopric.  This  palace  continued  in  possession  of  the 
bishops  till  the  reformation,  when  it  was,  in  the  fifth  of 
Edward  VI.  demised  to  the  princess  Elizabeth.  In  the 
fourth  of  Mary  it  was  again  granted  to  bishop  Tunstall  and 
his  successors,  and  afterwards  let  out  on  a  building  lease, 
with  the  reservation  of  200/.  a  year  out-rent,  which  the 
bishop  now  receives.  On  this  pfat  of  ground  the  Adelphi 
buildings  are  erected. 

Bishop  Hatfield  was  the  principal  benefactor,  if  not  the 
founder,  of  the  Friary  at  Northallerton,  in  Yorkshire,  for 
Carmelites  or  white  friars.  The  records  of  his  time  give 
large  accounts  of  his  charities  to  the  poor,  his  great  hos- 
pitality and  good  housekeeping^  and  of  the  sums  he  ex- 
pended in  buildings  and  repairs  during  the  time  he  held 
the  bishopric.  After  a  life  spent  in  an  uniform  practice  of 
munificence  and  charity,  he  died  at  his  manor  of  Alfond, 
or  Alford,  near  London,  May  7,  1381,  and  by  his  will 
directed  his  body  to  be  buried  in  his  own  cathedral.  '  It  is 
there  entombed  in  the  south  aile  under  a  monument  of 
alabaster,  prepared  by  himself  in  his  life-time,  which  is 
now  remaining  very  perfect,  though  without  any  in- 
scription. * 

HATTO,  or  ATTO  VERCELLENSIS,  bishop  of  Ver- 
celli,  in  Italy,  of  a  noble  family,  was  born  in  Piedmont  iri 
the  beginning  of  the  tenth  century,  and  was  esteemed  a 
learned  divine  and  canonist.  He  was  promoted  to  the 
bishopric  of  Vercelli  in  the  year  945,  and  by  knowledge 
and  amiable  manners  proved  himself  worthy  of  this  rank, 

1  Godwin.— Antiq.  Repertory. — Hutchinson's  Hist,  of  Durham,  vol.  L 


226  H  A  T  T  O. 

It  is  not  mentioned  when  he  died.  His  works  are,  I.  "  Li- 
beilus  de  pressuris  Ecclesiasticis,"  in  three  parts,  inserted 
in  D'Achery's  "  Spicilegium."  This  treatise  on  the  suf- 
ferings and  grievances  of  the  church,  Mosheim  says,  shews 
in  their  true  colours  the  spirit  and  complexion  of  the  times. 
2.  "  Epistolae."  3.  "  Canones  statutaque  Vercellensis  Ec- 
clesiae,"  both  in  the  same  collection.  In  the  Vatican,  and 
among  the  archives  of  Vercelli,  are  many  other  produc- 
tions of  this  author,  all  of  which  were  collected  by  Baron- 
zio,  and  published  as  the  "  Complete  works  of  Hatto,"  in. 
1768,  2  vols.  fol.1 

HATTON  (Sia  CHRISTOPHER),  a  statesman  and  lawyer 
in  queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  was  the  third  and  youngest  son, 
of  William  Hatton,  of  Holdenby  in  Northamptonshire,  by 
Alice,  daughter  .of  Lawrence  Saunders,  of  Horringworth, 
in  the  same  county.  He  was  entered  a  gentleman  com- 
moner of  St.  Mary  Hall,  Oxford,  but  removed,  without 
taking  a  degree,  to  the  society  of  the  Inner  Temple,  not 
to  study  law,  but  that  his  mind  might  be  enlarged  by  an 
intercourse  with  those  who  were  at  once  men  of  business 
and  of  the  world,  for  such  was  the  character  of  the  lawyers 
of  that  day.  He  came  on  one  occasion  to  the  court  at  a 
masque,  where  queen  Elizabeth  was  struck  by  the  elegance 
of  his  person,  and  his  graceful  dancing.  It  is  not  impro- 
bable also  that  his  conversation  corresponded  with  his  out- 
ward appearance.  He  was  from  this  time,  however,  in  the 
way  to  preferment  ;  from  one  of  the  queen's  pensioners  he 
became  successively  a  gentleman  of  the  privy  chamber, 
captain  of  the  guard,  vice-chamberlain,  and  privy-coun- 
sellor, and  by  these  unusual  gradations  rose  to  the  office 
of  lord  chancellor  in  1587,  when  he  was  likewise  elected  a 
knight  of  the  garter.  His  insufficiency  is  said  at  first  to 
have  created  strong  prejudices  among  the  lawyers  against 
him,  founded,  perhaps,  on  some  degree  of  envy  at  his 
sudden  advancement  without  the  accustomed  studies ;  but 
his  good  natural  capacity  supplied  the  place  of  experience 
and  study;  and  his  decisions  were  not  found  deficient 
either  in  point  of  equity  or  judgment.  In  all  matters  of 
great  moment  he  is  said  to  have  consulted  Dr.  Swale,  a 
civilian.  "  His  station,"  says  one  of  his  biographers,  "  was 
great,  his  dispatches  were  quick  and  weighty,  his  orders 
.many,  yet  all  consistent :  being  very  seldom  reversed  ijii 

1  Biog.  Uaiverselle  in  Acton — Moreri  iu  Atton,— JMosheij»» 

H  A  T  T  O  N.  227 

thartcery,  and  his  advice  opposed  more  seldom  in  council. 
He  was  so  just,  that  his  sentence  was  a  law  to  the  subject, 
and  so  wise,  that  his  opinion  was  an  oracle  to  the  queen.'* 
When,  in  1586,  queen  Elizabeth  sent  a  new  deputation  to 
queen  Mary  of  Scotland,  informing  her  that  the  plea  of 
that  unhappy  princess,  either  from  her  royal  dignity,  or 
from  her  imprisonment,  could  not  be  admitted,  sir  Chris- 
topher Hatton  was  one  of  the  number,  along  with  Bur- 
leigh,  and  Bromley  the  chancellor;  and  it  was  by  Hatton's 
advice  chiefly,  that  Mary  was  persuaded  to  answer  before 
the  court,  and  thereby  give  an  appearance  of  legal  pro- 
ceed u  re  to  the  trial. 

Sir  Christopher  did  not  enjoy  his  high  office  above  four 
years,  and  died  unmarried,  Sept.  20,  1591,  of  a  broken 
heart,  as  usually  reported,  owing  to  the  stern  perseverance 
with  which  Elizabeth  had  demanded  an  old  debt  which  he 
was  unable  to  pay.  Camden  enumerates  him  among  the 
liberal  patrons  of  learning,  and  as  eminent  for  his  piety 
towards  God,  his  fidelity  to  his  country,  his  untainted 
integrity,  and  unparalleled  charity.  In  his  opinions  re- 
specting matters  of  religion,  he  appears  to  have  been 
averse  to  persecution,  which  brought  upon  him  the  re- 
proach of  being  secretly  affected  to  popery,  but  of  this  we 
have  no  proof.  As  chancellor  of  Oxford,  which  office  he 
held  from  1588  to  his  death,  he  did  much  to  reform  the 
education  and  discipline  of  that  university.  He  was  buried 
under  a  stately  monument  in  the  choir  of  St.  Paul's.  Wood 
says  he  wrote  several  things  pertaining  to  the  law,  none  of 
which  are  extant2  but  the  following  has  been  attributed  to 
him,  "  A  Treatise  concerning  Statutes  or  Acts  of  Parlia- 
ment, and  the  exposition  thereof,"  Lond.  1677,  8vo.  War- 
ton  thinks  he  was  the  undoubted  writer  of  "  the  fourth  act 
in  the  tragedy  of  Tancred  and  Gismund,"  which  bears  at 
the  end  composuit  Ch.  Hat.  This  play  was  the  joint  pro- 
duction of  five  students  of  the  Inner  Temple,  and  was 
acted  at  that  society  before  the  queen  in  1568,  but  not 
printed  till  1592.  It  is  reprinted  in  the  second  edition  of 
Dodsley's  collection.  * 

HAUTEFEUILLE  (JOHN),  an  ingenious  mechanic,  born 
at  Orleans,  March  20,  1647,  made  a  great  progress  in  me- 
chanics in  general,  but  had  a  particular  taste  for  clock- 

1  Lives  of  the  Lord  Chancellors. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. — Lodge's  Illustrations, 
x'Qls.  II.  and  III, — Park's  edition  of  Royal  and  Noble  Authors. — Lloyd's  State 
Worthies. — Peck's  Desiderata,  vol.  I. — Hume's  Hist. — Fuller's  Worthies, 

*2ft  H  A  U  T  E  F  E  U  I  L  L  E. 

work,  and  made  several  discoveries  in  it  that  were  of 
singular  use.  He  found  out  the  secret  of  moderating 
the  vibration  of  the  balance  by  means  of  a  small  steel- 
spring,  which  has  since  been  made  use  of.  This  dis- 
covery he  laid  before  the  members  of  the  academy  of 
sciences  in  1694  ;  and  these  watches  are,  by  way  of  emi- 
nence, called  pendulum-watches  ;  not  that  they  have  real 
pendulums,  but  because  they  nearly  approach  to  the  just- 
ness of  pendulums.  M.  Huygens  perfected  this  happy 
invention ;  but  having  declared  himself  the  inventor,  and 
obtained  a  patent  for  making  watches  with  spiral  springs, 
the  abbe*  Feuille  opposed  the  registering  of  it,  and  pub- 
lished a  piece  on  the  subject  against  Huygens.  He  died 
iu  1724.  Besides  the  above,  he  wrote  a  great  many  other 
pieces,  most  of  which  are  small  pamphlets,  but  very  cu- 
rious;  as,  1.  His  "  Perpetual  Pendulum."  2.  "  New  In- 
ventions." 3.  "  The  Art  of  Breathing  under  Water,  and 
the  means  of  preserving  a  Flame  shut  up  in  a  small  place." 
4.  "  Reflections  on  Machines  for  raising  water."  5.  His 
opinion  on  the  different  sentiments  of  Mallebranche  and 
Regis,  relating  to  the  appearance  of  the  Moon  when  seen 
in  the  horizon.  6.  "  The  Magnetic  Balance."  7.  "  A 
Placet  to  the  king  on  the  Longitude."  8.  "  Letter  on  the 
secret  of  the  Longitude."  9.  "  A  New  System  on  the 
Flux  and  Reflux  of  the  Sea."  10.  "The  means  of  making 
sensible  experiments  that  prove  the  Motion  of  the  Earth  ;" 
and  many  other  pieces.  * 

HAVERCAMP  (SIGEBERT),  a  classical  editor  of  consi- 
derable fame,  was  born  in  1684,  but  where,  or  where  edu- 
cated, none  of  our  authorities  mention.  In  1718  we  find 
him  a  preacher  at  the  village  of  Stad  aan't  Haringvliet,.  in 
the  island  of  Overflacke,  between  Holland  and  Zealand, 
in  which  year  he  published  "  Tertulliani  Apologeticus," 
Leyden,  8vo,  with  a  commentary.  In  1721  he  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  Greek  in  the  university  of  Leyden, 
and  afterwards  filled  the  chair  of  history  and  rhetoric.  He 
died  in  that  city,  April  25,  1742.  He  translated  many  of 
the  writings  of  the  Italian  antiquaries  into  Latin  for  Van- 
der  Aa's  "  Thesaurus  Italiae,"  and  for  Polenus's  "  Sup- 
.plementa  nova  utriusque  Thesauri  Romanarum  Grsecarum- 
que  Autiquitatum."  His  principal  separate  publications- 
are,  1.  "  Dissert,  de  Alexandri  magni  numismate,"  Ley- 

1  Moreri.— Button's  Diet — Ward's  Gresham  Professors,  p.  180. 

HAVE  R  C  AM  P. 

ien,  1722,  4to.  2.  "  Oratio  cle  actione  oratoris,  sive  cor- 
poris  eloquentia,"  ibid.  1724,  4to.  3.  "  Series  numisma- 
tum  antiquorum  Henr.  Adriani  a  Mark,"  1727,  8vo.  4. 
"  Museum  Hilenbroekianum,"  without  date  or  place.  5.. 
"  Thesaurus  Morellian us:  familiarum  Romanarum  numis- 
mata,"  with  a  commentary,  Amst.  fol.  1734.  6.  "A  His- 
tory of  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe,  from  the  end  of  the  fa- 
bulous ages,"  in  Dutch,  three  parts,  1736 — 39,  fol.  with 
plates  of  coins.  7.  "  Sylloge  scriptorum  de  pronunciations 
Grascae  Linguae,"  Leid.  1736  and  1740.  8.  "  Reguin  et 
imperatorum  Romanorum  numismata,  ducis  Croyiaci,  et 
Arschotani,  &c."  Amst.  1738,  4to,  &c.  The  classics  he  edited 
were,  1.  "  Lucretius,"  Leyden,  1725,  2  vols.  4to,  a  very 
splendid,  learned,  and  critical  edition  :  some  have  given 
it  the  preference  to  all  former  editions,  and  it  appears*  as 
yet  doubtful  whether  it  be  excelled  by  that  of  the  late 
Mr.  Gilbert  Wakefield.  2.  "  Josephus,"  fol.  Amst.  1726. 
By  this  he  seems  to  have  lost  almost  as  much  reputation  as 
he  gained  by  his  Lucretius,  it  being  shamefully  incorrect. 

3.  "  Eutropius,"   Leyden,  1729,   8vo,  an  excellent  edition. 

4.  "  Dionysius  Periegetes,"   Gr.  Lat.  ibid.  1738.     5.  "  Sal- 
lust."  Amst.  1742,   2   vols.  4to,  on  the  basis  of  Wasse  and 
Gruter,  but  with  very  little  from  Havercamp,  except  the 
notes  on  the  "  Fragmenta  Sallustiana,"  and  good  indexes.1 

HAWE8  (STEPHEN),  an  English  poet  who  flourished 
about  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  a  native  of 
Suffolk,  and  educated  at  Oxford.  He  travelled  afterwards 
in  England,  Scotland,  France,  and  Italy,  and  became  a 
complete  master  of  French  and  Italian  poetry.  On  his 
return,  his  acquired  politeness  and  knowledge  procured 
him  an  establishment  in  the  household  of  Henry  VII.  who 
was  struck  with  the  liveliness  of  his  conversation,  and  ad- 
mired the  readiness  with  which  he  could  repeat  most  of 
the  old  English  poets,  especially  Lydgate :  his  knowledge 
also  of  the  French  tongue  might  be  a  recommendation  to 
that  monarch,  who  was  fond  of  studying  the  best  French 
books  then  in  vogue. 

Hawes's  principal  work  is  his  "  Pastime  ofx  Pleasure," 
first  printed  by  Wynkyn  de  Worde  in  1517,  with  wooden 
cuts.  This,  Mr.  Warton  says,  contains  no  common  touches 
-of  romantic  and  allegoric  fiction.  The  personifications  are 
often  happily  sustained,  and  indicate  the  writer's  familiarity 

1  Moreri,— Saxii  Onomast. — Pibdin's  Classics. 

230  H  A  W  E  S. 

with  the  Provincial  school  :  he  also  says  that  "  Hawes  has 
added  new  graces  to  Lvdgate's  manner."  Mr.  Ellis,  how- 
ever, seems  to  be  of  a  different  opinion,  and  thinks  that 
he  has  copied  Lydgate's  worst  manner ;  and  that  he  is  dif- 
fuse, fond  of  expletives  and  epithets  which  add  nothing  to 
the  sense.  Hawes's  other  works  are,  "  The  Temple  of 
Glass,1'  in  imitation  of  Chaucer's  "Temple  of  Fame;1' 
"  The  Conversyon  of  Swerers,"  and  one  or  two  other  ra- 
rities, described  in  our  authorities.1 

HAWES  (WILLIAM),  an  English  physician,  and  founder 
of  the  Humane  Society,  was  born  at  Islington,  Nov.  28,1736; 
and  received  the  early  part  of  his  education  in  his  native 
village,  and  completed  it  in  St.  Paul's  school.  He  was 
afterwards  placed  with  Mr.  Carsan,  an  ingenious  medical 
practitioner  near  Vauxhall ;  and,  on  the  expiration  of  his 
apprenticeship,  was  for  a  short  time  an  assistant  to  Mr. 
Dicks,  in  the  Strand,  whom  he  succeeded  in  business; 
and,  by  his  application,  and  unwearied  attention  to  his 
patients,  acquired  a  considerable  degree  of  reputation  and 
affectionate  esteem.  In  May  1759,  he  married  an  amiable 
woman,  by  whom  he  had  a  numerous  family,  and  who 
survives  to  lament  his  loss. 

In  1773  he  became  deservedly  popular,  from  his  inces- 
sant zeal  in  calling  the  attention  of  the  public  to  the  resus- 
citation of  persons  apparently  dead,  principally  by  drown- 
ing. In  this  laudable  attempt  he  encountered  much  oppo- 
sition, and  some  ridicule.  The  practicability  of  resuscita- 
tion was  denied.  He  ascertained  its  practicability  by  ad- 
vertising rewards  to  persons,  who,  between  Westminster 
and  London  bridges,  should,  within  a  certain  time  after 
the  accident,  rescue  drowned  persons  from  the  water,  and 
bring  them  ashore  to  places  appointed  for  their  reception, 
where  means  might  be  used  for  their  recovery,  and  give 
immediate  notice  to  him.  The  public  mind  being  thus 
awakened  to  the  subject,  greater  exertions  were  made  by 
individuals  than  had  ever  before  been  known  ;  and  many 
lives  were  saved  by  himself  and  other  medical  men,  which 
would  otherwise  have  certainly  been  lost;  and  Mr.  Hawes, 
at  his  own  expence,  paid  the  rewards  in  these  cases  for 
twelve  months,  which  amounted  to  a  considerable  sum. 
His  excellent  friend,  Dr.  Cogan  (then  somewhat  known  to 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  Bliss's  edit.— Ellis's  Specimens,  vol.  I.  p.  409.— Warton's 
Hist,  of  Poetry.— Phillips's  Theatrum.— Cens.  Lit.  vol.  III.  and  IV. 


the  public,  and  since  much  better  known,  by  several  va- 
luable publications),  who  had  long  turned  his  thoughts  to 
this  subject,  remonstrated  with  him  on  the  injury  which 
his  private  fortune  would  sustain  from  a  perseverance  .in 
these  expences  ;  and  he  at  last  consented  to  share  them  with 
the  public.  Dr.  Coganancl  he  agreed  to  join  their  strength; 
and  each  of  them  bringing  forward  fifteen  friends  to  a 
meeting  at  the  Chapter  coftee-house  in  1774,  the  Humane 
Society  was  instantly  formed.  From  this  period  the  weight 
and  organization  of  the  infant  institution  devolved  in  great 
measure  on  Mr.  Hawes,  whose  undeviating  labours  have, 
it  is  hoped,  established  it  for  ever ;  and  without  which, 
there  would  very  probably  not  have  been  at  this  time  a  si- 
milar establishment  in  Europe,  America,  or  India;  where  Hu- 
mane societies  have  now  multiplied  with  every  great  stream 
that  fructifies  the  soil  of  those  different  regions. 

In  1774,  he  published  "  An  Account  of  Dr.  Goldsmith's 
last  Illness,"  whose  death  he  ascribed  to  the  improper  ad- 
ministration of  a  popular  medicine  ;  and  from  this  unfortu- 
nate event  he  deduced  many  useful  cautions  respecting 
the  exhibition  of  powerful  medicines. 

In  1777,  appeared  his  "  Address  on  Premature  Death 
and  Premature  Interment ;"  which  he  liberally  distributed, 
in  order  to  awaken  attention  in  the  public  mind,  against 
the  too  early  interment  of  persons  supposed  to  be  dead, 
before  it  was  clearly  ascertained  that  life  was  totally  ex- 
tinct. This  performance  had  been  suggested  to  his  mind, 
even  prior  to  the  establishment  of  the  great  object  of  re- 
suscitation, which  he  afterwards  so  successfully  pursued. 

In  1780  was  published,  his  third  edition  of  an  "  Exami- 
nation of  the  Reverend  John  Wesley's  Primitive  Physick  ;" 
in  which  the  absurdities  and  dangerous  remedies  recom- 
mended by  that  venerable  and  (on  many  other  accounts) 
respectable  writer  were  acutely  exposed  by  a  combination 
of  irony  and  serious  argument.  In  1780,  or  1731,  he  re- 
moved to  Palsgrave-place,  and  commenced  practice  as  a 
physician  ;  the  degree  of  doctor  of  medicine  having  been 
conferred  upon  him  some  time  before. 

In  1781,  Dr.  Hawes  published  "  An  Address  to  the 
Legislature,  on  the  Importance  of  the  Humane  Society;'* 
and,  by  his  steady  perseverance,  and  personal  endeavours, 
he  lived  to  see  most  of  his  objects  realized,  as  conducive 
to  the  restoration  of  suspended  animation.  About  the 
same  period,  appeared  his  "  Address  to  the  King  and  Par* 

332  H  A'W  E  S. 

liament  of  Great  Britain ;  with  Observations  on  the  Gene- 
ral Bills  of  Mortality."  These  useful  and  interesting  pub- 
lications gradually  raised  the  reputation  of  the  author  to 
the  notice  of  many  learned,  as  well  as  benevolent,  charac- 
ters. In  the  same  year,  he  was  elected  physician  to  the 
Surrey  Dispensary  ;  and  about  the  same  time,  commenced 
his  medical  lectures  on  suspended  animation  ;  and  was  the 
first,  and  perhaps  the  only,  person  that  ever  introduced 
the  subject  as  a  part  of  medical  education.  These  lec- 
tures were  closed  by  a  proposal  of  bestowing  prize-medals, 
suggested  by  the  ardour  of  his  mind,  and  founded  by  his 
munificence;  and  in  October  1782,  the  gold  medal  was 
awarded,  by  four  respectable  physicians,  to  Dr.  Richard 
Pearson,  of  Birmingham,  and  the  silver  medal  to  a  writer 
whose  paper  wat»  signed  Humanitas.  Since  that  period 
similar  prize-medals,  bestowed  by  the  Medical  Society, 
have  given  rise  to  the  invaluable  works  of  Pearson,  Good- 
win, Coleman,  Kite,  and  Fothergill. 

In  1782,  Dr.  Hawes  removed  to  East-cheap  ;  and  (hav- 
ing been  elected  physician  to  the  London  Dispensary  in 
1785)  to  Bury-street,  in  1786;  and  to  Spital-square  in 
1791.  In  1793,  when  the  manufactories  of  cottons  had  so 
far  superseded  those  of  silks  as  to  occasion  temporary 
want,  and  even  beggary,  among  the  artisans  in  Spitalfields, 
Dr.  Hawes  singly  stood  forward  ;  and,  principally  by  his 
activity,  1200  families  were  snatched  from  ruin.  On  this 
emergency  he  published  a  short  address,  which  does  great 
credit  to  his  humanity  and  good  sense. 

In  1796,  Dr.  Hawes  favoured  the  public  with  a  large  8vo 
volume,  entitled  "  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Humane  So- 
ciety, from  1774  to  1784,"  which  was  dedicated  to  the 
ting  by  royal  permission. 

This  worthy  man  died  Dec.  5,  1808,  and  was  interred  in 
the  new  burying-ground  at  Islington. 

Dr.  Hawes  was  a  man  totally  without  guile ;  and  self 
never  entered  into  his  contemplation.  There  was  a  sim- 
plicity in  his  manners,  the  result  of  an  innocent  and  un- 
suspecting heart.  Without  possessing,  or  affecting  to  pos- 
sess, any  very  superior  literary  talents,  he  contrived  to 
furnish  to  the  public  an  acceptable  work  in  his  "  Annual 
Reports."  His  practice  had  been  considerable ;  and  his 
medical  knowledge  was  respectable.  In  the  resuscitative 

t  he  was  eminently  skilled.  He  was  an  honorary  mem- 
ber of  the  Massachusetts  Humane  Society;  and  of  many 

H  A  W  E  S.  233 

others/  at  Edinburgh,  Manchester,  Bath,  &c.  &c.  and  a 
vice-president  of  the  London  Electrical  Dispensary. 

The  Royal  Humane  Society  is  a  shining  and  an  eminent 
proof  of  his  philanthropy  ;  an  institution  which  has  been 
found  highly  useful,  and  to  establish  which  he  employed 
many  years  of  his  life.  The  moment  in  which  one  of  the 
regular  anniversaries  of  the  society  were  at  an  end,  he  be- 
gan to  meditate  plans  for  the  success  of  the  ensuing  year. 
The  nomination  of  succeeding  stewards,  the  augmentation 
of  the  list  of  regular  subscribers,  and  the  obtaining  of 
churches  and  preachers  for  the  benefit  of  .his  favourite  in- 
stitution, were  never  out  of  his  sight;  and  so  much  indeed 
did  the  Humane  Society  engross  his  attention,  that  his  own 
immediate  interests  appeared  to  him  to  be  subordinate 
considerations.  He  was  always  ready  to  afford  both  his 
pecuniary  and  his  professional  assistance  to  distress  ;  and 
his  name  ought  to  be  recorded  among  those  who  add  to 
the  character  of  the  nation,  by  the  establishment  of  insti- 
tutions founded  on  benevolent  principles.1 

HAWKE  (EDWARD,  LORD  HAWKE),  an  eminent  naval 
officer,  was  the  son  of  Edward  Hawke,  esq.  barrister  at  law, 
by  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Nathaniel  Bladen,  esq.  He  was 
from  his  youth  brought  up  to  the  sea,  and  passed  through 
the  inferior  stations  till,  in  17134,  he  was  appointed  captain 
of  the  Wolf.  His  intrepidity  and  conduct  were  first  of  all 
distinguished  in  the  memorable  engagement  with  the  com- 
bined fleets  of  France  and  Spain  on  Toulon,  in  J744,  when 
the  English  fleet  was  commanded  by  the  admirals  Mat- 
thews, Lestock,  and  Rowley.  If  all  the  English  ships  had 
done  their  duty  on  that  day  as  well  as  the  Berwick,  which 
captain  Hawke  commanded,  the  honour  and  discipline  of 
the  navy  would  not  have  been  so  tarnished.  He  compelled 
the  Pader,  a  Spanish  vessel  of  60  guns,  to  strike  ;  and,  to 
succour  the  Princessa  and  Somerset,  broke  the  line  with- 
out orders,  for  which  act  of  bravery  he  lost  his  commis- 
sion, but  was  honourably  restored  to  his  rank  by  the  king. 
In  1747  he  was  appointed  rear-admiral  of  the 'white  ;  and 
on  the  14th  of  October,  in  the  same  year,  fell  in  with  a 
large  French  fleet,  bound  to  the  West  Indies,  convoyed 
by  nine  men  of  war,  of  which  he  captured  seven.  This 
was  a  glorious  day  tor  England,  and  the  event  taught  Bri- 
tish commanders  to  despise  the  old  prejudice  of  staying 

»  Pent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXV1II.  and  LXXX1. 

234  H  A  W  K  E. 

for  a  line  of  battle.  "  Perceiving,"  says  the  gallant  admi- 
ral in  his  letters  to  the  Admiralty,  "  that  we  lost  time  in 
forming  our  line,  I  made  the  signal  for  the  whole  squadron 
to  chase,  and  when  within  a  proper  distance  to  engage." 
On  October  the  31st,  admiral  Hawke  arrived  at  Portsmouth 
with  his  prizes,  and  as  a  reward  of  his  bravery,  he  was 
soon  afterwards  made  knight  of  the  bath.  In  1748  he  was 
made  vice-admiral  of  the  blue,  and  elected  an  elder  bro- 
ther of  the  Trinity-house;  in  1755  he  was  appointed  vice- 
admiral  of  the  white,  and  in  1757  commanded  the  squa- 
dron which  was  sent  to  co-operate  with  sir  John  Mordaunt 
in  the  expedition  against  Rochfort.  In  1759,  sir  Edward 
commanded  the  grand  fleet  opposed  to  that  of  the  French 
equipped  at  Brest,  and  intended  to  invade  these  kingdoms. 
He  accordingly  sailed  from  Portsmouth,  and,  arriving  off 
Brest,  so  stationed  his  ships  that  the  French  fleet  did  not 
dare  to  come  out,  and  had  the  mortification  of  beholding 
their  coast  insulted,  and  their  merchantmen  taken.  The 
admiral,  however,  being  by  a  strong  westerly  wind  blown 
from  his  station,  the  French  seized  this  opportunity,  and 
steered  for  Quiberon-bay,  where  a  small  English  squadron 
lay  under  the  command  of  commodore  Duff.  Sir  Edward 
Hawke  immediately  went  in  pursuit  of  them,  and  on  the 
20th  of  November  came  up  with  them  off  Belleisle.  The 
wind  blew  exceedingly  hard  at  the  time,  nevertheless  the 
French  were  engaged,  and  totally  defeated,  nor  was  the 
navy  of  France  able  to  undertake  any  thing  of  consequence 
during  the  remainder  of  the  war.  This  service,  owing  to 
the  nature  of  the  coast,  was  peculiarly  hazardous;  but  when 
the  pilot  represented  the  danger,  our  gallant  admiral  only 
replied,  "You  have  done  your  duty  in  pointing  out  the 
difficulties ;  you  are  now  to  comply  with  my  order,  and 
lay  me  along  the  Soleil  Royal."  For  these  and  similar 
services,  the  king  settled  a  pension  of  2000/.  per  annum 
on  sif  Edward  and  his  two  sons,  or  the  survivor  of  them; 
he  also  received  the  thanks  of  the  house  of  commons,  and 
the  freedom  of  the  city  of  Cork  in  a  gold  box.  In  1765 
he  was  appointed  vice-admiral  of  Great  Britain,  and  first 
lord  of  the  admiralty  ;  and,  in  1776,  he  was  made  a  peer 
of  England,  under  the  title  of  Baron  Hawke,  of  Towton,  in 
the  county  of  York.  His  lordship  married  Catharine  the 
daughter  of  Walter  Brooke,  of  Burton-hall,  in  Yorkshire, 
esq.  by  whom  he  had  four  children. — He  was  one  of  the 
greatest  characters  that  ever  adorned  the  British  navy ;  but 

HAWK  E.  235 

most  of  all  remarkable  for  the  daring  courage  which  in- 
duced him  on  many  occasions  to  disregard  those  forms  of 
conducting  or  sustaining  an  attack,  which  the  rules  and 
ceremonies  of  service  had  before  considered  as  indispens- 
able. He  died  at  his  seat  at  Shepperton  in  Middlesex, 
October  14,  178 1.1 

HAWKESWORTH  (JOHN),  an  elegant  and  ingenious 
English  writer,  was  born  either  in  1715,  or  1719,  in  Lon- 
don, and  was,  as  some  report,  brought  up  to  the  trade  of  a 
watchmaker.  Sir  John  Hawkins,  however,  informs  us  that 
he  was,  when  very  young,  a  hired  clerk  to  one  Harvvood, 
an  attorney  in  Grocers'-alley  in  the  Poultry.  His  parents 
were  probably  dissenters,  as  he  was  a  member  of  the  cele- 
brated Mr.  Bradbury's  meeting,  from  which,  it  is  said,  he 
was  expelled  for  some  irregularities.  It  does  not  appear 
that  he  followed  any  profession,  but  devoted  himself  to 
study  and  literary  employment.  So  early  as  1744  he  suc- 
ceeded Dr.  Johnson  in  compiling  the  parliamentary  de- 
bates for  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  to  which  he  after- 
wards contributed  many  of  his  earlier  productions  in  verse. 
In  1746,  he  wrote  in  that  publication,  under  the' name  of 
Greville,  the  "Devil  Painter,  a  tale  ;"  the  "  Chaise  Percee," 
from  the  French;  "Epistle  to  the  King  of  Prussia;" 
"  Lines  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Layng"  (who  was  at  this  time  a 
writer  in  the  Magazine),  and  to  the  celebrated  Warburton  : 
"  On  a  series  of  theological  inquiries  :"  "  A  Thought  from 
Marcus  Antoninus  ;"  "  The  Smart."  In- 1747  he  contri- 
buted "  The  Accident ;"  "  Ants'  Philosophy  ;"  "  Death  of 
Arachne;"  "Chamontand  Honorius  ;"  "  Origin  of  Doubt;" 
"  Life,"  an  ode  ;  "  Lines  to  Hope  ;"  "  Winter,"  an  ode  ;" 
"The  Experiment,"  a  tale.  In  1748,  "  The  Midsummer 
Wish  ;"  "  Solitude  ;"  "  The  two  Doves,"  a  fable  ;  "  Au- 
tumn ;"  in  1749,  "  Poverty  insulted  ;"  "Region  allotted 
to  Old  Maids;"  "  The  Nymph  at  her  Toilet;"  "  God  is 
Love;"  "  Cloe's  Soliloquy."  Some  of  these  are  signed 
H.  Greville.  Whether  he  wrote  any  prose  compositions  is 
doubtful.  Mr.  Duncombe,  on  whose  authority  the  above 
list  is  given,  says  nothing  of  prose. 

In  1752-3-4,  he  was  concerned  with  Drs.  Johnson,  Ba- 
thurst,  and  Warton,  in  the  Adventurer,  and  from  the 
merit  of  his  papers  acquired  much  reputation  and  many 
friends.  At  this  time,  his  wife  kept  a  school  for  the  edu- 

1  Collins's  Peerage  by  sir  E,  Br ydges.— Ckaniock'i  Biog.  Navalis. 

£36  H  A  W  K  E  S  W  O  R  T  H. 

cation  of  young  ladies,  at  Bromley  in  Kent;  and  his  ambi- 
tion was  to  demonstrate  by  his  writings  how  well  qualified 
he  was  to  superintend  a  seminary  of  that  kind.  But  an 
incident  happened  after  the  publication  of  the  Adventurer 
which  gave  a  new  turn  to  his  ambition.  Arohbishop  Her- 
ring, who  had  read  his  essays  with  much  delight,  and  had 
satisfied  himself  that  the  character  of  the  author  would 
fully  justify  the  honour  intended,  conferred  on  him  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  civil  law,  with  which  he  was  so  elated, 
as  to  imagine  that  it  opened  a  way  for  the  profession  of  a 
civilian,  and,  having  prepared  himself  by  study,  made  an 
effort  to  be  admitted  a  pleader  in  the  ecclesiastical  courts, 
but  met  with  such  opposition  as  obliged  him  to  desist. 
After  this  disappointment,  he  devoted  his  attention  again 
to  the  concerns  of  his  school,  which  was  much  encouraged, 
and  became  a  source  of  considerable  emolument.  This 
degree,  however,  and  the  consequence  he  began  to  ac- 
quire in  the  world,  alienated  him  from  son*e  of  the  most 
valuable  of  his  early  friends.  Although  he  had  until  this 
time,  lived  in  habits  of  intimacy  with  Dr.  Johnson,  he 
appears  to  have  withdrawn  from  him ;  and  it  is  singular, 
that  in  all  Mr.  Boswell's  narrative  of  that  eminent  man's 
life,  there  is  not  one  instance  of  a  meeting  between  John- 
son and  Hawkesworth.  This  seems  in  some  degree  to  con- 
firm sir  John  Hawkins's  account,  which  states  that  "  his 
success  wrought  no  good  effects  upon  his  mind  and  con- 
duct :"  Dr.  Johnson  made  the  same  remark,  and  with  a 
keen  resentment  of  his  behaviour;  and  sir  John  thinks  "he 
might  use  the  same  language  to  Hawkesworth  himself,  and 
also  reproach  him  with  the  acceptance  of  an  academical 
honour  to  which  he  could  have  no  pretensions,  and  which 
Johnson,  conceiving  to  be  irregular,  as  many  do,  held  in 
great  contempt;"  thus  much  is  certain,  that  soon  after  the 
attainment  of  it  the  intimacy  between  them  ceased. 

In  1756,  at  Garrick's  desire,  Dr.  Hawkesworth  altered 
the  comedy  of  "  Amphytrion,  or  the  two  Sosias,"  from 
Dryden,  and  in  1760  wrote  "  Zimri,"  an  oratorio,  set  to 
music  by  Stanley,  which  appears  to  have  been  approved 
by  the  public.  About  the  same  time  he  altered  for  Drury- 
lane  theatre,  Southern's  tragedy  of"  Oroonoko,"  by  some 
omissions  and  some  additions,  but  the  latter,  in  the  opinion 
of  the  critics,  not  enough  to  supply  the  place  of  the  for- 
mer. In  1761  he  appeared  to  more  advantage  as  the 
author  of  a  dramatic  fairy  tale,  "Edgar  and  Emtneline;' 


acted  at  Drury-lane  theatre  with  great  success.  Dr. 
Hawkes worth,  having  gained  much  popularity  from  the 
eastern  stories  introduced  in  the  Adventurer,  this  year 
gave  to  the  public,  in  two  volumes,  his  line  tale  of  "  Al- 
moran  and  Hainet,"  which,  notwithstanding  some  incon- 
sistencies and  improbabilities  of  fable,  is  entitled  to  very 
high  praise  for  its  moral  tendency,  and  was  long  a  favou- 
rite with  the  public. 

In  1765  he  published  dean  Swift's  works,  with  explana- 
tory notes,  and  a  life  written  upon  a  plan  long  before  laid 
down  by  Dr.  Johnson  ;  and  here  it  is  worthy  of  remark, 
that  whatever  coolness  may  at  one  time  have  subsisted  be- 
tween them,  all  traces  of  animosity  had  been  effaced  from 
the  mind  of  Dr.  Johnson,  when  he  characterized  Hawkes- 
worth  as  a  man  "  capable  of  dignifying  his  narration  with 
so  much  elegance  of  language  and  force  of  sentiment.'* 
To  this  edition,  the  critics  of  the  day  discovered  many  ob- 
jections, which  have,  however,  been  since  removed  by 
more  accurate  information  respecting  Swift,  and  by  the 
indefatigable  researches  of  his  more  recent  editor,  Mr. 
Nichols,  a  man  who  cannot  be  praised  too  highly  for  having 
enlarged  the  resources  of  literary  history. 

In  1766,  Dr.  Hawkesworth  was  the  editor  of  three  ad- 
ditional volumes  of  Swift's  Letters,  with  notes  and  illus- 
trations. In  this  publication  he  discovers  an  uncommon 
warmth  against  infidel  publications,  and  speaks  of  Boling- 
broke  and  his  editor  Mallet  with  the  utmost  detestation :  that 
4in  this  he  was  sincere,  will  appear  from  the  following  proof. 
We  have  already  mentioned,  that  in  1744  he  succeeded 
Dr.  Johnson  as  the  writer  or  compiler  of  the  parliamen- 
tary debates  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  ;  in  this  office, 
if  it  maybe  so  termed,  he  continued  until  1760,  when 
the  plan  of  the  Magazine  was  improved  by  a  Review  of 
New  Publications.  Mr.  Owen  Ruffhead  was  the  first  who 
filled  this  department,  and  continued  to  do  so  about  two 
years,  according  to  sir  John  Hawkins,  when  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Dr.  Hawkesworth  ;  but  there  must  have  been 
an  intermediate  reviewer,  if  sir  John  be  correct  in  the 
time  when  Mr.  Ruffhead  ceased  to  write,  as  Dr.  Hawkes- 
worth's  first  appearance  as  a  critic  'is  ascertained,  upon 
undoubted  authority,  to  have  been  April  1765.  In  the 
month  of  October  of  that  year,  there  appeared  in  the  Ma- 
gazine an  abstract  of  Voltaire's  "  Philosophical  Dictionary," 
by  a  correspondent.  Dr.  Hawkesvvorth's  friends,  to  vyhom 

238  H  A  W  K  E  S  W  O  R  T  H. 

it  appears  his  connection  with  the  Magazine  was  no  secret, 
were  alarmed  to  see  an  elaborate  account  of  so  impious  a 
work  ;  and  one  of  them  wrote  to  him  on  the  subject.  An 
extract  from  his  answer,  now  before  us,  and  dated  Nov. 
8,  176:5,  will  perhaps  fill  up  a  chasm  in  his  personal  as  well 
as  literary  history. 

"  I  am  always  sorry  when  I  hear  anonymous  perform- 
ance«,  not  expressly  owned,  imputed  to  particular  persons , 
that  which  a  man  never  owned  either  privately  or  in  public, 
I  think  he  should  not  be  accountable  for.  J  speak  feelingly 
on  this  subject,  for  though  Mr.  Duncombe  assured  you 
that  tiie  Magazine  was  solely  under  my  direction,  I  must 
beg  leave  to  assure  you  that  it  is  not,  nor  ever  was,  there 
being  in  almost  every  number  somethings  that  I  never  see, 
and  some  things  that  I  do  not  approve.  There  is  in  the 
last  number  an  account  of  Voltaire's  '  Philosophical  Dic- 
tionary,' a  work  of  which  I  never  would  give  any  account, 
because  I  would  not  draw  the  attention  of  the  public  to  it. 
It  is  true  that  the  extracts  exhibited  in  this  article  do  not 
contain  any  thing  contrary  to  religion  or  good  morals  ;  but 
it  is  certain  that  these  extracts  will  carry  the  book  into 
many  hands  that  otherwise  it  would  never  have  reached  ; 
and  the  book  abounds  with  principles  which  a  man  ought 
to  be  hanged  for  publishing,  though  he  believed  them  to 
be  true,  upon  the  same  principle  that  all  states  hang  rebels 
and  traitors,  though  the  offenders  think  rebellion  and  trea- 
son their  duty  to  God.  I  beg,  Sir,  that  you  would  do 
me  the  justice  to  say  this  whenever  opportunity  offers, 
especially  with  respect  to  the  political  part  of  the  Maga- 
zine, for  I  never  wrote  a  political  pamphlet  or  paper,  or 
ever  directly  or  indirectly  assisted  in  the  writing  of  either 
in  my  life." 

In  1768  he  published  an  excellent  translation  of  "  Te- 
lemachus,"  in  4to.  He  continued  to  review  new  books  in 
the  magazine,  but  without  offering  any  publications  from 
his  own  pen  that  can  now  be  traced,  until  1772,  when  he 
was  invited  to  write  an  account  of  the  late  voyages  to  the 
South  Seas,  a  fatal  undertaking,  and  which  in  its  conse- 
quences deprived  him  of  peace  of  mind  and  life  itself. 
When  these  navigators  returned  home,  the  desire  of  the 
public  to  be  acquainted  with  the  new  scenes  and  new 
objects  which  were  now  brought  to  light,  was  ardently 
excited,  and  different  attempts  were  made  to  satisfy  the 
general  curiosity.  There  soon  appeared  a  publication 

H  A  W  K  E  S  W  O  R  T  H.  23* 

entitled  "  A  Journal  of  a  Voyage  round  the  World."  This 
was  the  production  of  some  person  who  had  been  upon  the 
expedition  ;  and,  although  the  account  was  dry  and  im- 
perfect, it  served  in  a  certain  degree  to  relieve  the  public 
-eagerness.  The  journal  of  Sydney  Parkinson,  draughts- 
man to  sir  Joseph  Banks,  to  whom  it  belonged  by  ample 
purchase,  was  likewise  printed,  from  a  copy  surreptitiously 
obtained;  but  an  injunction  from  the  court  of  chancery 
for  some  time  prevented  its  appearance.  This  work,  though 
dishonestly  given  to  the  world,  was  recommended  by  its 
plates.  But  it  was  Dr.  Hawkesworth's*  account  of  Lieu- 
tenant Cook's  voyage  which  completely  gratified  the  public 
curiosity,  as  it  was  written  by  authority,  was  drawn  up 
from  the  journal  of  the  lieutenant,  and  the  papers  of  sir. 
Joseph  Banks ;  and  besides  the  merit  of  the  composition, 
derived  an  extraordinary  advantage  from  the  number  and 
excellence  of  its  charts  and  engravings,  which  were  fur- 
nished at  the  expence  of  government.  The  large  price 
given  by  the  bookseller  for  this  work,  and  the  avidity  with 
which  it  was  read,  displayed  in  the  strongest  light  the 
anxiety  of  the  nation  to  be  fully  informed  in  every  thing 
that  belonged  to  the  late  navigation  and  discoveries. 

This  account,  chiefly  from  the  pen  of  Dr.  Kippis,  cap- 
tain Cook's  biographer,  in  the  Biographia  Britannica,  is 
too  favourable  :  the  public  was  not  satisfied  with  this  work. 
The  literary  journals,  indeed,  examined  it  with  candour, 
and  rather  with  favour ;  but  men  of  science  were  disap- 
pointed, and  the  friends  of  religion  and  morals  were 
shocked/  No  infidel  could  have  obtruded  opinions  more 
adverse  to  the  religious  creed  of  the  •hation,  than  what 
Dr.  Hawkesworth  advanced  in  his  preface.  He  denied  a 
special  providence ;  he  supposed  that  providence  might 
act  in  some  general  way  in  producing  events,  but  con- 
tended that  one  event  ought  not  to  be  distinguished,  or 
accounted  an  extraordinary  interposition  more  than  ano- 
ther. He  asks,  "If  the  deliverance  of  the  Endeavour  was 
an  extraordinary  interposition,  why  did  not  Providence 
interpose  to  prevent  the  ship  from  striking  at  all,  rather 
than  to  prevent  her  from  being  beaten  to  pieces  after  she 

*  Dr.    Hawkesworth   owed   his  ap-  admiralty.     Hawkesworth  was  profuse 

poiutment   to  write  this  work  to    the  in    his  acknowledgments  to    Garrick, 

recommendation  of  Garrick,  in  a  con-  but  forgot  them  in  a  manner  which  de- 

versation  with    the    late    earl    Sand-  prived  him  of  Ganitk's  frkniLhip. 
wich,   at  that  time  first  lord   of  the 


had  struck?"  a  question  which  was  considered  as  much  fitter 
for  the  mouth  of  a  professed  scoffer  than  that  of  a  man  whose 
regard  tor  revealed  religion  approached,  in  the  opinion  of 
some,  to  intemperate  zeal.  In  his  "  Almoran  and  Hamet," 
his  notions  of  providence  are  confused  and  perplexed  ;  but 
in  this  he  has  attacked  revealed  religion,  by  striking  off 
one  of  its  principal  duties,  and  one  of  its  most  consoling 
hopes,  the  duty  and  efficacy  of  prayer,  of  which  he  was 
not,  however,  insensible  when  he  wrote  No.  28  of  the  Ad- 

An  innumerable  host  of  enemies  now  appeared  in  the 
newspapers  and  magazines  ;  some  pointed  out  blunders  in 
matters  of  science,  and  some  exercised  their  wit  in  poetical 
translations  and  epigrams ;  these  might  hurt  his  feelings 
as  an  author ;  but  the  greater  part,  who  arraigned  his  im- 
pious sentiments  and  indecent  narratives,  probably  ren- 
dered his  sufferings  as  a  man  more  acute.  Against  their 
charges  he  stood  defenceless;  and  no  defence  indeed 
could  be  attempted  with  a  reasonable  expectation  of  suc- 
cess. But  what,  we  are  told,  completed  his  chagrin,  was 
the  notice  frequently  given  in  an  infamous  magazine  pub- 
lished at  that  time,  that  "  All  the  amorous  passages  and 

descriptions  in  Dr.  Hawk th's  Collection  of  Voyages 

^should  be)  selected  and  illustrated  with  a  suitable  plate" 
And  this,  in  defiance  of  public  decency,  was  actually  done, 
and  he  whose  fame  had  been  raised  on  his  labours  in  the 
cause  of  piety  and  morals,  was  thus  dragged  into  a  partner- 
ship in  the  most  detestable  depravity  that  the  human  mind 
can  invent. 

That  such  a  reception  given  to  a  work  of  which  he 
thought  he  might  be  proud,  and  from  which  he  drew  so 
great  an  emolument*,  should  have  irritated  his  mind,  can 
excite  little  surprize.  No  respect  for  the  services  he  had 
rendered  to  religion  or  virtue  could  obliterate  the  memory 
of  his  declension  ;  and  it  certainly  aggravated  the  pain  his 
friends  felt,  when  they  considered  that  whatever  was  ob- 
jectionable in  this  work,  had  come  from  his  pen  without 
provocation  and  without  necessity,  either  from  the  nature 
of  the  undertaking,  or  the  expectation  of  the  public.  He 
was,  indeed,  so  sensible  that  his  opinions  would  shock  the 
feelings  of  his  readers,  that  he  thought  it  necessary  to  apo- 

*  He  received  6MO/.  for  this  work. 

H  A  W  K  E  S  W  O  R  T  H. 

logize  for  them  in  a  very  respectful,  although  unsatisfac- 
tory manner. 

Soon  after  the  publication  of  this  ill-fated  book,  he  be- 
.earne  known  to  a  lady  who  had  great  property  and  interest 
in  the  East  India  company  ;  and  through  her  means  was 
chosen  a  director  of  that  body,  at  the  general  election,  in 
April  1773.  The  affairs  of  the  company  were  at  this  time 
in  a  confused  state,  and  the  public  mind  greatly  agitated 
by  the  frequent  debates  both  in  parliament  and  at  the  India- 
house.  Dr.  Hawkesworth  (who  in  the  list  is  styled  John 
Hawkesworth,  esq.)  probably  attended  the  meetings,  but 
took  no  active  share:  his  health  was  indeed  now  declining  ; 
and  he  expired  at  the  house  of  his  friend  Dr.  Grant,  of 
Lime-street,  Nov.  17,  1773.  He  was  interred  at  Brom- 
ley, in  Kent,  where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  me- 

Of  his  personal  character  the  following  friendly  sketch 
appeared  in  the  Annual  Register  for  1773,  and  was  no 
doubt  intended  to  counteract  some  disadvantageous  re- 
ports respecting  his  principles,  which  were  circulated 
about  the  time  of  his  death.  "  Nature  had  endowed  him 
with  an  uncommonly  fine  understanding,  which  had  been 
improved  not  only  by  long  study,  but  by  converse  with 
mankind.  His  fertile  mind  teemed  with  ideas>  which  he 
delivered  in  so  clear,  and  yet  concise  a  manner,  that  no 
one  could  be  at  a  loss  perfectly  to  comprehend  his  meaning, 
or  ever  tired  by  hearing  him  speak  ;  especially  as  his  dic- 
tion was  so  unaffectedly  pure,  and  his  language  so  simply 
elegant,  that  the  learned  and  unlearned  attended  with 
equal  pleasure  to  that  unstudied  flow  of  eloquence,  which, 
without  seeming  to  look  for  them,  always  adopted  those 
words  which  were  most  suitable  to  the  subject,  as  well  as 
most  pleasing  to  his  hearers.  It  has  been  objected  to  him, 
that  he  suffered  his  passions  to  hold  too  strong  a  dominion 
over  him  j  and  it  must  be  confessed  a  too  keen  sensibility 
seemed  to  him,  as  indeed  it  ever  is  to  all  who  possess  it, 
a  pleasing  but  unfortunate  gift.  Alive  to  every  tender  sen- 
timent of  friendship,  his  heart  dilated  with  joy  whenever 
heaven  put  it  in  his  power  to  be  beneficial  to  those  he 
loved  ;  but  this  feeling  disposition  was  the  means  of  leading 
him  into  such  frequent,  though  transient  gusts  of  passion, 
as  were  too  much  for  his  delicate  constitution  to  bear, 
without  feeling  the  effects  of  them.  Yet  with  all  these 
quick  sensations,  he  was  incapable  of  lasting  resentment 

242  H  A  W  K  E  S  W  O  R  T  H. 

or  revenge  ;  and  had  he  never  found  an  enemy  till  he  had 
done  an  injury,  he  would,  we  may  venture  to  pronounce^ 
have  left  the  world  without  having  known  one." l 

HAWKINS  (SIR  JOHN),  an  able  naval  commander,  was* 
born  at  Plymouth  about  1520.  Being  the  son  of  a  sea- 
man, captain  William  Hawkins,  he  imbibed  a  love  for  the 
profession,  and  when  a  youth  made  several  voyages  to 
Spain,  Portugal,  and  the  Canaries.  In  the  spring  of  1562 
he  formed  the  design  of  his  first  famous  voyage,  the  con- 
sequence of  which  was  very  important  to  his  country,  as 
he  then  began  that  traffic  in  slaves,  which  after  two  cen- 
turies and  a  half  we  have  seen  abolished.  At  that  time, 
however,  this  trade  was  accounted  honourable  and  useful, 
and  sir  John  bore  the  badge  of  his  exploits  in  a  crest  of 
arms  granted  him  by  patent,  consisting  of  a  "  demi-moor 
in  his  proper  colour,  bound  with  a  cord,"  not  unlike  a 
device  which  we  have  seen  employed  to  excite  an  abhor- 
rence of  the  slave-trade  when  its  abolition  was  first  agi- 
tated. In  returning  from  a  third  expedition  of  this  kind 
he -was  attacked  and  defeated  by  a  Spanish  fleet.  After 
undergoing  many  hardships,  he  reached  home  in  Jair. 
1568;  and  it  is  said  that  his  ill-success  in  this  instance 
damped  his  ardour  for  maritime  enterprise.  In  1573  he 
was  appointed  treasurer  of  the  navy,  and  in  a  few  months 
he  had  nearly  lost  his  life  by  a  wound  from  an  enthusiastic 
assassin,  who  mistook  him  for  another  person.  He  was 
now  consulted  on  every  important  occasion,  and  in  1588; 
was  appointed  rear-admiral  on-board  the  Victory,  to  con- 
front the  famous  armada.  His  conduct  on  this  occasion 
obtained  for  him  the  high  commendations  of  his  illustrious 
queen,  the  honour  of  knighthood,  and  other  important  com- 
mands in  the  navy.  He  died  in  1595,  it  is  said  of  vexation, 
on  account  of  an  unsuccessful  attempt  on  the  enemies  pos- 
sessions in  the  West  Indies,  and  in  the  Canaries.  He  was  a 
good  mathematician,  and  understood  every  thing  that  re- 
lated to  his  profession  as  a  seaman.  He  possessed  much 
personal  courage,  and  had  a  presence  of  mind  that  set 
him  above  fear,  and  which  enabled  him  frequently  to  de- 
liver himself  and  others  out  of  the  reach  of  the  most  im- 
minent dangers  ;  he  had  great  sagacity,  and  formed  his 
plans  so  judiciously,  and  executed  the  orders  committed 

1  ftrUifih  Kssayists.— Preface  to  the  Adventurer.—  Gent.  Mag.  see  Index 

D'Israeli's  Calaipitics.-r-JIawkifls'e  Life  of  Dr.  Johnson,  — Boswell's  ditto,  &e. 

HAWKINS.  243 

to  him  with  so  much  punctuality  and  accuracy,  that  he 
ever  obtained  the  applause  of  his  superiors.  He  was  sub- 
missive to  those  above  him,  and  courteous  to  his  inferiors, 
extremely  affable  to  his  seamen,  and  much  beloved  by 
them.  He  sat  twice  in  parliament  as  burgess  for  Ply- 
mouth, and  once  for  some  other  borough.  He  erected 
an  hospital  at  Chatham  for  the  relief  of  disabled  and  dis- 
eased seamen,  and  is  highly  applauded  by  his  contempo- 
raries and  by  historians,  who  lived  after  him.  His  son, 
sir  RICHARD  Hawkins,  was  brought  up  to  a  maritime  life, 
and  in  1582,  when  very  young,  he  had  the  command  of  a 
vessel  in  an  expedition  under  his  uncle  to  the  West  In- 
dies ;  he  also  commanded  a  ship  in  the  action  against  the 
Spanish  armada,  in  which  he  was  greatly  distinguished. 
About  1593,  he  sailed  with  three  ships,  his  own  property, 
to  the  coast  of  Brazil,  at  the  commencement  of  a  much 
longer  voyage;  but  he  was  obliged  to  burn  one  of  his 
little  squadron,  another  deserted  their  commander,  so  that 
he  was  under  the  necessity  of  sailing  alone  through  the 
straits  of  Magellan.  To  satisfy  the  desires  of  his  men,  he 
made  prizes  of  some  vessels,  which  drew  upon  him  the 
whole  force  of  a  Spanish  squadron,  to  which  he  was  com- 
pelled to  yield.  After  a  confinement  of  two  years  in  Peru 
and  the  adjacent  provinces,  he  was  sent  back  to  Europe.  He 
died  in  1622,  as  he  was  attending,  on  business,  the  privy- 
council.  He  left  behind  him  a  work  of  considerable  value, 
which  was  printed  and  ready  for  publication  ;  it  is  entitled 
"  The  Observations  of  sir  Richard  Hawkins,  knight,  into 
the  South-sea,  A.D.  1593."  From  this  piece,  which  the 
author  dedicated  to  prince  Charles,  afterwards  king 
Charles  I.,  it  appears  that  the  issue  of  his  voyage  to  the 
South-seas,  his  long  confinement,  and  the  disasters  which 
naturally  attended  it,  brought  him  into  great  distress.  His 
nautical  observations,  his  description  of  the  passage  through 
the  straits  of  Magellan,  and  his  remarks  on  the  sea-scurvy, 
and  on  the  best  methods  of  preserving  his  men  in  health, 
were  considered  at  that  period  of  very  great  importance. 
He  intended  to  have  published  a  second  part  of  his  obser- 
vations, in  which  he  meant  to  have  given  an  account  of 
what  happened  to  him  and  his  companions  during  their 
stay  in  Peru,  and  in  Terra  Firma,  but  which  death  pre- 
vented him  from  accomplishing.1 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Prince's  Worthies  of  Devon, 
R   2 


HAWKINS  (sir  JOHN),  a  recent   English  writer, 
the  son  of  a  man,  who,  though  descended  from  the  pre- 
ceding  sir  John  Hawkins,    followed  at  first  the   occupa- 
tion  of  a  house-carpenter,  which  he   afterwards  exchan- 
ged for  the  profession  of  a  surveyor  and    huijder.     He 
had    married    Elizabeth,    daughter    of   Thomas  Gwatkin 
of  Tou  nhope,  co.  Hereford,  gentleman  ;  and  the  issue  of 
this  marriage  were  several  children.     Of  these  the  present 
object  of  this  article  was  the  youngest,  and  was  born  in  the 
city  of  London,  on  the  30th  day  of  March,   1719.     After 
fcaving  been  sent  first  to  one  school,  and  afterwards  to  a 
second,  where  he  acquired  a  tolerable  knowledge  of  Latin, 
he  was  placed  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Hoppus,  the  au- 
thor of  a  well-known  and  useful  architectural  compendium, 
published  in  1733,   8vo,  and  entitled   "  Proportional   Ar- 
chitecture, or  the  Five  Orders  regulated  by  equal  Farts." 
Under  this  person  he  went  through  a  regular  course  of  ar- 
chitecture  and   perspective,    in  order  to  fit  him  for  his 
father's  profession  of  a  surveyor,  for  which  he  was  at  first 
intended ;  but  his  first  cousin,  Mr.  Thomas  Gwatkin,  being 
clerk  to  Mr.  John  Scott  of  Devonshire-street,  Bishops- 
gate,  an  attorney  and  solicitor  in  full  practice,  persuaded 
him  *to  alter  his  resolution,  and  embrace  that  of  the  law, 
which  he  did,  and  was  accordingly  articled  as  a  clerk  to 
Mr.  Scott.     In  this  situation  his  time  was  too  fully  em- 
ployed in  the  actual  dispatch  of  business,  to  permit  him 
without  some  extraordinary  means  to  acquire  the  neces* 
sary  knowledge  of  his  profession   by  reading  and  study  ; 
besides  that,  his  master  is  said  to  have  been  more  artxious 
to  render  him  a  good  copying-clerk,  by  scrupulous  atten- 
tion  to   his  hand-writing,  than  to  qualify  him  by  instruc- 
tion to  conduct  business.     To  remedy  this  inconvenience, 
therefore,  he  abridged  himself  of  iiis  rest,  and  rising  at 
four  in  the  morning,  found  opportunity  of  reading  all  the 
necessary  and  most  eminent  law-writers,  and  the  works 
of  our   mos%  celebrated  authors.      By   these  means,    be- 
fore   the   expiration    of   his    clerkship,   he    had    already 
rendered   himself  a  very  able  lawyer,  and  had  possessed 
himself  of  a  taste  for  literature  in  general,  but  particu- 
larly for  poetry  and  the  polite  arts  ;    and  the  better  to 
facilitate   his  improvement,    he    from  time  to    time   fur- 
nished   to    "  The   Universal    Spectator,"    "  The   West- 
minster  Journal,"    «  The  Gentleman's  Magazine,"    and 
other   periodical   publications    of   the   time,    essays    and 

HAW  K-I  N  S.  245 

disquisitions  on  several  subjects*.  The  first  of  these  is 
believed  to  have  been  an  "  Essay  on  Swearing ;"  but  the 
exact  time  of  its  appearance,  and  the  paper  in  which  it 
was  inserted,  are  both  equally  unknown.  It  was,  however, 
re-published  some  years  since  (without  his  knowledge  till 
he  saw  it  in  print)  in  one  of  the  newspapers.  His  next 
production  was  an  "  Essay  on  Honesty,"  inserted  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine  for  March,  1739;  and  which  oc- 
casioned a  controversy,  continued  through  the  magazine* 
for  several  succeeding  months,  between  him  and  a  Mr. 
Calamy,  a  descendant  of  the  celebrated  Dr.  Edmund  Ca- 
lamy,  then  a  fellow-clerk  with  him. 

Without  friends  or  family  connections,  or  at  least  with- 
out such  as  could  advance  him  in  the  profession  to  which 
he  had  betaken  himself,  he  was  now  (his  clerkship  being 
expired,  and  he  himself  admitted  an  attorney  and  solicitor) 
to  seek  for  the  means  of  procuring  business  by  making  for 
himself  reputable  and  proper  connections. 

About  1741,  a  club  having  been  instituted  by  Mr.  Im- 
inyns,  an  attorney,  a  musical  man,  (but  better  known  as 
the  amanuensis  of  Dr.  Pepusch),  and  some  other  musical 
persons,  under  the  name  of  "  The  Madrigal  Society,"  to 
meet  every  Wednesday  evening,  he  became  a  member  of 
it,  and  continued  so  many  years.  Pursuing  his  inclination 
for  music  still  farther,  he  became  also  a  member  of  "  The 
Academy  of  Ancient  Music,"  which  used  to  meet  every 
Thursday  evening  at  the  Crown  and  Anchor  in  the  Strand, 
but  afterwards  removed  to  Freemasons' -hall ;  and  of  this 
he  continued  a  member  till  a  few  years  before  its  removal. 

Impelled  by  his  own  taste  for  poetry,  and  excited  to  it 
by  his  friend  Foster  Webb's  example,  who  had  contributed 
to  «*  The  Gentleman's  Magazine"  many  very  elegant 
poetical  compositions,  he  had,  before  this  time,  himself 
become  an  occasional  contributor  in  the  same  kind,  as  well 
to  that  as  to  some  other  publications.  The  earliest  of  hi? 
productions  of  this  species,  now  known,  is  supposed  to  be 
a  copy  of  verses  "  To  Mr.  John  Stanley,  occasioned  by 
looking  over  some  compositions  of  his,  lately  published," 
which  bears  date  19th  February,  1740,  and  was  inserted  in 
"The  Daily  Advertiser"  for  February  21,  1741;  but, 
about  1742,  he  proposed  to  Mr.  Stanley  the  project  of 

*  In  some  of  his  visits  on  these  and  first  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  Joh  n- 
similar  occasions  to  Cave,  the  editor  son,  soon  after  the  connection  betwe  e$ 
of  "The  Gentlcmau's  Magazine,"  he  Cave  and  Johnson  commenced. 

£16  HAWKINS. 

publishing',  in  conjunction  with  him,  six  cantatas  for  a 
Voice  and  instruments,  the  words  to  be  furnished  by  him- 
self, and  the  iriusic  by  Mr.  Stanley.  The  proposal  was 
accepted,  the  publication  was  to  be  at  their  joint  expence, 
and  for  their  mutual  benefit ;  and  accordingly,  in  1742,  six 
cantatas  were  thus  published,  the  five  first  written  by  Mr. 
Hawkins,  the  sixth  arid  last  by  Foster  Webb  ;  and,  these 
having  succeeded  beyond  the  most  sanguine  expectations, 
a  second  set  of  six  more,  written  wholly  by  himself,  were 
in  like  manner  published  a  few  months  after,  and  succeed- 
ed equally  well.  > 

As  these  compositions,  by  being  frequently  performed 
'at  Vauxhall,  Ranelagh,  and  other  public  places,  and  at 
many  private  concerts,  had  become  favourite  entertain- 
ments, and  established  the  author's  reputation  as  a  poet, 
many  persons,  finding  him  also  a  modest  well-informed 
young  man  of  unexceptionable  morals,  were  become  desi- 
rous of  his  acquaintance.  Among  these  was  Mr.  Hare  of 
Lhnehouse,  a  brewer,  who  being  himself  a  musical  man, 
and  having  met  him  at  Mr.  Stanley's  at  musical  parties, 
gave  him  an  invitation  to  his  house ;  and,  to  forward  him 
in  his  profession,  introduced  him  to  a  friend  of  his,  Peter 
Storer  of  Highgate,  esq.  This  introduction  became,  from 
his  own  good  conduct,  the  means  of  making  Mr.  Hawkins's 
fortune,  though  in  a  way  which  neither  he  nor  Mr.  Hare 
at  that  time  could  foresee,  and  different  from  that  in  which 
it  was  first  intended. 

In  the  winter  of  this  year  1749,  Dr.  (then  Mr.)  Johnson 
was  induced  to  institute  a  club  to  meet  every  Tuesday 
evening  at  the  King's  Head,  in  Ivy-lane,  near  St.  Paul's. 
It  consisted  only  of  nine  persons,  and  Mr.  Hawkins  was 
invited  to  become  one  of  the  first  members ;  and  about 
this  time,  as  it  is  supposed,  finding  his  father's  house, 
where  he  had  hitherto  resided,  too  small  for  the  dispatch 
of  his  business,  now  very  much  increasing,  he,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  Dr.  Munckley,  a  physician,  with  whom  he  had 
contracted  ah  intimacy,  took  a  house  in  ClementVlane, 
Lombard-street.  The  ground-floor  was  occupied  by  him 
as  an  office,  and  the  first  floor  by  the  doctor  as  his  apart- 
ment. Here  he  continued  till  the  beginning  of  1753, 
when,  on  occasion  of  his  marriage  with  Sidney, ;  the 
youngest  of  Mr.  Storer's  daughters,  who  brought"  him  a 
considerable  fortune,  which  was  afterwards  greatly  in- 
creased, he  took  a  house  in  Austin  Friars,  near  Broad- 

H  A  W  K  I  N  S.  247 

street,  still  continuing  to  follow  his  profession  of  an  attor- 
ney. Having  received,  on  the  death  of  Peter  Storer,  esq. 
his  wife's  brother,  in  1759;  a  very  large  addition  to  her 
fortune,  he  quitted  business  to  the  present  Mr.  chamber- 
lain Clark,  who  had  a  short  time  before  completed  his 
clerkship  under  him,  disposed  of  his  house  in  Austin  Friars, 
and  purchasing  a  house  at  Twickenham  for  a  country,  he 
soon  afterwards  bought  the  lease  of  one  in  Hatton-street, 
London,  for  a  town-residence. 

From  a  very  early  period  of  his  life  he  had  entertained  a 
strong  love  for  the  amusement  of  angling  ;  and  being  long 
acquainted  with  Walton's. "  Complete  Angler,"  had,  by 
observation  and  experience,  himself  become  a  very  able 
proficient  in  the  art.  Hearing,  about  this  time,  that  Mr. 
Moses  Browne  proposed  to  publish  a  new  edition  of  that 
work,  and  being  himself  in  possession  of  some  material 
particulars  respecting  Walton,  he,  by  letter,  made  Mr. 
Browne  an  offer  of  writing,  for  his  intended  edition,-  Wal- 
ton's Life.  To  this  proposal  no  answer  was  returned,  at 
least  for  some  time,  from  which  circumstance  Mr.  Hawkins 
concluded,  as  any  one  reasonably  would,  that  his  offer  was 
not  accepted  ;  and,  therefore,  having  also  learnt  in  the 
mean  time  that  Mr.  B.  meant  not  to  publish  the  text  as 
the  author  left  it,  but  to  modernize  it  in  order  to  file  off 
die  rust,  as  he  called  it,  wrote  again  to  tell  Mr.  Browne 
that  he  so  understood  it;  and  that,  as  Mr.  B.'s  intention 
was  to  sophisticate  the  text  in  the  manner  above  men- 
tioned, he,  Mr.  Hawkins,  would  himself  publish  a  correct 
edition.  Such  an  edition,  in  1760,  he  accordingly  pub- 
lished in  octavo  with  notes,  adding  to  it  a  "  Life  of  Wal- 
ton" by  himself,  a  "  Life  of  Cotton,"  the  author  of  the 
second  part,  by  the  well-known  Mr.  Oldys ;  and  'a  set'  of 
cuts  designed  by  Wale,  and  engraved  by  Ryland*. 

His  propensity  to  music,  manifested  by  his  becoming  a 
member  and  frequenter  of  the  several  musical  societies  be- 
fore mentioned,  and  also  by  a  regular  concert  at  his  house 

*  Of  this  work,  three  editions,  each  ever,   every  fact  in  the  former,   and 

containing   a   very   large  impression,  adding  several  others.     In  1792,  after 

were  sold  off  before  1784,  when,  there  his  death,  a  fifth  edition  was  published 

being  a  demand  for  a  fourth,  he  revised  by  his  eldest  Son   (in  which,   fruui  his 

and   made  very  large  additions  to  the  papers,  were  inserted  his  last  correc- 

"  Life  of  Walton,"  and  the  notes  to  the  tions   and  additions),  the  former  im- 

work  throughout ;  and  he  re-wrote  the  pression  of  1784  being  at   that  time 

"  Life  of  Cotton,"  in  order  to  compress  nearly  disposed  of.' 
it  into  less  compass,  retaining,  how- 


in  Austin  Friars,  had  led  him,  at  the  same  time  that  he 
was  endeavouring  to  get  together  a  good  library  of  books, 
to  be  also  solicitous  foY  collecting  the  works  of  some  of  the 
best  musical  composers ;  and,  among  other  acquisitions, 
it  was  his  singular  good  fortune  to  become  possessed  by 
purchase  of  several  of  the  most  scarce  and  valuable  theore- 
tical treatises  on  the  science  itself  any  where  extant,  which 
had  formerly  been  collected  by  Dr.  Pepusch*.  With  this 
stock  of  erudition,  therefore,  he  about  this  time,  at  the 
instance  of  some  very  good  judges,  his  friends,  set  about 
procuring  materials  for  a  work  then  very  much  wanted,  a 
"  History  of  the  Science  and  Practice  of  Music,"  which  he 
afterwards  published. 

At  the  recommendation  of  the  well-known  Paul  White- 
head,  esq  his  neighbour  in  the  country,  who,  conceiving 
him  a  fit  person  for  a  magistrate,  had  mentioned  him  as 
such  to  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  then  lord  lieutenant  for. 
Middlesex,  his  name  was,  in  1761,  inserted  in  the  com- 
mission of  the  peace  for  that  county  ;  and  having,  besides 
a  due  attention  to  the  great  work  in  which  he  was  engaged, 
by  the  proper  studies,  and  a  sedulous  attendance  at  the 
sessions,  qualified  himself  for  the  office,  he  became  an 
active  and  useful  magistrate  in  the  countyt.  Observing, 
as  he  had  frequent  occasion  to  do  in  the  course  of  his  duty, 
the  bad  state  of  highways,  and  the  great  defect  in  the  laws 
for  amending  and  keeping  them  in  repair,  he  set  himself 
to  revise  the  former  statutes,  and  drew  an  act  of  parlia- 
ment consolidating  ajl  the  former  ones,  and  adding  such 
other  regulations  as  were  necessary.  His  sentiments  on 
this  subject  he  published  in  octavo,  in  1763,  under  the 
title  of  "  Observations  on  the  State  of  Highways,  and  on, 
the  Laws  for  amending  and  keeping  them  in  Repair,"  sub- 
joining to  them  the  draught  of  the  act  before  mentioned, 
which  bill,  being  afterwards  introduced  into  parliament, 
passed  into  a  law,  and  is  that  under  which  all  the  highways 
in  the  kingdom  are  at  this  time  kept  repaired.  Of  this 

*  This  collection of  treatises,  he,  af-  house  quarrel  produced  an  application 
ter  tlio  completion  of  his  work,  gave,  fora  warrant.  To  check  this,  there- 
in 1778,  to  the  British  Museum,  where  fore,  he  altered  his  mode,  and  received, 
it  still  continues.  his  due  fees,  but  kept  them  separately 

f  When  he  first  began  to  act,  he  in  a  purse  ;  and  at  the  end  of  every 

formed  a  resolution  of  taking  no  fees,  summer,  before  he  left  the  country  for. 

not  even  the  legal  and  authorized  on«,  the  winter,  delivered  the  whole  amount 

and  pursued  this  method  for  some  time,  to  the  clergyman  of  the  parish,  to  be 

II  he  found  that  ii  was  a  temptation  to  by  him  distributed  among  such  of  the 

litigation,  and  that  every  trilling  ale-  poor  as  he  judged  fit. 

HAWKINS.  249 

bill  it  is  but  justice  to  add,  that,  in  the  experience  of  more 
than  thirty  years,  it  has  never  required  a  single  amend* 

Johnson,  and  sir  Joshua  (then  Mr.)  Reynolds,  had,  in, 
the  winter  of  this  year  1763,  projected  the  establishment 
of  a  club  to  meet  every  Monday  evening  at  the  Turk's 
Head  in  Gerrard  street,  and,  at  Johnson's  solicitation,  he, 
Mr.  H.  became  one  of  the  first  members.  This  club,  since 
known  by  the  appellation  of  "  The  Literary  Club,"  was  at 
first  intended,  like  the  former  in  Ivy-lane,  to  have  con- 
sisted of  no  more  than  nine  persons,  and  that  was  the  num- 
ber of  the  first  members  ;  but  the  rule  was  broken  through 
to  admit  one  who  had  been  a  member  of  that  in  Ivy-lane, 
Till  this  admission,  Johnson  and  Mr.  Hawkins  were  the 
only  persons  that  had  been  members  of  both. 

An  event  of  considerable  importance  and  magnitude,  in 
1764,  engaged  him  to  stand  forth  as  the  champion  of  the 
county  of  Middlesex,  against  a  claim,  then  for  the  first 
time  set  up,  and  so  enormous  in  its  amount  as  justly  to 
excite  resistance.  The  city  of  London  finding  it  necessary 
to  re-build  the  gaol  of  Newgate,  the  expence  of  which, 
according  to  their  own  estimates,  would  amount  to  40,OOOJ. 
had  this  year  applied  to  parliament,  by  a  bill  brought  into 
the  House  of  commons  by  their  own  members,  in  which,  on 
a  suggestion  that  the  county  prisoners,  removed  to  New- 
gate for  a  few  days  previous  to  their  trials  at  the  Old 
Bailey,  were  as  two  to  one  to  the  London  prisoners  con- 
stantly confined  there,  they  endeavoured  to  throw  the  bur- 
then of  two-thirds  of  the  expence  on  the  county,  while  they 
themselves  proposed  to  contribute  one  third  only.  This 
attempt  the  magistrates  for  Middlesex  thought  it  their  duty 
to  oppose ;  and  accordingly  a  vigorous  opposition  to  it  was 
commenced  and  supported  under  the  conduct  of  Mr.  Haw- 
kins, who  drew  a  petition  against  the  bill,  and  a  case  of 
the  county,  which  was  printed  and  distributed  amongst  the 
members  of  both  houses  of  parliament.  It  was  the  subject 
of  a  day's  conversation  in  the  House  of  lords ;  and  pro- 
duced such  an  effect  in  the  House  of  commons,  that  the 
city,  by  their  own  members,  moved  for  leave  to  withdraw 
the  bill.  The  success  of  this  opposition,  and  the  abilities 
and  spirit  with  which  it  was  conducted,  naturally  attracted 
towards  him  the  attention  of  his  fellow-magistrates;  and,  a 
vacancy  not  long  after  happening  in  the  office  of  chairman 
of  the  quarter  sessions,  Mr.  Hawkins  was,  on  the  19th  day 
4>f  September,  1765,  elected  the  successor. 

650  HAWKINS. 

In  the  year  1771  he  quitted  Twickenham,  and,  in  the 
summer  of  the  next  year,  he,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining, 
by  searches  in  the  Bodleian  and  other  libraries  there,  far- 
ther materials  for  iiis  History  of  Music,  made  a  journey  to 
Oxford,  carrying  with  him  an  engraver  from  London,  to 
make  drawings  from  the  portraits  in  the  music-school. 

On  occasion  of  actual  tumults  or  expected  disturbances, 
he  had  more  than  once  been  called  into  service  of  great 
personal  danger.  When  the  riots  at  Brentford  had  arisen, 
during  the  time  of  the  Middlesex  election  in  1768,  he  and 
some  of  his  brethren  attended  to  suppress  them  ;  and,  in 
consequence  of  an  expected  riotous  assembly  of  the  jour- 
neymen Spitalfields  weavers  in  Moorfields,  in  1769,  -the 
magistrates  of  Middlesex  and  he  at  their  head,  with  a  party 
of  guards,  attended  to  oppose  them,  but  the  mob,  on  see- 
ing them  prepared,  thought  it  prudent  to  disperse.  In 
these  and  other  instances,  and  particularly  in  his  conduct 
as  chairman,  having  given  sufficient  proof  of  his  activity, 
resolution,  abilities,  integrity,  and  loyalty,  he,  on  the  23d 
of  October,  1772,  received  from  his  present  majesty  the 
honour  of  knighthood. 

Mr.  Gostling  of  Canterbury,  with  whom,  though  they 
had  never  seen  each  other,  he  had  for  some  years  corre- 
sponded by  letter,  having  invited  him,  he,  in  this  year, 
paid  him  a  visit  at  Canterbury,  and  procured  from  him  a 
great  deal  of  very  curious  musical  intelligence,  which  none 
but  Mr.  Gostling  could  have  furnished  ;  and  in  the  month 
of  June  in  the  next  year,  1773,  he  repeated  his  visit.  In 
this  latter  year,  1773,  Dr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Steevens  pub- 
lished, in  ten  volumes  octavo,  their  first  joint  edition  of 
Shakspeare,  to  which  sir  J.  H.  contributed  such  notes  as 
are  distinguished  by  his  name,  as  he  afterwards  did  a  few 
inbre  on  the  republication  of  it  in  1778.  An  address  to 
the  king  from  the  county  of  Middlesex,  on  occasion  of  the 
American  war,  having,  in  1774,  been  judged  expedient, 
end  at  his  instance  voted,  he  drew  up  such  an  address,  and 
together  with  two  of  his  brethren  had,,  in  the  month  of 
October  in  that  year,  the  honour  of  presenting  it. 

After  sixteen  years'  labour,  he,  in  1776,  published,  in 
five  volumes,  quarto,  his  "  General  History  of  the  Science 
and  Practice  of  Music,"  which,  in  consequence  of  permis- 
sion obtained  in  1773  for  that  purpose,  he  dedicated  to 
the  king,  and  presented  it  to  him  at  Buckingham-house 
on  the  Mth  of  November  1776,  when  he  was  honoured 

HAWKINS.  251 

with  an  audience  of  considerable  length  both  from  the  king 
and  queen.  Few  works  have  been  attacked  with  more 
acrimony  and  virulence  than  this.  Its  merit,  however,  as 
containing  a  great  deal  of  original  and  curious  information, 
which,  but  for  its  author,  would  have  perished,  has  been 
amply  attested  by  the  approbation  of  some  of  the  very  best 
judges  of  the  science  and  of  literary  composition  ;  and  by 
thai  of  the  university  of  Oxford,  who,  in  consequence  of 
its  publication,  made  him  soon  after,  a  voluntary  offer  of 
the  degree  of  doctor  of  laws,  which  he  had  reasons  for  de- 
clining, and  afterwards  paid  him  the  compliment  of  re- 
questing his  picture. 

Not  long  after  this  publication,  in  November  1777,  he 
was  induced,  by  an  attempt  to  rob  his  house,  which, 
though  unsuccessful,  was  made  three  different  nights  with 
the  interval  of  one  or  two  only  between  each  attempt,  to 
quit  his  house  in  Hatton-street ;  and,  after  a  temporary 
residence  for  a  short  time  in  St.  James's- place,  he  took  a 
lease  of  one,  formerly  inhabited  by  the  famous  admiral 
Vernon,  in  the  street  leading  up  to  Queen- square,  West- 
minster, and  removed  thither.  By  this  removal,  he  be- 
came a  constant  attendant  on  divine  worship  at  the  parish 
church  of  St.  Margaret,  Westminster  ;  and  having  learnt, 
in  December  177S,  that  the  surveyor  to  the  board  of  ord- 
nance was,  in  defiance  of  a  proviso  in  the  lease  under 
which  they  claimed,  carrying  up  a  building  at  the  east  end 
of  the  church,  which  was  likely  to  obscure  the  beautiful 
painted  glass  window  over  the  altar  there,  sir  J.  H.  with 
the  concurrence  of  some  of  the  principal  inhabitants,  wrote 
to  the  surveyor,  and  compelled  him  to  take  down  two  feet 
of  the  wall,  which  he  had  already  carried  up  above  the  sill 
of  the  window,  and  to  slope  off  the  roof  of  his  building  in 
such  a  manner  as  that  it  was  not  only  no  injury,  but,  on 
the  contrary,  a  defence,  to  the  window. 

In  the  month  of  December,  1783,  Dr.  Johnson,  having 
discovered  in  himself  symptoms  of  a  dropsy,  sent  for  sir 
John  Hawkins,  and  telling  him  the  precarious  state  of  his 
health,  declared  his  desire  of  making  a  will,  and  requested 
him  to  be  one  of  his  executors.  On  his  accepting  the 
office,  he  told  him  his  intention  of  providing  for  his  ser- 
vant; and,  after  concerting  with  him  a  plan  for  investing  a 
sum  of  money  for  that  purpose,  he  voluntarily  opened  to 
him  the  state  of  his  circumstances,  and  the  amount  of  what 
he  had  to  dispose  of.  Finding  the  doctor,  however,  not- 

252  HAWKINS, 

withstanding  liis  repeated  solicitations  from  time  to  time, 
extremely  averse  to  carrying  this  intention  into  effect  by 
the  actual  execution  of  a  will,  and  thinking  it  might  in 
some  measure  arise  from  the  want  oi  legal  information  as 
to  the  necessary  form,  he,  sir  J.  from  the  above  communi- 
cations, some  time  afterwards,  drew  and  sent  him  a  draught 
of  a  will,  with  instructions  how  to  execute  it,  but  leaving 
in  it  blanks  for  the  names  of  his  executors,  and  for  that  of 
the  residuary  legatee,  (for  though  Johnson  had  given  no 
instructions  on  this  latter  head,  sir  J.  H.  had  apprized  him 
of  the  absolute  necessity  of  a  bequest  of  the  residue,  that 
it  might  not  become,  as  it  would  otherwise,  by  the  silent 
operation  of  law,  the  property  of  his  executors).  Johnson 
still  procrastinated,  but  at  length  executed  this  draught;  so 
carelessly,  however,  as  to  omit  firsts  filling  up  the  blanks, 

When  this  circumstance  became  known  to  sir  J.  H.  he 
represented  this  act  to  him  (as  it  really  was)  as  a  mere  nul- 
lity;  and  Johnson  was  prevailed  upon,  on  the  27th  of  No- 
vember, 1784,  at  Mr.  Strahan's,  at  Islington,  to  give  him 
the  necessary  instructions,  which  he,  sir  J.  on  the  spot  con- 
verted into  proper  legal  form,  by  dictating,  conformably  to. 
them,  a  will  to  Mr.  Hoole,  who,  with  some  other  friends, 
had  there  called  in  upon  Johnson,  and  which  being  coin-* 
pleted,  was  executed  by  Johnson  and  properly  attested.  In 
the  codicil,  which  Johnson  afterwards  made,  sir  J.  assisted 
in  the  same  manner,  as  to  legal  phraseology,  and  directing 
the  proper  mode  of  execution  and  attestation. 

From  so  long  an  acquaintance  with  him,  and  from  hav- 
ing been  intimately  consulted  in  his  affairs,  and,  as  it  is 
strongly  believed,  in  consequence  of  a  conversation  that 
passed  between  them,  sir  J.  H.  was  induced,  on  the  event 
of  Johnson's  death,  on  the  13th  day  of  December,  1784,  to 
undertake  to  write  a  life  of  him,  and  accordingly  he  st;t 
himself  to  collect  material^*  for  that  purpose,  and  for  an. 
edition  of  his  works,  which  with  his  life  was  afterwards 
published.  But,  not  three  months  after  the  commence- 
ment of  this  undertaking,  he  met  with  the  severest  loss 
that  a  literary  man  can  sustain,  in  the  destruction  of  his 
library  ;  consisting  pf  a  numerous  and  well-chosen  collec- 
tion of  books,  ancient  and  modern,  in  many  languages, 
fnd  on  most  subjects,  which  it  had  been  the  business  of 
^bove  thirty  years  at  intervals  to  get  together.  This  event 
was  the  consequence  of  a  fire.  Of  this  loss,  great  as  it 
was  in  pecuniary  value,  and  comprising  in  books,  prints,, 

HAWKINS.  253 

and  drawings,  many  articles  that  could  never  be  replaced, 
he  was  never  heard  in  the  smallest  degree  to  complain ; 
but,  having  found  a  temporary  reception  in  a  large  house 
in  Orchard-street,  Westminster,  he  continued  there  a  short 
time,  and  then  took  a  house  in  the  Broad  Sanctuary, 

This  event,  for  a  short  time,  put  a  stop  to  the  progress 
of  his  undertaking.  As  soon,  however,  as  he  could  suffi- 
ciently collect  his  thoughts,  he  recommenced  his  office  of 
biographer  of  Johnson,  and  editor  of  his  works  ;  and  com- 
pleted his  intention  by  publishing,  in  1787^  the  life  and 
works,  in  eleven  volumes,  8vo,  which  he  dedicated  to  the 
king.  With  this  production  he  terminated  his  literary  la- 
bours ;  and,  having  for  many  years  been  more  particularly 
sedulous  in  his  attention  to  the  duties  of  religion,  and  ac- 
customed to  spend  all  his  leisure  from  other  necessary  con- 
cerns in  theological  and  devotional  studies,  he  now  more 
closely  addicted  himself  to  them,  and  set  himself  more  es- 
pecially to  prepare  for  that  event  which  he  saw  could  be  at 
no  great  distance ;  and,  the  better  to  accomplish  this  end, 
he,  in  the  month  of  May  1788,,  by  a  will  and  other  proper 
instruments,  made  such  an  arrangement  of  his  affairs  as  he 
meant  should  take  place  after  his  decease. 

In  this  manner  he  spent  his  time  till  about  the  month  of 
May  1789,  when,  finding  his  appetite  fail  him  in  a  greates 
degree  than  usual,  he  had  recourse,  as  he  had  sometimes 
had  before  on  the  same  occasion,  to  the  waters  of  the  Isling- 
ton Spa.  These  lie  drank  for  a  few  mornings;  but  on  the 
14th  of  that  month,  while  he  was  there,  he  was,  it  is  sup- 
posed, seized  with  a  paralytic  affection,  as  on  his  return- 
ing to  the  carriage  which  waited  for  him,  his  servants  per- 
ceived a  visible  alteration  in  him.  On  his  arrival  at  home 
he  went  to  bed,  but  got  up  a  few  hours  after,  intending 
to  receive  an  old  friend  from  whom  he  expected  a  visit  in 
the  evening.  At  dinner,  however,  his  disorder  returning, 
he  was  led  up  to  bed,  from  which  he  never  rose,  for, 
being  afterwards  accompanied  with  an  apoplexy,  it  put  a 
period  to  his  Jife,  on  the  2 1st  of  the  same  month,  about 
two  in  the  morning.  He  was  interred  on  the  28th  in  the 
cloisters  of  Westminster-abbey,  in  the  north  walk  near 
the  easternmost  door  into  the  church,  under  a  stone,  con- 
taining, by  his  express  injunctions,  no  more  than  the  ini- 
tials of  his  name,  the  date  of  his  death  and  his  age  ;  leav- 
ing behind  biox  a  high  reputation  for  abilities  and  integrity, 

254  HAWKINS. 

united  with  the  well-earned  character  of  an  active  and  reso- 
lute magistrate,  an  affectionate  husband  and  father,  a  firm 
and  zealous  friend,  a  loyal  subject,  and  a  sincere  Christian 
(as,  notwithstanding  the  calumnies  of  his  enemies,  can  be 
abundantly  testified  by  the  evidence  of  many  persons  now- 
living),  and  rich  in  the  friendship  and  esteem  of  very  many 
of  the  very  first  characters  for  rank,  worth,  and  abilities, 
of  the  age  in  which  he  lived.1 

HAWKSMOOR  (NICHOLAS),  an  architect  of  consider- 
able note,  was  born  in  1666,  and  at  the  age  of  seventeen 
became  the  scholar  of  sir  Christopher  Wren,  but  deviated 
a  little  from  the  lessons  and  practice  of  his  master,  at  least 
he  did  not  improve    on  them,   though  his  knowledge    in 
every  science  connected  with  his  art,  is  much  commended, 
and  his  character  remains  unblemished.     He  was  deputy- 
surveyor  at  the  building  of  Chelsea  college,  clerk  of  the 
works  at  Greenwich,  and  was  continued  in  the  same  posts 
by  king  William,  queen  Anne,  and  George  I.  at  Kensing- 
ton, Whitehall,  and  St.  James's  ;  surveyor  of  all  the  new 
churches,  and  of  Westminster-abbey,   from  the  death   of 
sir  Christopher,  and  designed   many  that  were  erected  in 
pursuance  of  the  statute  of  queen  Anne  for  building  fifty 
new  churches  :  viz.  St.  Mary  Wool  no  th,  in  Lombard-street; 
Christ  church,  in  Spitaifields  ;  St.  George,  Middlesex  ;  St. 
Anne,    Limehouse ;    and    St.   George,   Bloomsbury  ;    the 
steeple. of  which  is  a  master-stroke  of  absurdity.     It  con- 
sists of  an  obelisk  :  topped  with  the  statue  of  George  I. 
hugged  by  the  royal  supporters:  a  lion,  "an  unicorn,  and  a 
king,  on  such  an  eminence,  as  Walpole  observes,  are  very 
surprizing.    He  also  rebuilt  some  part  of  All  Souls'  college, 
Oxford,  and  gave  the  plan  for  a  new  front  to  the  street, 
which  may  be  seen  in  Williams's  "  Oxonia,"  but  has  never 
been  executed.     At  Blenheim  and  Castle-Howard  he  was 
associated  with  Vanbrugh,  and  was  employed  in  erecting 
a  magnificent  mausoleum  there,  when   he  died   in  March 
1736,  near  seventy  years  of  age.     He  built  several  man- 
sions,   particularly  Easton  Neston  in  Northamptonshire  ; 
restored  a  defect  in   Beverley  minster  by  a  machine  that 
screwed  up  the  fabric  with  extraordinary  art ;  repaired,  in 
a  judicious  manner,  the  west  end  of  Westminster-abbey  ; 
and  gave  a  design  for  the  Radcliife  library  at  Oxford.2 

1  From  information  communicated  by  the  family,  for  the  last  edition  of  this 
work.  3  whole's  Anecdotes. 

H  A  W  K  W  O  O  D.  25S 

HAWKWOOD  (SiR  JOHN),  a  brave  officer  of  the  four, 
teenth  century,  has  been  slightly  noticed  by  his  contem- 
poraries at  home,  and  would  not  have  been  brought  into  a 
conspicuous  point  of  view  but  for  the  engraved  portrait  of 
him  presented  to  the  society  of  antiquaries  in  1775,  by 
lord  Hailes.  He  is  said,  by  the  concurrent  testimony  of 
our  writers,  to  have  been  the  son  of  a  tanner  of  Sible  He- 
dingham,  in  Essex,  where  he  was  born  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  II.  Mr.  Morant  says,  the  manor  of  Hawk  wood  in. 
that  parish  takes  its  name  from  sir  John.  But  it  was 
holden  before  him  by  Stephen  Hawkwood,  probably  his 
father,  a  circumstance  which  would  lead  one  to  doubt  the 
meanness  of  his  birth  as  well  as  his  profession.  Persons 
who  gave  names  to  manors  were  generally  of  more  consi- 
derable rank  :  and  the  manor  appears  to  have  been  in  the 
family  from  the  time  of  king  John. 

Our  hero  is  said  to  have  been  put  apprentice  to  a  tailor 
in  London  :  "  but  soon,"  says  Fuller,  "  turned  his  needle 
into  a  sword,  and  his  thimble  into  a  shield,"  being  prest 
into  the  service  of  Edward  III.  for  his  French  wars,  where 
he  behaved  himself  so  valiantly,  that  from  a  common  sol- 
dier he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  captain  ;  and  for  some 
farther  good  service  had  the  honour  of  knighthood  con- 
ferred on  him  by  that  king,  though  he  was  accounted  the 
poorest  knight  in  the  army.  His  general,  the  black  prince, 
highly  esteemed  him  for  his  valour  and  conduct,  of  which 
he  gave  extraordinary  proofs  at  the  battle  of  Poictiers. 

Upon  the  conclusion  of  the  peace  between  the  English 
and  French  by  the  treaty  of  Bretigni  1360,  sir  John,  find- 
ing his  estate  too  small  to  support  his  title  and  dignity, 
associated  himself  with  certain  companies  called,  by  Frois- 
sart,  "  Les  Tard  Venus ;"  by  Walsingham,  "  Magna  Co- 
mitiva."  These  were  formed  by  persons  of  various  nations, 
who,  having  hitherto  found  employment  in  the  wars  be- 
tween England  and  France,  and  having  held  governments, 
or  built  and  fortified  ho.uses  in  the  latter  kingdom  which, 
they  were  now  obliged  to  give  up,  found  themselves  re- 
duced to  this  desperate  method  of  supporting  themselves 
and  their  soldiers  by  marauding  and  pillaging,  or  by  en-, 
gaging  in  the  service  of  less  states,  which  happened  to  be 
at  war  with  each  other.  Villani,  indeed,  charges  Edward 
III.  with  secretly  authorizing  these  ravages  in  France, 
while  outwardly  he  affected  a  strict  observance  of  the 
peace.  At  this  time,  in  tlie  summer,  continues  this  his- 

ft  A  W  K  W  O  O  D. 

torian,  ah  English  tailor,  named  John  della  Guglea,  that 
is,  John  of  the  needle,  who  had  distinguished  himself  iri 
the  war,  began  to  form  a  company  of  marauders,  and  col- 
lected a  number  of  English,  who  delighted  in  mischief, 
and  hoped  to  live  by  plunder,  surprizing  and  pillaging 
first  one  town,  and  then  another.  This  company  increased 
so  much  that  they  became  the  terror  of  the  whole  country. 
All  who  had  not  fortified  places  to  defend  them  were  forced 
to  treat  with  him,  and  furnish  him  with  provision  and  mo- 
ney, for  which  he  promised  them  his  protection.  The 
effect  of  this  was,  that  in  a  few  months  he  acquired  great 
wealth.  Having  also  received  an  accession  of  followers 
and  power,  he  roved  from  one  country  to  another,  till  at 
length  he  came  to  the  Po.  There  he  made  all  who  came 
in  his  way  prisoners.  The  clergy  he  pillaged,  but  let  the 
laity  go  without  injury.  The  court  of  Rome  was  greatly 
alarmed  at  these  proceedings,  and  made  preparations  to 
oppose  these  banditti.  Upon  the  arrival  of  certain  English- 
men on  the  banks  of  the  Po,  Hawkwood  resigned  his  com- 
mand to  them,  and  professed  submission  to  the  king  of 
England,  to  whose  servants  he  presented  a  large  share  of 
his  ill-gotten  wealth. 

The  first  appearance  of  Hawkwood  in  Italy-  was  in  the 
1*isan  service  in  1364;  after  which  period  he  was  every 
where  considered  as  a  most  accomplished  soldier,  and 
fought,  as  different  occasions  presented  themselves,  in  the 
service  of  many  of  the  Italian  states.  In  1387  we  find  him 
engaged  in  a  hazardous  service  in  defence  of  the  state  of 
Florence.  The  earl  of  Armagnac,  the  Florentine  general, 
having  been  lately  defeated  by  Venni,  the  governor  of  the 
Siannese,  the  victors  marched  to  surprize  Hawkwood,  and 
encamped  within  a  mile  and  a  half  of  him.  But  this  cau- 
tious general  retreated  into  the  Cremonese,  and  when  by 
several  skirmishes  he  had  amused  the  enemy,  who  kept 
within  a  mile  of  him,  and  thought  to  force  his  camp,  he 
sallied  out  and  repulsed  them  with  loss.  This  success 
a  little  discouraged  them.  Venni  is  said  to  have  sent 
Hawkwood  a  fox  in  a  cage,  alluding  to  his  situation  ;  to 
which  Hawkwood  returned  for  answer,  "  the  fox  knew  how 
to  find  his  way  out."  This  he  did  by  retreating  to  the 
river  Oglio,  placing  his  best  horse  in  the  rear  till  the 
enemy  had  crossed  the  river,  on  whose  opposite  bank  he 
placed  400  English  archers  on  horseback.  The  rear  by 
their  assistance  crossed  the  river  and  followed  the  rest, 


H  A  W  K  W  O  O  D.  257 

who,  after  fording  the  Mincio,  encamped  within  ten  miles 
of  the  Adige.  The  greatest  danger  remained  here.  The 
enemy  had  broken  down  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  let  out 
its  waters,  swoln  by  the  melting  of  the  snow  and  mountains 
to  overflow  the  plains.  Hawkwood's  troops,  surprized  at 
midnight  by  the  increasing  floods,  had  no  resource  but  im- 
mediately to  mount  their  horses,  and,  leaving  all  their 
baggage  behind  them,  marched  in  the  morning  slowly 
through  the  water,  which  came  up  to  their  horses  bellies. 
By  evening,  with  great  difficulty,  they  gained  Baldo,  a 
town  in  the  Paduan.  Some  of  the  weaker  horses  sunk 
under  the  fatigue.  Many  of  the  foot  perished  with  cold, 
and  struggling  against  the  water;  many  supported  them- 
selves by  laying  hold  on  the  tails  of  the  stronger  horses. 
Notwithstanding  every  precaution,  many  of  the  cavalry 
were  lost  as  well  as  their  horses.  The  pursuers,  seeing 
the  country  under  water,  and  concluding  the  whole  army 
had  perished,  returned  back.  The  historian  observes,  that 
it  was  universally  agreed  no  other  general  could  have  got 
over  so  many  difficulties  and  dangers,  and  led  back  his 
small  army  out  of  the  heart  of  the  enemy's  country,  with 
no  other  loss  than  that  occasioned  by  the  floods,  which  no 
precaution  could  have  prevented.  One  of  the  most  cele- 
brated actions  of  Hawkwood's  life,  says  Muratori,  was  this 
€  treat,  performed  with  so  much  prudence  and  art,  that 
!  deserves  to  be  paralleled  with  the  most  illustrious  Ro- 
man generals  ;  having,  to  the  disgrace  of  an  enemy  infi- 
nitely superior  in  number,  and  in  spite  of  all  obstructions 
from  the  rivers,  given  them  the  slip,  and  brought  off  his 
army  safe  to  Castel  Baldo,  on  the  borders  of  the  Paduan. 
Sir  John  Hawkwood,  as  soon  as  he  found  himself  among 
his  allies,  employed  himself  in  refreshing  his  troop  and 
watching  the  enemy's  motions. 

At  the  end  of  1391  the  Florentines  made  peace  with  Ga- 
leazzo  and  the  rest  of  their  enemies,  though  on  disadvanta- 
geous terms.  To  reduce  the  expences  of  the  state,  they 
discharged  their  foreign  auxiliaries,  except  Hawkwood, 
of  whose  valour  and  fidelity  they  had  had  such  repeated 
proofs,  with  1000  men  under  his  command. 

Peace  being  now  re-established  abroad,  the  city  of  Flo- 
rence was,  in  1393,  distracted  with  civil  feuds,  which  were 
not  terminated  by  the  execution  and  exile  of  some  prin- 
cipal citizens.  But  at  the  close  of  this  year  they  sus- 
tained a  greater  loss  in  sir  John  Hawkwood,  who  died 
,.  XVIL  s 

258  H  A  W  K  W  O  O  D. 

March  6,  advanced  in  years,  at  his  house  in  the  street 
called  PulveYosa,  near  Florence.  His  funeral  was  cele- 
brated with  -reat  magnificence,  ami  the  ge.teral  lamenta- 
tion of  the  whole  city.  His  bier,  adorned  with  gold  and 
jewels,  was  supported  by  the  first  persons  of  the  republic, 
followed  by  horses  in  gilded  trappings,  banners,  and  other 
military  ensigns,  and  the  whole  body  of  the  citizens.  His 
remains  were  deposited  in  the  church  of  St.  Repar.ita, 
where  a  statue  (as  Poggio  and  Rossi  call  it,  though  it  is 
well  known  to  be  a  portrait)  of  him  on  horseback  was  put 
np  by  a  public  decree.  If  the  Florentine  historians  did 
not  distinguish  between  a  statue  and  a  portrait,  no  wonder 
our  countryman  Stowe  talks  of  an  "  image  as  great  as  a 
mighty  pillar,"  erecteci  to  the  memory  of  sir  John  Hawk- 
wood  at  Florence ;  or  that  Weever,  copying  him,  calls  it 
"  a  statue." 

In  the  representation  of  this  hero  painted  on  the  dome 
of  the  church,  he  appears  mounted  on  a  pacing  gelding, 
whose  bridle,  with  the  square  ornament  embossed  on  it,  is 
covered  with  crimson  velvet  or  cloth,  and  the  saddle  is  red, 
stuffed  or  quilted.  He  is  dressed  in  armour  with  a  surcoat 
flowing  on  from  his  shoulders,  but  girt  about  his  body  ; 
his  greaves  are  covered  with  silk  or  cloth,  but  the  knee- 
pieces  may  be  distinguished  under  them  :  his  shoes,  which 
are  probably  part  of  his  greaves,  are  pointed  according  to 
the  fashion  of  the  times.  His  hands  are  bare  :  in  his  right 
he  holds  a  yellow  baton  of  office,  which  rests  on  his  thigh  ; 
in  his  left  the  bridle.  His  head,  which  has  very  short  hair, 
is  covered  with  a  cap  not  unlike  our  earls'  coronets,  with 
a  border  of  wrought  work. 

Sir  John  had  a  cenotaph  in  the  church  of  his  native  town, 
erected  by  his  executors  Robert  Rokeden  senior  and  junior, 
and  John  Coe.  It  is  described  by  Weever,  as  "  a  tomb 
arched  over,  and  engraven  to  the  likeness  of  hawks  flying 
in  a  wood,"  which,  Fuller  says,  was  "  quite  flown  away." 
It  is  plain  the  last  of  these  writers  never  took  any  pains  to 
visit  or  procure  true  information  about  this  monument, 
which  still  remains  in  good  preservation  near  the  upper 
end  of  the  fourth  aile  of  Sible  Hedingham  church.  The 
arch  of  this  tomb  is  of  the  mixed  kind,  terminating  in  a 
sort  of  bouquet,  on  both  sides  of  which,  over  the  arch,  are 
smaller  arches  of  tracery  in  relief.  The  arch  is  adorned 
with  hawks  and  their  bells,  and  other  emblems  of  hunting, 
.as. a  hare,  a  boar,  a  boy  sounding  a  conch-shell,  £c.  The 

H  A  W  K  W  O  O  D.  259 

two  pillars  that  support  it  are  charged  with  a  dragon  and 
lion.  Under  this  arch  is  a  low  altar-tomb  with  five  shields 
in  quatrefoils,  formerly  painted.  In  the  south  window 
of  the  chantry  chapel,  at  the  east  end  of  this  aile,  are 
painted  hawks,  hawks  bells,  and  escallops,  which  last  are 
part  of  the  Havvkwood  iirms,  as  the  first  were  probably  the 
crest,  as  well  as  a  rebus  of  the  name  ;  and  we  find  a  hawk 
volant  on  sir  John's  seal.  In  the  north  and  west  side  of 
the  tower  are  two  very  neat  hawks  on  perches  in  relief,  in 
rondeaux  hollowed  in  the  wall :  that  over  the  west  door  is 
extremely  well  preserved.  They  probably  denote  that 
some  of  the  family  built  the  tower.  Mr.  Morant  imagines 
some  of  them  rebuilt  this  church  about  the  reign  of  Ed- 
ward III.  but  none  appear  to  have  been  in  circumstances 
equal  to  such  munificence  before  our  hero ;  and  perhaps 
his  heirs  were  the  rebuilders. 

Contemporary  and  succeeding  writers  agree  in  their 
praises  of  this  illustrious  general.  Both  friends  and  ene- 
mies considered  him  as  one  of  the  greatest  soldiers  of  his 
age.  Poggio  styles  him  "  rei  militaris  scientia  clarus,  et 
bello  assuetus,"  "  dux  sagax,"  "  dux  prudens,"  "  tantus 
dux,"  "  rei  bellicae  peritissimus,"  fl  ad  belli  officia  pruden- 
tissimus,"  "  expertae  virtutis  et  fidei ;"  epithets  these 
which  might  serve  instead  of  a  particular  character.  Mu- 
ratori  calls  him,  "  II  prodeet  il  accortissimo  capitano."  As 
he  had  been  formed  under  the  Black  Prince,  it  is  not  to 
be  wondered  that  his  army  became  the  most  exact  school 
of  martial  discipline,  in  which  were  trained  many  captains, 
who  afterwards  rose  to  great  eminence. 

The  circumstances  of  the  times  must  make  an  apology 
for  the  frequent  changes  of  his  service,  which  led  him  to 
engage  as  suited  his  interest.  He  was  a  soldier  of  fortune; 
and  his  abilities  in  the  field  occasioned  him  to  be  couned 
by  different  rival  states.  The  Florentines  offered  the  best 
terms,  and  to  them  he  ever  after  adhered  with  an  irre- 
proachable fidelity.  His  chanty  appears  in  his  joining  with 
several  persons  of  quality  in  this  kingdom,  in  founding  the 
English  hospital  at  Rome  for  the  entertainment  of  poor 
travellers. * 

HAWLES  (JOHN),  an  English  lawyer,  the  son  of  Tho- 
mas Hawles,  gent,  was  born  at  Salisbury  in  1645,  and  edu- 
cated at  Winchester  school,  whence  he  entered  as  a  com* 

*  Life,  by  Mr.  Gojigh,  in  Bibl.  Topog.  Brit.  No.  I V.— Shepherd's  Life  rf 
Poggio,  p,  18. 

S    2 

260  H  A  W  L  E  S. 

moner  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  in  1662,  but,  like  most 
men  intended  for  the  study  of  the  law,  left  the  university 
without  taking  a  degree.  He  removed  to  Lincoln's  Inn, 
and  after  studying  the  usual  period,  was  admitted  to  the 
bar,  and,  as  Wood  says,  became  "  a  person  of  note  for 
his  profession."  On  the  accession  of  king  William,  he 
more  openly  avowed  revolution-principles,  and  published 
"  Remarks  upon  the  Trials  of  Edward  Fitzharris,  Stephen 
Coiledge,  count  Coningsmarke,  the  lord  Russel,  &c."  Lond. 
1689,  foho;  and  a  shorter  tract  called  "  The  Magistracy 
and  Government  of  England  vindicated  ;  or  a  justification 
of  the  English  method  of  proceedings  against  criminals,  by 
way  of  answer  to  the  Defence  of  the  late  lord  Russel's 
innocence,"  ibid.  1689,  fol.  In  1691  he  stood  candidate 
for  the  recordership  of  London  against  sir  Bartholomew 
Shower,  but  was  unsuccessful.  In  1695,  however,  he  was 
appointed  solicitor  general,  which  office  he  held  until 
1702.  He  was  one  of  the  managers  against  Dr.  Sacheverel 
in  his  memorable  trial.  He  died  Aug.  2,  1716. l 

HAY  (WILLIAM),  esq.  an  agreeable  English  writer,  was 
born  at  Glenburne  in  Sussex,  Aug.  21,  1695,  and  edu- 
cated partly  at  Newick,  near  Lewes,  and  partly  at  Lewes. 
In  1712  he  went  to  Oxford,  which  he  left  without  a  degree, 
and  removed  to  the  Temple.  Here  he  studied  the  law 
until  a  defect  in  his  sight  from  the  small  pox  obliged  him 
to  relinquish  it.  In  1718  he  travelled  in  England  and 
Scotland,  and  in  1720  on  the  continent,  where  he  was  a 
very  acute  observer  and  inquirer.  After  his  return  he  re- 
sided for  some  years  at  his  house  in  Sussex. 

When  lord  Hardwicke  was  called  up  to  the  house  of 
lords  in  1734,  he  was  chosen  to  succeed  him  in  repre- 
senting the  borough  of  Seatbrd  in  the  Commons  ;  and  he 
represented  this  borough  for  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He 
defended  the  measures  of  sir  Robert  Walpole  in  general, 
but  was  far  from  being  subservient  or  indiscriminate  in  his 
approbation  of  public  measures.  In  1728  he  published  his 
1  Essay  on  Civil  Government;"  in  1730  his  poem  entitled 
"  Mount  Caburn,"  dedicated  to  the  duchess  of  Newcastle, 
in  which  he  celebrates  the  beauties  of  his  native  country, 
and  the  virtues  of  his  friends.  In  1735  he  published  "  Re- 
marks on  the  Laws  relative  to  the  Poor,  with  proposals  for 
their  better  relief  and  employment ;  and  at  the  same  time 

1  Ath.  OK.  vol.  H. 

H  A  Y.  261 

brought  in  a  bill  for  the  purpose.  He  made  another  at- 
tempt of  this  kind,  but  without  effect.  In  May  1738,  he 
was  appointed  a  commissioner  of  the  victualling-office.  In 
1753  appeared  "  Religio  Philosophi ;  or,  the  principles 
of  morality  and  Christianity,  illustrated  from  a  view  of  che 
universe,  and  of  man's  situation  in  it."  This  was  followed, 
in- 1754,  by  his  "  Essay  on  Deformity  ;"  in  which  h*3  rallies 
his  own  imperfection  in  this  respect  with  much  liveliness 
and  good  humour.  "  Bodily  deformity,"  says  he,  "  is 
very  rare.  Among  558  gentlemen  in  the  House  of  com- 
mons, I  am  the  only  one  that  is  so.  Thanks  to  my  worthy 
constituents,  who  never  objected  to  my  person,  and  I  hope 
never  to  give  them  cause  to  object  to  my  behaviour."  The 
same  year  he  translated  Hawkins  Browne  "  De  Immortali- 
tati  Animse."  In  1755  he  translated  and  modernized  some 
"  Epigrams  of  Martial ;"  but  survived  this  publication  only 
a  short  time,  dying  June  22,  the  same  year.  A  little  time 
before,  he  had  been  appointed  keeper  of  the  records  in 
the  Tower ;  and  it  is  said  that  his  attention  and  assiduity, 
during  the  few  months  he  held  that  office,  were  eminently 
serviceable  to  his  successors. 

He  left  a  son,  who  inherited  the  imperfect  form  of  his 
father.  This  gentleman  went  into  the  service  of  the  East 
India  company,  where  he  acquired  rank,  fortune,  and  re- 
putation; but,  being  one  of  those  who  opposed  Cossim 
Ally  Kawn,  and  unfortunately  falling  into  his  hands,  was, 
\vith  other  gentlemen,  ordered  to  be  put  to  death  at  Patna, 
October  5,  1762.  Mr.  Hay's  works  were  collected  by  his 
daughter  in  two  volumes,  quarto,  1794,  with  a  biographi- 
cal sketch,  exhibiting  his  many  amiable  qualities,  and  pub- 
lic spirit. l 

HAYDN  (JOSEPH),  an  eminent  musical  composer,  was 
born  at  llhorau,  in  Lower  Austria,  in  1733.  His  father, 
a  wheelwright  by  trade,  played  upon  the  harp  without  the 
least  knowledge  of  music,  which,  however,  excited  the 
attention  of  his  son,  and  first  gave  birth  to  his  passion  for 
music.  In  his  early  childhood  he  used  to  sing  to  his  fa- 
ther's harp  the  simple  tunes  which  he  was  able  to  play,  and 
being  sent  to  a  small  school  in  the  neighbourhood,  he  there 
began  to  learn  music  regularly  ;  after  which  he  was  placed 
under  Reuter,  maestro  di  capella  of  the  cathedral  at  Vi- 
enna; and  having  a  voice  of  great  compass,  was  received 

»  Life  prefixed  to  his  works.— Nichols's  Eowyer 

262  HAYDN. 

into  the  choir,  where  he  was  well  taught,  not  only  to  sing, 
but  to  play  on  the  harpsichord  and  violin.  At  the  age  of 
eighteen,  on  the  breaking  of  his  voice,  he  was  dismissed 
from  the  cathedral.  After  this,  he  supported  himself 
during  eight  years  as  well  as  he  could  by  his  talents ;  and 
began  to  study  more  seriously  than  ever.  He  read  the 
works  of  Matthcson,  lieinichen,  and  others,  on  the  theory 
of  music  ;  and  for  the  practice,  studied  with  particular  at- 
tention the  pieces  of  Emanuel  Bach,  whom  he  made  his 
model  in  writing  for  keyed  instruments.  At  length,  he 
met  with  Porpora,  who  was  at  this  time  in  Vienna;  and 
during  five  months  was  so  happy  as  to  receive  his  counsel 
and  instructions  in  singing  and  the  composition  of  vocal 

About  this  time  he  resided  in  the  house  with  Metastasio 
three  years,  as  music-master  to  mademoiselle  Martinetz, 
and  during  this  time  had  the  great  advantage  of  hearing 
the  Italian  language  spoken  with  purity,  and  of  receiving 
the  imperial  laureat's  counsel,  as  to  cloathing  the  finest 
lyric  compositions  with  the  most  appropriate  and  expres- 
sive jnelodies.  In  1759  he  was  received  into  the  service 
of  count  Marzin,  as  director  of  his  music,  whence,  in  1761, 
he  passed  to  the  palace  of  prince  Esterhazi,  to  whose  ser- 
vice he  was  afterwards  constantly  attached.  He  arrived 
in  England  in  1791,  and  contributed  to  the  advancement 
of  his  art,  and  to  his  own  fame,  by  his  numerous  produc- 
tions in  this  country ;  while  his  natural,  unassuming,  and 
pleasing  character,  exclusive  of  his  productions,  endeared 
him  to  his  acquaintance  and  to  the  nation  at  large.  It 
ought  to  be  recorded,  that  twelve  of  his  noble  and  match- 
less symphonies  were  composed  here  expressly  for  Salo- 
mon's concerts,  and  that  it  was  from  his  spirit  of  enterprize, 
and  enthusiastic  admiration  of  Haydn,  and  love  of  his  art, 
that  we  were  indebted  for  his  visit  to  this  country  :  besides 
tht>e  sublime  symphonies,  his  piano-forte  sonatas,  his 
quartets  and  songs,  were  sufficient  to  establish  his  reputa- 
tion as  a  great  and  original  composer,  upon  a  lasting  foun- 
dation, ii  only  what  he  produced  during  the  few  years 
which  he  remained  among  us  was  known.  He  returned  to 
Germany  in  1796. 

The  first  time  we  meet  with  his  name  in  the  German  ca- 
talogues of  music,  is  in  that  of  Breitkopf  of  Leipsic,  1763, 
to  a  «  Divertimento  a  Cembalo,  3  Concern  a  Cembalo, 
5  Trios,  8  Quadros  or  quartets,  and  6  Symphonies  in  four 

HAYDN.  263 

and  eight  parts."  The  chief  of  his  early  music  was  for  the 
chamber.  He  is  said  at  Vienna  to  have  composed,  before 
1782,  a  hundred  and  twenty-four  pieces  for  the  bariton,  a 
species  ot  viol  di  gamba,  for  the  use  of  his  prince  who  was 
partial  to  that  instrument,  and  a  great  performer  upon  it. 

Besides  his  numerous  productions  for  instruments,  he 
has  composed  many  operas  for  the  Esterhazi  theatre,  and 
church  music  that  has  established  his  reputation  us  a  deep 
contrapuntist.  His  "  Stabat  Mater"  has  been  performed 
and  p  imed  in  England,  but  his  oratorio  of  "  II  Ritorno  di 
Tobia,"  composed  in  1775,  for  the  benefit  of  the  widows 
of  musicians,  has  been  annually  performed  at  Vienna  ever 
since,  and  is  as  high  in  favour  there  as  Handel's  "  Mes- 
siah" in  England.  His  instrumental  "  Passione,"  in  six- 
teen or  eighteen  parts,  was  among  his  later  and  most  ex- 
quisite productions  previous  to  his  arrival  in  England.  It 
entirely  consists  of  slow  movements,  on  the  subject  of  the 
last  seven  sentences  of  our  Saviour,  as  recorded  in  the 
Evangelists.  These  strains  are  so  truly  impassioned  and 
full  of  heart- felt  grief  and  dignified  sorrow,  that  though 
the  movements  are  all  slow,  the  subjects,  treatment,  and 
effects,  are  so  new  and  so  different,  that  a  real  lover  of 
music  will  feel  no  lassitude,  or  wish  for  lighter  strains  to 
stimulate  attention. 

His  innumerable  symphonies,  quartets,  and  other  instru- 
mental pieces,  which  are  so  original  and  so  difficult,  had 
the  advantage  of  being  rehearsed  and  performed  at  Ester- 
hazi under  his  own  direction,  by  a  band  of  his  own  forming. 
Ideas  so  new  and  so  varied  were  not  at  first  so  universally 
admired  in  Germany  as  at  present.  The  critics  in  the 
northern  parts  of  the  empire  were  up  in  arms,  but  before 
his  decease  he  was  as  much  respected  all  over  Europe  by 
professors,  for  his  science  as  invention.  And  the  extent 
of  his  tarne  may  be  imagined  from  his  being  made  the  hero 
of  a  poem  on  music,  in  Spanish,  written  and  published  at 
Madrid,  thirty  years  ago,  entitled  "  La  Musica  Poema^ 
par  D.  Tomas  de  Yarte."  This  sublime  work  was  pro- 
duced for  Cadiz.  He  lias  not  long  since  published  it  in 
score  with  German  and  Italian  words,  so  that  it  may  be 
performed  as  an  oratorio. 

The  la>t  of  his  compositions  which  were  received  in 
England  subsequent  to  the  "  Creation,"  were,  two  sets  of 
quartets,  of  which  the  first  violin,  calculated  to  display 
Salomon's  powers  of  execution  and  expression,  is  very  dif- 

264-  HAYDN. 

ficult ;  and  his  "  Seasons."  There  is  a  general  cheerful- 
ness and  good-humour  in  Haydn's  allegros,  which  exhila- 
rate every  hearer.  But  his  adagios  are  often  so  sublime  in 
ideas  and  the  harmony  in  which  they  are  clad,  that  though 
played  by  inarticulate  instruments,  they  have  a  more  pa- 
thetic effect  on  our  feelings  than  the  finest  opera  air  united 
with  the  most  exquisite  poetry.  He  has  likewise  move- 
ments and  passages  that  are  sportive,  playful,  and  even 
grotesque,  for  the  sake  of  variety  ;  but  they  are  often  so 
striking  and  pleasant,  that  they  have  the  eifect  of  bon  mots 
in  speaking  or  writing. 

His  grand  and  sublime  oratorio  of  the  "  Creation,"  and 
his  picturesque  and  descriptive  "  Seasons,"  composed  since 
his  departure  from  England,  if  music  were  a  language  as 
intelligible  and  durable  as  the  Greek,  would  live  anct  be 
admired  as  long  as  the  Iliad  and  Odyssey  of  Homer.  And 
we  cannot  help  thinking  that  future  ages  will  be  as  curious 
to  know  when  and  where  he  flourished,  as  the  country  and 
chronology  of  Orpheus  and  Amphion. 

In  1791,  when  at  Oxford,  he  was  created  doctor  of 
music,  and  some  time  before  his  death,  was  admitted  a, 
member  of  the  French  institute.  On  his  return  from  this 
country,  he  took  a  small  house  and  garden  at  Gumpendorf, 
where  he  lived  as  a  widower  until  the  time  of  his  death, 
which  happened  in  May  1309.1- 

HAVE  (JoHN  DE  LA),  a  learned  Franciscan,  preacher  in 
ordinary  to  queen  Anrie  of  Austria,  was  born  in  1593  at 
Paris,  and  died  there  in  1661.  His  principal  works  are, 
"Biblia  Magna,"  1643,  5  vols.  fol. ;  and  "  Biblia  Max- 
ima," 1660,  19  vols.  fol.  No  part  of  the  last  is  esteemed 
but  the  Prolegomena,  and  even  they  are  too  diffuse ;  but  his 
"  Biblia  Magna"  is  reckoned  a  very  good  work.  He  must 
not  be  confounded  with  John  de  la  Haye,  a  Jesuit,  who 
died  1614,  aged  seventy-four,  leaving  an  "  Evangelical 
Harmony,"  2  vols.  fol.  and  other  works  ;  nor  with  another 
John  de  la  Haye,  valet  de  chambre  to  Margaret  of  Valois, 
who  published  her  poems.3 

HAYES  (CHARLES),  esq.  a  very  singular  person,  whose 
great  erudition  was  so  concealed  by  his  modesty,  that  his 
name  is  known  to  very  few,  though  his  publications  are 
many.  He  was  born  in  1678,  and  became  distinguished 

cycl°P*dia,    by   Dr.   Burney.  —Gent.   Mag.    vol.  LXXIX.   and 
a  Diet.  Hi»t.— Moreri. 

HAYES.  265 

in  1704  by  a  "  Treatise  of  Fluxions,"  in  folio,  which  was, 
we  believe,  the  first  treatise  on  that  science  ever  published 
in  the  English  language  ;  and  the  only  work  to  which  he 
ever  set  his  name.  In  1710  came  out  a  small  4to  pamphlet 
in  19  pages,  entitled  "A  new  and  easy  Method  to  find  out 
the  Longitude  from  observing  the  Altitudes  of  the  Celestial 
bodies."  Also  in  1723,  he  published  "  The  Moon,  a  Phi- 
losophical Dialogue,"  tending  to  shew  that  the  moon  is  not 
an  opaque  body,  but  has  native  light  of  her  own. 

To  u  skill  in  the  Greek  and  Latin,  as  well  as  the  modern 
languages,  he  added  the  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew;  and 
he  published  several  pieces,  which  we  shall  enumerate,  re- 
lating to  the  translation  and  chronology  of  the  Scriptures. 
During  a  long  course  of  years  he  had  the  chief  manage- 
ment of  the  African  company,  being  annually  elected  sub- 
governor.  But  on  the  dissolution  of  that  company,  in 
1752,  he  retired  to  Down,  in  Kent,  where  he  gave  him- 
self up  to  study  ;  from  whence,  however,  he  returned  in 
1758,  to  chambers  in  Gray's-inn,  London,  where  he  died 
Dec.  18,  1760,  in  his  eighty  ^second  year. 

His  works  relating  to  the  translation  and  chronology  of 
the  holy  Scriptures,  were,  1.  "  A  Vindication  of  the  His- 
tory of  the  Septuagint,"  from  the  misrepresentations  of  its 
opponents,  1736,  8vo.  2.  "  A  Critical  Examination-  of 
the  Holy  Gospels  according  to  St.  Matthew  and  St.  Luke, 
with  regard  to  the  history  of  the  birth  and  infancy  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,"  1738,  8vo.  3.  "  Dissertation  on  the 
Chronology  of  the  Septuagint,"  1741,  8vo,  a  very  learned, 
and  in  many  respects  an  original  work,  to  which  in  1757,  he 
printed  "  A  Supplement."  4.  "  Chronographiae  Asiatics 
et  Egyptiacae  Specimen;  in  quo,  1.  Origo  Chronologiae 
LXX  Interpretum  investigatur;  2.  Conspectus  totius 
operis  exhibetur,"  1759,  8vo.  In  this  laborious  work, 
which  he  began  in  1753,  when  he  was  seventy-five  years 
old,  his  opinions  are  sometimes  not  quite  correct,  nor  such 
as  he  perhaps  would  probably  have  advanced  had  he  begun 
it  in  an  earlier  period  of  lite,  but  the  whole  is  highly  cre- 
ditable to  his  learning  and  researches.1 

HAYES  (WiLUAM),  an  eminent  musical  composer,  was 
born  in  1708,  and  began  his  musical  career  as  organist  of 
St.  Mary's,  Shrewsbury,  but  quitted  that  place  on  being 
chosen  successor  to  Goodson,  organist  of  Christ  Church, 

1  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  X^XI.—  HicUols's  Bowycr.—  Button's  Dictionary, 

266  HAYES. 

Oxford,  where  he  settled.  He  took  his  degree  <5f  bachelor 
of  music  July  8,  17V5  and  was  appointed  professor  of 
music  Jan.  14,  1741.  In  April  1749  he  was  created  doctor 
of  music,  and  was  also  organist  of  Magdalen  college.  For 
many  years  he  was  sole  director  of  the  choral  meetings, 
concerts,  and  encaenia,  and  every  musical  exhibition  in 
that  university  to  the  time  of  his  death 

He  was  a  studious  and  active  professor ;  a  great  collector 
of  curious  and  old  compositions,  and  possessed  of  consi- 
derable genius  and  abilities  tor  producing  ^iew.  He  pub- 
lished while  at  Shrewsbury,  a  collection  of  English  ballads, 
his  maiden  composition.  But  at  Oxford  his  ecclesiastical 
compositions  for  different  colleges  were  innumerable  ;  yet, 
being  local,  they  were  never  printed,  and  but  little  known 
out  of  Oxford.  Those  productions  which  gained  him  the 
most  general  celebrity,  were  his  canons,  catches,  and 
glees  for  the  catch-club,  in  London,  during  the  first  years 
of  its  institution  ;  several  of  which  were  justly  crowned. 
His  canon  of  "  Let's  drink  and  let's  sing  together,"  is  per- 
haps the  most  pleasant  of  all  those  laboured  compositions 
which  go  under  the  name  of  canons.  He  had  a  true  sense 
of  Handel's  superior  merit,  over  all  contemporary  com- 
posers ;  and  on  the  publication  of  Mr.  Avison's  well-written 
"  Essay  on  Musical  Expression,"  in  which  it  is  perpetually 
insinuated  that  Geminiani,  Rameau,  and  Marcello,  were 
greatly  his  superiors,  Dr.  Hayes  produced  a  pamphlet  en- 
titled "  Remarks  on  the  Essay  of  Musical  Expression," 
written  with  much  more  knowledge  of  the  subject  than 
temper :  he  felt  so  indignant  at  Avison's  treatment  of 
Handel,  that  he  riot  only  points  out  the  false  reasoning  in 
his  essay,  but  false  composition  in  his  own  works. 

Dr.  Hayes  died  July  27,  1777,  and  was  buried  in  the 
church-yard  of  St.  Peter's  in  the  east,  in  Oxford.  His 
son  PHILIP  was  regularly  educated  by  his  father  in  the 
same  art.  When  grown  up,  after  he  had  lost  his  treble 
voice,  which  dropped  into  a  tolerable  tenor,  he  was  ad- 
mitted one  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  king's  chapel,  and  re- 
sided chiefly  in  London,  till  the  decease  of  his  worthy  fa- 
ther;  who  having  established  a  family  interest  in  the  uni- 
versity, he  succeeded  to  all  his  honours  and  appointments. 
He  took  his  degree  of  B.  M.  in  May  1763,  and  proceeded 
doctor  of  music  Nov.  6,  1777,  when  he  succeeded  his 
father  in  the  professorship.  He  also  became  organist  of 
Magdalen,  New  college,  and  St,  John's.  He  succeeded  in 

HAYES.  267 

the  same  style  of  composition  as  his  father,  and  was  a  con- 
siderable benefactor  to  the  music-school  and  orchestra,  and 
gave  many  valuable  portraits  both  to  that  room  and  to  some 
of  the  colleges.  Dr.  Philip  Hayes  was  perhaps  the  most 
corpulent  man  in  the  kingdom,  and  his  friends  were  long 
in  apprehension  of  a  sudden  death,  which  at  last  took  place 
when  he  was  on  his  annual  visit  to  London,  about  the  time 
of  the  anniversary  of  the  new  musical  fund.  He  dropped 
down  dead,  after  he  had  dressed  himself,  in  the  morning 
of  March  19,  1797,  in  his  fifty -eighth  year.  His  remains 
were  interred  in  St.  Paul's  cathedral  with  due  respect.1 

H\YM  (NICOLAS  FRANCIS),  a  native  of  Rome,  appears 
to  have  come  to  London  in  the  early  part  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, as  a  musical  professor,  and  engaged  with  two  others, 
Clayton  and  Dieupart,  in  an  attempt  to  establish  an  Italian 
opera  here.  This  scheme  had  some  success  until  1710, 
when  the  superior  merits  of  Handel's  "  Rinaldo"  diverted 
the  public  attention  from  Haym  and  his  colleagues.  Haym 
appears  afterwards  to  have  tried  various  literary  projects, 
one  of  which  was  his  "  II  Tesoro  Britannico,"  Lond. 
1719 — 20,  2  vols.  4to,  in  which  he  proposed  to  engrave 
and  describe  all  the  coins,  statues,  gems,  &c.  to  be  found  in 
the  cabinets  in  England,  and  not  before  made  public.  In 
the  execution  of  this  work,  however,  he  committed  so  many 
egregious  blunders,  and  advanced  so  many  ignorant  and 
rash  conjectures,  that  it  has  ever  been  thrown  aside  with 
contempt  by  able  antiquaries.  His  most  useful  publica- 
tion was  his  "  Notizia  de  Libri  rari  nella  Lingua  Italiana,'* 
which  appeared  first  in  1726,  in  an  Svo  volume,  printed  at 
London,  and  was  several  times  reprinted  with  additions. 
The  edition  of  Milun,  1771,  2  vols.  4to,  appears  to  be 
the  best. 

He  likewise  wrote  two  tragedies,  "  La  Merope,"  and 
"La  Dernodice,"  and  edited  an  edition  of Tasso  in  2  vols. 
4to.  In  the  last  years  of  his  arrive  life,  he  published  pro- 
posals for  a  History  of  music,  upon  an  admirable  plan  ;  but 
it  was  not  encouraged,  which  Dr.  Btirney  thinks  is  much 
to  be  lamented,  as  far  as  Italy  was  concerned  ;  as  he  was 
not  only  a  good  practical  musician,  but  a  man  of  extensive 
learning,  and  perfectly  acquainted  with  the  history  of  the 
art  in  his  own  country,  and  its  progress  in  England  during 
his  residence  there.  He  had  not  only  knowledge  in  coun- 

1  Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  by  Dr.  Burney.— Wood's  Annals.— -Gent.  Mag.  1797. 

268  H  A  Y  M. 

terpoint,  but  genius  for  composition,  as  he  published  at 
Amsterdam  in  1713,  two  sets  of  sonatas  for  two  violins  and 
a  bass,  which  are  little  inferior  to  the  sonatas  of  Corelli. 
There  is  more  variety  in  them,  though  less  grace.  He 
died  in  March  1730,  and  his  effects  were  sold  by  auction 
soon  after  his  decease.1 

HAYMAN  (FRANCIS),  an  English  artist,  much  cele- 
brated in  his  day,  was  born  in  1708,  at  Exeter,  and  was 
the  scholar  of  Brown.  He  appears  to  have  come  to  Lon- 
don in  the  early  part  of  his  life,  and  was  much  employed 
by  Fleetwood,  the  proprietor  of  Drury-lane  theatre,  for 
whom  he  painted  many  scenes.  In  the  pursuit  of  his  pro- 
fession, he  was  not  extremely  assiduous,  being  more  con- 
vivial than  studious  ;  yet  he  acquired  a  very  considerable 
degree  of  power  in  his  art,  and  was  the  best  historical 
painter  in  the  kingdom,  before  the  arrival  of  Cipriani.  It 
was  this  superiority  of  talent  that  introduced  him  to  the 
notice  of  Mr.  Jonathan  Tyers,  the  founder  and  proprietor 
of  Vauxhall,  by  whom  he  was  employed  in  decorating 
those  well-known  gardens,  and  where  some  of  his  best 
historical  pictures  are  still  to  be  seen.  He  also  painted 
four  pictures  from  subjects  taken  from  Sbakspeare,  for 
what  is  called  the  prince's  pavilion  in  Vauxhall,  but  Mr. 
Tyers  had  such  an  high  opinion  of  them,  as  to  remove 
them  to  his  own  residence,  and  place  copies  in  their  room. 
His  reputation  procured  him  much  employment  from  the 
booksellers,  whom  he  furnished  with  drawings  for  their 
editions  of  Moore's  Fables,  Congreve's  Works,  Newton's 
Milton,  Hammer's  Shakspeare,  Smcllet's  Don  Quixote, 
Pope's  Works,  &c.  These  drawings  have  in  general  great 

When  the  artists  were  incorporated  by  charter,  Mr. 
Lambert  was  appointed  the  first  president ;  but  he  dying 
shortly  after,  Hay  man  was  chosen  in  his  stead,  in  which 
office  he  remained  till  1768,  when,  owing  to  the  illiberal 
conduct  of  the  majority  of  the  members  of  that  society,  he 
was  no  longer  continued  in  that  station.  For  this  exclu- 
sion, however,  he  was  amply  recompensed  on  the  founda- 
tion of  the  royal  academy,  of  which  he  was  chosen  a  mem- 
ber, and  soon  after  appointed  librarian.  This  place  he 
held  till  his  death,  Feb.  2,  1776.8 

1  Hawkins's  tfist.  of  Music.— Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  by  Dr.  Burney.— Diet.  Hist. 
4  Pilkmgton,— Edwards's  Supplement  to  Walpole. 

H  A  Y  N  B.  269 

HAYNE  (THOMAS),  a  learned  schoolmaster,  the  son  of 
Robert  Hayne,  of  Thrussington,  in  Leicestershire,  was 
born  probably  in  that  parish,  in  1581,  and  in  1599  was 
entered  of  Lincoln-college,  Oxford,  where,  being  under 
the  care  of  an  excellent  tutor,  he  obtained  great  know- 
ledge in  philosophy,  to  which,  and  his  other  studies,  he 
was  the  more  at  leisure  to  give  diligent  application,  as  he 
was,  by  a  lameness  almost  from  his  birth,  prevented  from 
enjoying  the  recreations  of  youth.  In  1604  he  took  his 
bachelor's  degree,  and  became  one  of  the  ushers  of  mer- 
chant taylors'  school,  London  :  and  after  taking  the  degree 
of  master,  was  usher  at  Christ's  hospital.  He  was  a  noted 
critic,  an  excellent  linguist,  and  a  solid  divine,  highly  re- 
spected by  men  of  learning,  and  particularly  by  Selden. 
He  died  July  27,  1645,  and  was  buried  in  Christ-church, 
London,  where  a  monument  was  erected  over  his  grave, 
(destroyed  in  the  fire  of  London)  with  an  inscription  to  his 
memory,  as  an  antiquary,  a  teacher,  and  a  man  of  peace. 
He  bequeathed  his  books  to  the  library  at  Leicester  (which 
is  commemorated  in  an  inscription  in  that  place),  except  a 
few  which  he  left  to  the  library  at  Westminster.  He  gave 
also  400/.  to  be  bestowed  in  buying  lands  or  houses,  in  or 
near  Leicester,  of  the  yearly  value  of  24/.  for  ever,  for  the 
maintenance  of  a  schoolmaster  in  Thrussington,  or  some 
town  near  thereto,  to  teach  ten  poor  children,  &c.  Fif- 
teen are  now  educated  in  this  school.  He  founded  also 
two  scholarships  in  Lincoln-college,  the  scholars  to  come 
from  the  free-school  at  Leicester,  or  in  defect  of  that,  from 
the  school  at  Melton,  &c.  Several  other  acts  of  charity 
are  included  in  his  will.  His  works  are,  I.  "  Grammatices 
Latinae  Compendium,  1637,  reprinted  in  1649,  Svo,  with 
two  appendices.  2.  "  Linguarum  cognatio,  seu  de  linguis 
in  genere,"  &c.  Lond.  1639,  Svo.  3.  "  Pax  in  terra; 
seu  tractatus  de  pace  ecclesiastica,"  ibid.  1639,  Svo. 
4.  "  The  equal  ways  of  God,  in  rectifying  the  unequal 
ways  of  man,'*  ibid.  1639,  Svo.  5.  "  General  View  of 
the  Holy  Scriptures ;  or  the  times,  places,  and  persons  of 
the  Holy  Scripture,"  &c.  ibid.  1640,  fol.  6.  "  Life  and 
Death  of  Dr.  Martin  Lutlier,"  ibid.  1641,  4to.' 

HAYNES  (HOPTON),  a  strenuous  advocate  for  Socinian-, 
ism,  was  born  in  1672,  and  became  assay-master  of  the 
mint,  and  principal  tally-writer  of  the  exchequer.  In 

1  Nichols's  Leicestershire;  vol.  HI.  Part  I, 

270  H^A  Y  N  E  S. 

defence  of  the  independence  and  prerogatives  of  his  office, 
he  printed  and  privately  dispersed  a  tract  entitled  "  A 
hriel  enquiry  relating  to  tiie  right  of  his  majesty's  Chapel 
Royal,  and  the  privileges  of  his  servants  within  the  Tower, 
in  a  Memorial  addressed  to  the  rignt  hon.  the  lord  viscount 
Lonsdale,  constable  of  tiis  majesty's  Tower  of  London,'1 
1728,  folio.  His  principal  effort  in  favour  of  Socicianism 
was  entitled  "  The  Scripture  account  of  the  attributes  and 
worship  of  God,  and  of  the  character  and  offices  of  Jesus 
Christ,  by  a  candid  Enquirer  after  Truth."  This  he  left 
for  the  press,  and  it  was  accordingly  printed  by  his  son,  in 
obedience  to  his  father's  injunctions,  but  probably  against 
his  own  inclinations,  nor  was  it  generally  known  as  a  pub- 
lication until  reprinted  in  1790  by  the  late  rev.  Theophilus 
Lindsey.  Mr.  Haynesdied  November  19,  1749. — His  son 
SAMUEL  HAYNES  was  educated  at  King's  college,  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  took  his  degrees  of  A.  B  in  1723,  A.  M. 
1727,  and  D.  D.  in  1748.  He  was  tutor  to  the  earl  of 
Salisbury,  with  whom  he  travelled,  and  who,  in  1737, 
presented  him  to  the  valuable  rectory  of  Hatfield  in  Hert- 
fordshire. In  March  1743,  he  succeeded  to  a  canonry  of 
Windsor;  and  in  May  1747,  he  was  presented  by  his 
noble  patron  to  the  rectory  of  Clothal,  which  he  held  by 
dispensation  with  Hatfield.  He  died  June  9,  1752.  He 
published  "  A  Collection  of  State-papers,  relating  to  af- 
fairs in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  Edward  VI.  Mary  and 
Elizabeth,  from  1542  to  1570,"  transcribed  from  the  Cecil 
MSS.  in  Hatfield-house,  1740,  fol.1 

HAYWARD  (Sir  JOHN),  an  English  historian,  was  edu- 
cated at  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  LL.  D. 
In  1599  he  published,  in  4to,  «  The  first  Part  of  the  Life 
and  Raigne  of  King  Henrie  IV.  extending  to  the  end  of 
the  first  yeare  of  his  raigne,"  dedicated  to  Robert  earl  of 
Essex  ;  for  which  he  suffered  a  tedious  imprisonment,  on 
account  of  having  advanced  something  in  defence  of  here- 
ditary succession  to  the  crown.  We  are  informed,  in  lord 
Bacon's  "  Apophthegms,"  that  queen  Elizabeth,  being 
highly  incensed  at  this  book,  asked  Bacon,  who  was  then 
one  of  her  council  learned  in  the  law,  "  whether  there  was 
any  treason  contained  in  it?"  who  answered,  "No,  ma- 
dam ;  for  treason,  I  cannot  deliver  my  opinion  there  is 
any  ;  but  there  is  much  felony."  The  queen,  apprehend- 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer. 

H  A  Y  W  A  R  D.  271 

ing  it,  gladly  asked,  "  How  and  wherein  ?"  Bacon  an- 
swered, "  because  he  had  stolen  many  of  his  sentences 
and  conceits  out  of  Cornelius  Tacitus.'*  This  discovery  is 
thought  to  have  prevented  his  being  put  to  the  rack. 
Carnden  tells  us,  that  the  book  being  dedicated  to  the 
earl  of  Essex,  when  that  nobleman  and  his  friends  were 
tried,  the  lawyers  urged,  that  "  it  was  written  on  purpose 
to  encourage  the  deposing  of  the  queen  ;"  and  they  par- 
ticularly insisted  on  these  words  in  the  dedication*  in  which 
our  author  styles  the  earl  "  Magnus  &  present!  judicio,  & 
futuri  temporis  expectatione."  In  1603  he  published,  in 
quarto,  "  An  Answer  to  the  first  part  of  a  certaine  Con- 
ference concerning  Succession,  published  not  long  since 
under  the  name  of  R.  Doleman."  Tais  R.  Doleman  was 
the  Jesuit  Parsons.  In  1610  he  was  appointed  by  king 
James  one  of  the  historiographers  of  Chelsea  college,  near 
London,  which,  as  we  have  often  had  occasion  to  notice, 
was  never  permanently  established.  In  1613,  he  published 
in  4to,  "  The  Lives  of  the  Three  Normans,  kings  of  Eng- 
land;  William  I  ;  William  II. ;  Henry  I."  and  dedicated 
them  to  Charles  prince  of  Wales.  In  1619,  he  received 
the  honour  of  knighthood  from  his  majesty,  at  Whitehall. 
In  1624,  he  published  a  discourse  entitled  "  Of  Supre- 
macie  in  Affaires  of  Religion,"  dedicated  to  prince  Charles, 
and  written  in  the  manner  of  a  conversation  held  at  the 
table  of  Dr.  Toby  Matthews,  bishop  of  Durham,  in  the 
time  of  the  parliament,  1605.  The  proposition  main- 
tained is,  that  supreme  power  in  ecciesiasticaJ  affairs  is  a 
right  of  sovereignty.  He  wrote  likewise,  "  The  Life  and 
Raigne  of  King  Edward  VI.  with  the  beginning  of  the 
Raigne  of  queen  Elizabeth,"  1630,  4to,  but  this  was  post- 
humous; for  he  died  June  27,  1627.  He  was  the  author 
of  several  works  of  piety,  particularly  "  The  Sr.nctuarie  of 
a  troubled  soul,"  Lond.  1616,  12mo;  "David's  Tears, 
or  an  Exposition  of  the  Penitential  Psalms,"  1622,  8vo. 
and  te  Christ's  Prayer  on  the  Crosse  for  his  Enemies," 
1623.  Wood  says  that  "  he  was  accounted  a  learned  and 
godly  man,  and  one  better  read  in  theological  authors, 
than  in  those  belonging  to  his  profession  ;  and  that  with 
regard  to  his  histories,  the  phrase  and  words  in  them  were 
in  their  time  esteemed  very  good  ;  only  some  have  wished 
that  in  his  *  History  of  Henry  IV.'  he  had  not  called  sir 
Hugh  Lynne  by  so  light  a  word  as  Mad -cap,  though  he 
were  such  j  and  that  he  had  not  changed  his  historical  style 

272  H  A  Y  W  A  R  D. 

into  a  dramatical,  where  he  introduceth  a  mother  ut- 
tering a  woman's  passion  in  the  case  of  her  son."  Ni- 
colson  observes,  that  "  he  had  the  repute  in  his  time,  of  a 
good  clean  pen  and  smooth  style  ;  though  some  have  since 
blamed  him  for  being  a  little  too  dramatical,"  Strype 
recommends  that  our  author  "  be  read  with  caution  ; 
that  his  style  and  language  is  good,  and  so  is  his  fancy ; 
but  that  he  uses  it  too  much  for  an  historian,  which  puts 
him  sometimes  on  making  speeches  for  others,  which  they 
never  spake,  and  relating  matters  which  perhaps  they  ne- 
ver thought  on."  In  confirmation  of  which  censure,  Ken- 
net  has  since  affirmed  him  to  be  "  a  professed  speech-maker 
through  all  his  little  history  of  Henry  IV."1 

HEADLEY  (HENRY),  a  very  elegant  poet  and  critic, 
was  born  at  Instead  in  Norfolk  in  1766.  At  an  early  age 
he  was  placed  under  the  care  of  the  rev.  Dr.  Samuel  Parr, 
then  master  of  the  grammar-school  at  Norwich.  Even  at 
this  period  he  exhibited  a  superior  elegance  of  mind,  taste, 
and  genius.  He  had  a  certain  pensiveness  of  manner, 
which  conciliated  esteem  and  sympathy ;  and  which, 
though  it  might  in  part  have  been  excited  by  the  delicacy 
of  his  constitution,  was  promoted  and  increased  by  his  stu- 
dious pursuits.  From  Norwich  he  removed,  in  1782,  to 
Oxford,  where  he  became  a  member  of  Trinity  college,  a 
circumstance  for  which  the  world  was  probably  indebted 
for  his  celebrated  publication  on  the  old  English  poets. 
Thomas  Warton  was  then  resident,  as  senior  fellow  of  the 
college,  and  Headley  naturally  became  acquainted  with 
his  labours  as  a  poetical  historian,  which  confirmed  the  bias 
of  his  mind  ;  and  from  this  time  the  study  of  old  English 
poetry  superseded  every  other  literary  pursuit. 

He  left  Oxford  after  a  residence  of  three  years,  in  which 
interval  he  lost  his  father.  His  biographer  informs  us  that 
his  friends  could  not  for  some  months  discover  the  place 
of  his  residence ;  but  that  at  length  it  appeared  he  was 
married,  and  had  retired  to  Matlock  in  Derbyshire.  From 
our  other  authority,  however,  we  learn,  that  during  his 
occasional  visits  from  Oxford  to  his  friends  in  Norfolk,  he 
formed  an  attachment  of  the  tenderest  kind  to  a  very  beau- 
tiful woman,  now  alive,  but  of  no  fortune.  Many  of  the 
most  charming  and  interesting  of  his  poetical  compositions 
addressed  to  this  lady.  The  connexion  appeared  to 

»-  Ath.  Ox.  toK  I. — Biojf.  Brit.  YO).  V.  p.  3Q5S.— -Gen.  Diet. 

H  E  A  D  L  E  Y.  273 

their  common  friends  to  be  indiscreet,  and  the  object  of 
his  affections  married  a  deserving  man,  with  whom  she  is 
now  happy  in  a  lovely  family.  It  appears,  however,  that 
he  did  marry  hastily,  in  the  anguish  of  disappointment,  a 
lady,  who  died  before  him.  From  Matlock  he  went  to 
reside  at  Norwich,  and  in  a  short  time  the  consumptive 
tendency  of  his  constitution  rendered  it  advisable  to  try 
the  climate  of  Lisbon,  from  which  he  returned  only  to  die, 
at  Norwich,  in  November  1788. 

What  Headley  might  have  produced,  had  he  lived  to 
persevere  in  the  line  of  study  in  which  he  had  engaged, 
may  he  easily  conjectured  from  the  "-Select  Beauties  of 
Ancient  English  Poetry,"  which  he  published  in  1787,  2 
vols.  Svo.  It  may  be  said  to  have  given  a  new  direction  to 
the  public  taste,  and  to  have  pointed  out  to  poetical  anti- 
quaries those  objects  of  research  which  they  have  since 
pursued  with  equal  avidity  and  success.  These  volumes 
soon  became  popular,  and  certainly  possess  various  claims 
to  attention,  whether  we  consider  the  taste  and  judgment 
with  which  the  selection  was  made,  or  the  neatness,  point, 
and  felicitous  discrimination  of  character  with  which  the 
biographical  sketches  are  universally  marked.  Previous  to 
the  appearance  of  this  work,  Mr.  Headley  had  published  a 
small  volume  of  original  poems,  and  is  said  to  have  contri- 
buted some  papers  to  the  u  Olla  Podrida,"  and  to  a  less 
known  periodical  paper,  entitled  "  The  Lucubrations  of 
Abel  Slug,"  of  which  a  few  numbers  only  were  printed.1 

HEARNE  (SAMUEL),  an  enterprising  English  navigator, 
was  born  in  1745  ;  he  was  the  son  of  Mr.  Hearne,  secretary 
to  the  water-works,  London-bridge,  a  very  sensible  man, 
and  of  a  respectable  family  in  Somersetshire  ;  he  died  of  a 
fever  in  his  fortieth  year,  and  left  Mrs.  Hearne  with  this 
son,  then  but  three  years  of  age,  and  a  daughter  two  years 
older.  Mrs.  H.  finding  her  income  too  small  to  admit  her 
living  in  town  as  she  had  been  accustomed,  retired  to  Bim- 
mister,  in  Dorsetshire  (her  native  place),  where  she  lived 
as  a  gentlewoman,  and  was  much  respected.  It  was  her 
wish  to  give  her  children  as  good  an  education  as  the  place 
afforded,  and  accordingly  she  sent  her  son  to  school  at  a  very 
early  period  :  but  his  dislike  to  reading  and  writing  was  so 
great,  that  he  made  very  little  progress  in  either.  His 

1  Biographical  Sketch  prefixed  to  the  Rev.  H.  Kett's  new  edition  of  the 
"  Beauties." — British  Critic,  vol.  XXXV.  an  article  drawn  up  by  one  why  kns\» 
Mr.  Headley  well. 


274  H  E  A  R  N  E. 

masters,  indeed,  spared  neither  threats  nor  persuasion  to 
induce  him  to  learn,  but  their  arguments  were  thrown 
away  on  one  who  seemed  predetermined  never  to  become 
a  learned  man  ;  he  had,  however,  a  very  quick  apprehen- 
sion, and  in  his  childish  sports  shewed  unusual  activity  and 
ingenuity;  he  was  particularly  fond  of  drawing;  and 
though  he  never  had  the  least  instruction  in  the  art,  copied 
with  great  delicacy  and  correctness  even  from  nature. 
Mrs.  Hearne's  friends,  finding  her  son  had  no  taste  for 
study,  advised  tier  fixing  on  some  business,  and  proposed 
such  as  they  judged  most  suitable  for  him  ;  but  he  declared 
himself  utterly  averse  to  trade,  and  begged  he  might  be 
sent  to  sea.  His  mother  very  reluctantly  complied  with 
his  request,  took  him  to  Portsmouth,  and  remained  with 
him  till  he  sailed.  His  captain  (now  lord  Hood)  promised 
to  take  care  of  him,  and  gave  him  every  indulgence  his 
youth  required.  He  was  then  but  eleven  years  of  age. 
They  had  a  warm  engagement  soon  after  he  entered,  and 
took  several  prizes:  the  captain  told  him  he  should  have 
his  share  ;  but  he  begged,  in  a  very  affectionate  manner, 
it  might  be  given  to  his  mother,  and  she  would  know  best 
what  to  do  with  it.  He  was  a  midshipman  several  years 
under  the  same  commander;  but  on  the  conclusion  of  the 
war,  having  no  hopes  of  preferment,  he  left  the  navy,  and 
entered  into  the  service  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  company,  as 
mate  of  one  of  their  sloops.  He  was,  however,  soon  dis- 
tinguished from  his  associates  by  his  ingenuity,  industry, 
and  a  wish  to  undertake  some  hazardous  enterprize  by 
which  mankind  might  be  benefited.  This  was  represented 
to  the  company,  and  they  immediately  applied  to  him  as 
a  proper  person  to  be  sent  on  an  expedition  they  had  long 
had  in  view,  viz. — to  find  out  the  north-west  passage:  he 
gladly  accepted  the  proposal,  and  how  far  he  succeeded  is 
shewn  to  the  public  in  his  Journal.  On  his  return  he  was 
advanced  to  a  more  lucrative  post,  and  in  a  few  years  was 
made  commander  in  chief,  in  which  situation  he  remained 
till  1782,  when  the  French  unexpectedly  landed  at  Prince 
of  Wales' s  Fort,  took  possession  of  it,  and  after  having 
given  the  governor  leave  to  secure  his  own  property,  seized 
the  stock  of  furs,  &c.  &c.  and  blew  up  the  fort.  At  the 
company's  request  Mr.  H.  went  out  the  year  following, 
saw  it  rebuilt,  and  the  new  governor  settled  in  his  habita- 
tion (which  they  took  care  to  fortify  a  little  better  than 
formerly),  and  returned  to  England  in  1787.  He  had 

H  E  A  R  N  E.  275 

saved  a  few  thousands,  the  fruits  of  many  years'  industry, 
and  might,  had  he  been  blessed  with  prudence,  have  enjoyed 
many  years  of  ease  and  plenty  ;  but  he  had  lived  so  long 
where  money  was  of  no  use,  that  he  seemed  insensible  of 
its  value  here,  and  lent  it  with  little  or  no'security  to  those 
he  was  scarcely  acquainted  with  by  name ;  sincere  and 
undesigning  himself,  he  was  by  no  means  a  match  for  the 
duplicity  of  others.  His  disposition,  as  may  be  judged  by 
his  writing,  was  naturally  humane ;  what  he  wanted  in 
learning  and  polite  accomplishments,  he  made  up  in  na- 
tive simplicity  ;  and  was  so  strictly  scrupulous  with  regard 
to  the  property  of  others,  that  he  was  heard  to  say,  a  few 
davs  before  his  death,  "  he  could  lay  his  hand  on  his  heart 
and  say,  he  had  never  wronged  any  man  of  sixpence." 

Sucii  are  the  outlines  of  Mr.  Hearne's  character ;  who, 
if  he  had  some  failings,  had  many  virtues  to  counterba- 
lance them,  of  which  charity  was  not  the  least.  He  died 
of  the  dropsy,  November  1792,  aged  forty-seven.  In  1797 
appeared  his  "Journey  from  the  Prince  of  Wai es's  Fort, 
in  Hudson's  Bay,  to  the  Northern  Ocean  ;  undertaken  by 
order  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  for  the  discovery  of 
Copper-mines,  a  North-west  passage,  &c.  in  the  years 
1769,  1770,  1771,  1772,"  a  volume  which  forms  a  very 
valuable  addition  to  the  discoveries  of  our  enterprizing 

HEARNE  (THOMAS),  an  eminent  English  antiquary, 
and  indefatigable  collector  and  editor  of  books  and  manu- 
scripts, was  the  son  of  George  Hearne,  parish-clerk  of 
White  Waltham,  Berkshire,  by  Edith,  daughter  of  Thomas 
Wise.  He  was  born  at  Littlefteld-green  in  the  above 
parish,  in  1678,  and  baptised  July  1 1th  of  that  year.  He 
appears  to  have  been  born  with  a  taste  for  those  researches 
which  formed  afterwards  the  business  of  his  life  ;  and  even 
when  he  had  but  attained  a  knowledge  of  the  alphabet, 
was  seen  continually  poring  over  the  old  tomb-stones  in 
the  church-yard.  As  to  education,  he  had  very  little.  His 
father,  who  kept  a  writing-school,  and  who,  as  parish- 
clerk,  was  also  a  kind  of  amanuensis  to  the  illiterate  part  of 
his  neighbours,  could  teach  him  English  and  writing,  in 
both  which  he  made  considerable  proficiency  ;  but  he  had 
other  children,  and,  instead  of  being  able  to  place  Thomas 
at  any  superior  school,  was  obliged  to  let  him  earn  his  sub* 

1  European  Mag.  1797. 
T   2 

H  E  A  R  N  E. 

sistence  as  a  day-labourer.  His  natural  abilities,  howe?erf 
appeared  through  this  disadvantage,  and  his  being  a  better 
reader  and  writer  than  could  have  been  expected  from  his 
scanty  opportunities,  recommended  him  to  the  kind  atten- 
tion of  an  early  patron,  whom  he  calls  "  that  pious  and 
learned  gentleman  Francis  Cherry,  esq."  By  this  gentle- 
man, in  whose  house  he  was  for  some  time  a  menial  ser- 
vant, he  was  placed  at  the  free-school  of  Bray  in  Berkshire, 
in  the  beginning  of  1693,  and  rewarded  his  care  by  such 
diligent  application,  as  to  acquire  an  accurate  knowledge 
of  Greek  and  Latin.  He  was  on  this  account  much  re- 
spected both  by  the  master  and  his  fellow-scholars,  who 
were  accustomed  to  consult  him  in  their  little  difficulties, 
and  used  to  listen  to  his  information  respecting  English 
history,  which  his  original  taste  had  led  him  to  study  as 
he  found  opportunity. 

His  patron,  Mr.  Cherry,  pleased  with  the  happy  effects 
of  his  care,  determined  to  take  our  young  antiquary  into 
his  house,  and  maintain  him  as  his  son.  In  this  it  is  said 
he  partly  followed  the  advice  of  the  learned  Mr.  Dodwell, 
who  then  lived  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  had  probably 
watched  the  progress  of  Hearne's  education.  He  was  ac- 
cordingly taken  into  Mr.  Cherry's  house  about  Easter  1695, 
and  his  studies  in  classical  learning  promoted  by  this  gen- 
tleman, or  by  Mr.  Dodwell,  both  taking  that  trouble  with 
him,  which,  from  his  diligence  and  apt  memory,  they 
foresaw  would  not  be  lost.  With  the  same  benevolent 
views,  Mr.  Cherry  sent  him  to  Oxford,  where,  in  Michael- 
mas term  of  the  above  year,  he  was  entered  of  Edmund- 
hall,  but  returned  immediately  after  his  matriculation, 
and  pursued  his  studies  both  at  Mr.  Cherry's,  and  at  the 
school  of  Bray. 

In  Easter  term  1696,  he  came  to  reside  at  Edmund-hall, 
a  society  which  had  probably  been  recommended  to  Mr. 
Cherry  by  Dr.  White  Kennet,  who  was  at  that  time  vice- 
principal,  and  also  rector  of  Shottesbrooke,  which  he  re- 
ceived from  Mr.  Cherry.  The  learned  Dr.  John  Mill  was 
at  this  time  principal.  Both  his  tutor,  Dr.  Kennet,  and 
his  principal,  Dr.  Mill,  appear  to  have  soon  discovered  the 
bent  of  his  studies  ;  and  Dr.  Mill,  who  was  then  employed" 
on  the  appendix  to  his  edition  of  the  Greek  Testament, 
finding  young  Hearne  an  apt  reader  of  MSS.  employed 
him  in  the  laborious  task  of  collation.  It  was  also  at  the 
doctor's  request,  that  when  he  was  about  three  years  stand- 

II  E  A  R  N  E.  277 

ing,  he  went  to  Eton  to  compare  a  MS.  of  Tatian  and 
Athenagoras  in  that  college  library.  The  variations  he 
discovered  were  afterwards  made  use  of  by  Mr.  Worth  in 
his  edition  of  Tatian,  in  1700,  and  by  Dechair  in  his  edi- 
tion of  Athenagoras,  1706;  but  Mr.  Hearne  complains, 
and  with  some  justice,  that  neither  mentioned  the  person 
who  collated  the  MSS.  Hearne' s  own  copy  of  the  varia- 
tions is  now  in  the  Bodleian.  About  this  time  Mr.  Cherry 
sent  for  him  to  Shottesbrooke,  and  employed  him  in  tran- 
scribing sir  Henry  Spelman's  "  History  of  Sacrilege," 
which  was  soon  after  printed  at  London.  Mr.  Dodwell 
also  appears  to  have  employed  him  in  transcribing  two 
copies  of  his  "  Paraenesis."  At  Edmund  Hall  Dr.  Grabe 
availed  himself  of  his  useful  talents  in  transcribing  and  col- 
lating various  old  manuscripts. 

Irr  act  term  1699,  he  took  his  bachelor's  degree,  soon 
after  which  a  proposal  was  made  to  him  by  Dr.  Kennet  to 
go  to  Maryland,  as  one  of  Dr.  Bray's  missionaries.  What 
particular  fitness  Dr.  Kennet  discovered  in  Hearne  for  a 
situation  of  this  kind  we  know  not.  He  says,  indeed,  that 
he  mentioned  him  as  "  a  man  of  a  pious,  sober,  and  stu- 
dious inclination,"  but  we  are  much  mistaken  if  Hearne's 
habits  were  not  at  this  time  irreconcileahle  with  the  func- 
tions of  a  missionary;  and  accordingly  we  find  Dr.  Ken- 
net  endeavouring  to  render  the  office  palatable,  by  inform- 
ing our  antiquary,  that  besides  the  stipend,  &c.  he  was  to 
have  a  library  worth  50/.  was  to  be  librarian  to  the  whole 
province,  and  visitor  of  all  the  public  libraries. 

Hearne,  as  may  be  expected,  had  no  inclination  to  ac- 
cept this  offer,  and  exchange  the  libraries  of  Oxford  for 
those  of  Maryland  ;  and  his  refusal  appears  to  have  been 
sanctioned  by  some,  although  not  all,  of  his  best  friends. 
Having  now  obtained  access  to  the  Bodleian  library,  he 
visited  that  noble  repository  every  day,  and  his  visits  were 
so  long,  and  his  knowledge  of  books  so  visibly  increasing, 
that  in  1701,  when  Dr.  Hudson  was  chosen  librarian,  he 
applied  for  leave  to  employ  him  as  an  assistant,  and  soon, 
found  him  a  very  useful  one.  Having  by  this  official  ap- 
pointment obtained  a  wider  range,  he  began  by  examining 
the  state  of  Dr.  Hyde's  catalogue,  published  in  1674,  and 
finding  it,  from  the  gradual  increase  of  the  library,  very 
defective,  he  endeavoured  to  supply  what  was  wanting  in. 
an  interleaved  copy,  and  afterwards  transcribed  his  ad- 
ditions into  two  volumes,  which  he  entitled  "  Appendix 

278  H  E  A  R  N  E. 

Catalog!  librorum  impressorum  Bibl.  Bod."  This  was  in- 
tended to  have  been  printed  by  itself,  but  it  was  afterwards 
incorporated  with  Hyde's  catalogue.  The  same  service 
Mr.  Hearne  afterwards  performed  for  the  catalogue  of  MSS. 
and  of  coins. 

In  act  term  1703,  betook  his  master's  degree,  and  was 
offered  a  chaplainship  of  Corpus  college  by  Dr.  Turner, 
the  president,  provided  he  could  keep  his  place  in  the 
library;  but  Dr  Hudson  objecting  to  this,  he  declined  it, 
as  he  did,  for  the  same  reason,  a  chaplainship  of  All  Souls. 
He  had  been  made  janitor  of  the  library,  and  in  1712 
succeeded  to  the  place  of  second  keeper,  with  which  he 
was  allowed  to  hold  his  office  of  janitor;  and,  as  he  says, 
it  was  "  by  virtue  of  these  two  offices  being  united  that  he 
still  kept  the  keys  of  the  library,  &c."  In  1713  an  offer 
was  made  to  him  of  the  place  of  librarian  to  the  royal 
society  and  keeper  of  their  museum,  which  he  declined, 
"  his  circumstances  not  permitting  him  to  leave  Oxford." 
It  is  less  accountable  why  he  should  at  this  time  decline 
the  honour  of  being  made  a  fellow  of  this  society.  The 
offer,  however,  shows  that  the  society  thought  him  worthy 
of  it,  and  that,  with  all  his  peculiarities,  he  had  at  this 
time  attained  considerable  reputation  in  the  learned  world. 

In  January  1714-15,  he  was  elected  architypographus, 
and  esquire  beadle  of  civil  law  in  the  university  of  Oxford, 
which  post  he  held,  together  with  that  of  under-librarian, 
till  November  following  ;  but  then,  finding  they  were  not 
tenable  together,  he  resigned  the  beadleship,  and  very 
soon  after  the  other  place  also,  by  reason  of  the  oaths  to 
government,  with  which  he  could  not  conscientiously  com- 
ply. He  continued  a  nonjuror  to  the  last,  much  at  the 
expence  of  his  worldly  interest ;  for,  on  that  account  he 
refused  several  preferments  which  would  have  been  of 
great  advantage  and  very  agreeable  to  him.  So  many  in- 
deed were  the  offers  made,  that  his  motives  for  refusal  must 
have  been  urgent  and  conscientious.  His  enemies  took 
some  pains  to  bring  a  charge  of  inconsistency  against  him, 
by  publishing  <;  A  Vindication  of  those  who  take  the  Oath 
of  Allegiance  to  his  present  majesty."  This  he  wrote 
when  a  very  young  man,  in  king  William's  reign,  but,  as 
he  very  justly  remarks,  it  proves  no  more  than  that  he  had 
viewed  the  question  in  another  light,  and  surely  must  be 
accounted  sincere,  when  we  find  him  refusing  so  many 
profitable  situations.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he 

H  E  A  R  N  E.  27& 

appears  to  have  resided  in  Edmund-hall,  preparing  and 
publishing  his  various  works,  but  not,  as  will  be  noticed  in 
our  catalogue  of  them,  without  interruption  from  what  he 
thought  the  candid  declaration  of  his  political  sentiments 
clashing  with  those  of  the  university,  and  of  the  nation  at 
large.  This,  in  one  or  two  instances,  occasioned  serious 
prosecutions,  and  considering  himself  as  an  injured  man, 
he  was  not  sparing  in  his  censures  of  some  of  his  most 
learned  contemporaries,  who,  in  their  turns,  were  equally 
disrespectful  in  their  notices  of  him.  With  these  disputes 
the  present  age  has  little  to  do,  and  it  owes  too  much  to 
the  industry  of  Hearne  to  trace  his  failings  with  anxious 
care,  or  treat  them  with  the  animosity  that  might  have 
been  natural  in  his  own  times.  How  useful  his  industry 
was,  may  be  estimated  from  the  number  of  valuable  pieces 
which  lie  hid  in  public  or  private  repositories,  of  no  utility 
even  to  the  possessors  of  them,  for  want  of  persons  who 
have  perseverance  enough  to  travel  through  the  drudgery, 
or  spirit  enough  to  hazard  the  expence  of  printing  them. 
By  a  life  of  the  greatest  regularity  and  ceconomy,  Hearne 
was  enabled  in  a  great  measure  to  prevent  this  injury  to 
literature  :  and  his  endeavours  were  assisted  by  the  en- 
couragement of  many  noble  and  opulent  patrons.  It  might 
therefore  be  matter  of  surprize,  though  no  reflection  upon 
his  character,  that  a  sum  amounting  to  upwards  of  1000/. 
was  found  in  his  room  after  his  decease.  His  death,  which 
happened  June  10,  1735,  was  occasioned  by  a  severe  cold 
and  a  succeeding  fever,  which,  being  improperly  treated, 
terminated  in  a  violent  flux.  He  was  buried  in  the  church 
yard  of  St.  Peter's  in  the  East,  where  is  erected  over  his 
remains  a  stone  with  an  inscription  written  by  himself: 
"  Here  lyeth  the  body  of  Thomas  Hearne,  M.  A.  who 
studied  and  preserved  Antiquities.  He  died  June  10, 
1735,  aged  55  years.  Deut.  xxxii.  7.  *  Remember  the 
clays  of  old,  consider  the  years  of  many  generations;  ask 
thy  father,  and  he  will  shew  thee,  thy  elders,  and  they 
will  tell  thee.'  Job  viii.  8,  9,  10.  "  Enquire  I  pray  thee,' 
&c."  -This  stone  was  repaired  by  Dr.  Rawlinson  in  1754. 
As  the  value  of  Hearne' s  labours  have  been  much  under- 
rated, and  indeed  grossly  misrepresented,  in  the  Biog. 
Britannica,  and  its  servile  copyists,  we  shall  make  no 
apology  for  adding  the  sentiments  of  his  Oxford  biogra- 
pher, Mr.  Huddesford  :  "  Since  that  kind  of  study  pur- 
sued by  Mr.  Hearne  is  more  general  now  than  it  was  in 

280  H  E  A  R  N  E. 

his  time,  to  praise  and  speak  well  of  him  will  of  conse- 
quence be  more  safe,  as  it  will  be  better  received.  His 
chief  excellence,  so  often  celebrated,  but  to  the  misfor- 
tune of  learning  so  little  imitated,  was  unwearied  in- 
dustry, which  began  almost  with  his  life,  and  continued  in 
full  vigour  till  within  a  few  weeks  of  his  death.  By  means 
of  this  industry,  and  of  a  good  disposition,  he  raised  him- 
self from  the  lowest  state  of  dependence  to  a  station  of 
ease  and  honour.  When  his  worth  was  in  some  sort  ac- 
knowledged, by  the  offer  of  the  best  offices  the  univer- 
sity had  to  bestow,  he  manifested  uncommon  integrity  in 
declining  those  offers,  because  the  acceptance  of  them 
appeared  to  him  inconsistent  with  the  principles  which  he 
had  adopted.  If  there  was  a  singularity  in  his  exterior 
behaviour  or  manner  which  was  the  jest  of  the  man  of  wit 
and  polite  life,  he  secretly  enjoyed  the  approbation,  fa- 
vour, and  correspondence  of  the  "greatest  men  of  the  age. 
Succeeding  times  have  given  testimony  to  his  abilities, 
which  the  age  in  which  he  lived  so  lightly  esteemed.  It  is, 
at  least,  not  flattery,  to  consider  him  as  a  pattern  to  all 
•whose  duty  it  is,  as  well  as  inclination,  to  unite  much 
learning  and  erudition,  with  the  greatest  plainness  and 
simplicity  of  manners." 

Much  of  Hearne's  personal  history,  opinions,  and  pecu- 
liarities, might  be  derived,  if  a  piece  of  minute  biography 
were  undertaken,  from  his  correspondence,  and  particu- 
larly from  his  manuscript  diary,  of  which  there  are  1 50 
small  paper  books  in  the  Bodleian.  Some  information 
gleaned  from  these  has  lately  been  given  to  the  public  in 
that  valuable  and  curious  work,  "  Letters  written  by  eminent 
persons,  &c."  printed  in  3  vols.  8vo,  1813,  to  which  we  have 
often  to  own  our  obligations.  It  appears  that  Hearne's 
anxiety  to  recover  manuscripts  became  in  him  a  species  of 
religious  enthusiasm,  and  that  he  was  accustomed  to  return 
thanks  in  his  prayers  for  success  of  this  kind  *.  It  is  more 
to  be  regretted  that  his  perpetual  recurrence  to  Jacobite 

*  Of  such  forms  of  thanksgiving,  taken  of  me.  I  continually  meet  with 
the  following  is  a  specimen  ;  and,  we  most  signal  instances  of  this  thy  pro- 
agree  with  the  editor  of  the  "  Letters,"  vidence,  and  one  act  yesterday,  when 
exemplifies  the  native  simplicity  of  I  unexpectedly  met  with  three  old  MSS. 
Hcarne's  character  as  much,  perhaps,  for  which,  in  a  particular  manner,  I 
as  any  anecdote  that  has  descended  to  return  my  thanks,  beseeching  thee  to 
u*.  "  O  most  gracious  and  merciful  continue  the  same  protection  to  me,  a 
L'>rd  God,  wonderful  in  thy  provi-  poor  helpless  sinner,  and  that  for  Je* 
deuce,  I  return  all  possible  thanks  to  sus  Christ  his  sake." 
thee  for  the  care  thou  hast  always 

H  E  A  R  N  E.  281 

sentiments,  in  his  prefaces,  where  they  were  surely  out  of 
place,  created  him  many  enemies,  kept  him  at  perpetual 
variance  with  his  neighbours  in  the  university,  and  pro- 
moted an  irritability  of  temper,  and  a  querulous  disposition, 
which  made  him  unhappy.  For  social  enjoyments  he  was 
not  well  qualified.  His  manners  were  originally  clownish 
and  simple,  and  little  improved  by  his  intercourse  with 
the  world. 

Hearne  left  his  MS  collections  by  will  to  Dr.  William. 
Bedford,  of  whom  Dr.  Rawlinson  purchased  them  tor  an. 
hundred  guineas,  and  at  his  death  bequeathed  them  with 
his  own  MSS.  to  the  Bodleian  library.  Among  other  in- 
jurious reports  at  the  time  of  Hearne's  death,  one  was, 
that  he  died  a  Roman  catholic,  an  imputation  on  the  non- 
jurors  not  very  uncommon  at  that  time,  but  which,  as  to 
Hearne,  has  been  fully  disproved  in  a  letter  printed  by 
Mr.  Huddesford  in  his  life.  Hearne  had  no  more  of  po- 
pery than  antiquaries  in  general,  who  can  never  forgive 
the  injuries  done  to  libraries  at  the  time  of  the  reformation. 

His  publications  were,  1.  "  An  Index  to  L'Estrange's 
translation  of  Josephus,"  1702,  fol.  2.  "  Reliquiae  Bod- 
leianae,  or  some  genuine  remains  of  sir  Thomas  Bodley, 
&c."  1703.  3.  "  Plinii  Fpistolae  et  Paneg\ricus,  &c." 
1703.  4.  "  Eutropius.'  Messala  Corvinus.  Julius  Obse- 
quens,  &c."  1703.  5.  "Indices  tres  locupletissimi  in  Cy- 
rilli  opera,"  Ox.  1733.  6.  "  Ductor  Historicus,"  2  vols. 
They  did  not  come  out  together;  a  second  edition  of  the 
first  was  published  in  1705,  and  the  second  volume  was 
published  in  1704.  Our  author  was  not  solely  concerned 
in  this  work,  some  parts  of  it  being  written  by  another 
hand,  as  was  the  preface.  He  had  made  great  collections 
for  a  third  volume,  but  laid  aside  this  design  upon  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  English  translation  of  Puffendorf's  intro- 
duction, which  begins  where  the  second  volume  of  the 
"  Ductor  Historicus"  ends,  and  continues  the  history  to 
the  present  times.  7.  "  Index  to  Dr.  Ed»vards's  Preserva- 
tive against  Socinianism,"  1740,  4to.  8.  "  Index  to  Cla- 
rendon's History  of  the  Rebellion,"  fol.  1704.  This  "  lit- 
tle work,"  or  opella,  he  informs  us,  he  undertook  at  the 
request  of  dean  Aldrich.  9.  An  edition  of  "  Justin,"  1705, 
a  very  good  one,  compiled  from  four  MSS.  but  not  equal 
in  value  to  his  "  Eutropius."  10.  "  Livy,"  1708,  6  vols. 
#vo,  a  very  accurate  edition,  which,  in  the  opinion  of  Dr. 
Harwocd,  does  honour  to  Hearne,  It  has  of  late  risen  very 

282  H  E  A  R  N  E. 

much  in  price.  11.  "  A  Letter  containing  an  account  of 
some  Antiquities  between  Windsor  and  Oxford,  with  a 
list  of  the  several  pictures  in  the  school  gallery  adjoining 
to  the  Bodleian  library,"  printed  in  1708,  in  the  "  Monthly 
Miscellany,  or  Memoirs  for  the  Curious;"  and  reprinted 
at  the  end  of  the  fifth  volume  of  Leland's  "  Itinerary,"  but 
without  the  list  of  the  pictures  j  for  which,  however,  there 
being  a  demand,  he  reprinted  100  copies  of  the  whole  in 
1725.  12.  "The  Life  of  Alfred  the  Great,  by  sir  John 
Spelman,  from  the  original  MS.  in  the  Bodleian  library, 
1710"  13.  "  The  Itinerary  of  John  Leland  the  antiquary, 
intermixed  with  divers  curious  discourses,  written  by  the 
editor  and  others,  1710,"  9  vols.  A  new  edition  was 
printed  in  1744.  14.  "  Henrici  Dodwell  de  Parma  Equestri 
Wood  ward  iana  dissertatio,"  1713.  Some  expressions  in 
his  preface  to  this  brought  upon  him  a  serious  loss,  as  the 
work  was  prohibited  until  he  had  cancelled  the  offensive 
parts.  Of  this  some  no*  ice  has  already  been  taken  in  our 
account  of  Dodwell.  15.  '*  Lelandi  de  rebus  Bntannicis 
collectanea,"  17  15,  6  vols.  16.  "  Acta  Apostolorum,  Gras- 
co  Latine,  literis  majusculis.  E  codice  Laudiano,  &c. 
1715."  17.  "  Joannis  Rossi  antiquarii  Warwicensis  histo- 
ria  regum  Anglue,  1716."  It  was  printed  again  with  the 
second  edition  of  Leland's  "  Itinerary,"  and  now  goes 
along  with  that  work.  18.  "  Titi  Livii  Foro-Juliensis  vita 
Henrici  V.  regis  Anglire.  Accedit  sylloge  epistolarum  a 
variis  Angliae  principibus  scriptarum,  1716."  19.  "  Aluredi 
Beverlacensis  annales ;  sive  historia  de  gestis  regum  Brit- 
tannin,  &c.  1716."  20.  "  Gulielmi  Roperi  vita  D.  Tho- 
mse  Mori  equitis  aurati,  lingua  Anglicana  coutexta,"  17l6. 
21.  "  Gulielmi  Camdeni  Annales  rerum  Anglicarum  et  Hi- 
bernicarum,  regnante  Elizabetha,"  1717,  3  vols.  22.  "  Gu- 
lielmi Neubrigensis  historia  sive  chronica  rerum  Anglica- 
rum," 1719.  23.  "Thomas  Sprotti  Chronica,  &c."  1719. 
24.  "  A  Collection  of  curious  Discourses  written  by  emi- 
nent antiquaries  upon  several  heads  in  our  English  anti- 
quities," 1720.  25.  "Textus  RorTensis,'  &c."  1720.  26. 
"  Roberti  de  Avesbury  historia  de  mirabiliKus  gestis  Ed- 
wardi  III.  &c.  Appendicem  etiam  subnexuit,  in  qua  inter 
alia  continentur  Letters  of  king  Henry  VIII.  to  Anne  Bo- 
leyne,"  1720.  27.  "  Johannis  de  Fordun  Scotichronicon 
genumum,  una  cum  ejusdem  supplemento  ac  continua- 
tione,"  1722.  28.  "  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  Glas- 
tonbury,  &c."  1722.  29.  "  Hemingi  Chartularium  eccle- 

H  E  A  R  N  E.  283 

sis;  Wigorniensis,  &c."  1723.  30.  "Robert  of  Glouces- 
ter's Chronicle,"  1724,  &c.  in  2  vols.  31.  "  Peter  Lang- 
toft's  Chronicle,  as  illustrated  and  improved  by  Robert  of 
Brune,  from  the  death  of  Cadwaladon  to  the  end  of  king 
Edward  the  Ist's  reign,  £c."  1720,  2  vols.  32.  «'  Johan- 
nis,  confratris  et  monachi  Glustoniensis,  chronica :  sive 
historia  de  rebus  Glastoniensibus,  &c."  1726.  33.  "  Adami 
de  Domerham.  historic  de  rebus  gestis  Glastoniensibus, 
&c."  1727,  2  vols.  34.  "  Thomas  de  Elmham  vita  et  gesta 
Henrici  V.  Anglorum  regis,"  &c.  1727.  35.  "  Liber  niger 
Scaccarii,  &c."  1728,  2  vols.  36.  "  Historia  vitae  et  reg- 
ni  Richardi  II.  Anglioe  regis,  a  monacho  quodam  de  Eve- 
sham  consignata,"  1729.  37.  "  Thomae  Caii  vindiciae  anti- 
quitatisacademiseOxoniensis,  &c."  1730,  2  vols.  38."  Wal- 
teri  Hemingforde,  canonici  de  Gisseburne,  historia  de  re- 
bus gestis  Edvardi  I.  II.  III.  &c."  1731,  2  vols.  39.  "  Duo 
rerurn  Anglicarum  scriptores  veteres,  videlicet,  Thomas 
Otterbourne  et  Johannes  Wethamstade,  ab  ori«ine  gentis 
Britannicae  usque  ad  -Edvardum  IV.  &c."  1733,  2  vols. 
40.  "  Chronicon  sive  annaies  prioratus  du  Dunstable,  &c." 
1733.  41.  "  Benedictus,  abbas  Petroburgensis,  de  vita 
et  gestis  Henrici  II.  Richardi  I.  &c."  1735,  2  vols. 

Such  are  the  general  titles  of  Hearne's  works,  but  it 
must  be  understood  that  almost  every  one  of  these  volumes 
contains  various  articles  relating  to  antiquities  and  biogra- 
phy, perfectly  distinct,  and  indeed  generally  nowise  con- 
nected with  the  principal  subject ;  many  of  which  have 
been  acknowledged  the  most  useful  of  his  productions.  It 
cannot  be  denied,  however,  th:it  he  would  have  been  more 
generally  useful  had  he  now  and  then  questioned  the  im- 
portance of  what  he  was  about  to  publish  ;  but  with  Hearne 
an  old  MS.  seemed  to  possess  an  infallible  claim  to  public 
attention  merely  because  it  was  old  and  unknown.  No- 
body, says  Mr.  Gough,  will  condemn  him  for  the  pains  he 
took  to  preserve  Leland's  pieces  ;  but  Ross's  compendium 
.contains  very  little  that  is  interesting,  and  Alfred  of  Be- 
vcrley,  if  genuine,  is  legendary.  Hearne  himself  seems 
almost  ashamed  of  Sprott's  Chronicle,  to  which,  however,  he 
has  tacked  a  valuable  anonymous  fragment  relating  to  the 
first  eight  years  of  Edward  IVth's  teign.  Avesbury  and 
Elmham's  relations  of  Edward  III.  and  Henry  V.  are  accu- 
rately and  methodically  put  too  ether.  Livius  Koro-julien- 
sis's  life  of  this  last  prince  is  an  elegant  abridgment  of 
Elmham's  too  pompous  work.  Healing's  Chartulary  and 

284  H  E  A  H  N  E. 

the  "  Textus  Roffensis"  are  valuable  collections  of  the 
most  ancient  monuments  of  their  respective  churches. 
Rohert  of  Gloucester's  Chronicle  takes  precedence  of  all 
English  poets.  The  two  monks  of  Glastonbury  are  histo- 
rians of  their  own  house,  of  which  its  English  history  by 
an  anonymous  later  hand  gives  a  tolerable  account.  Death, 
adds  Mr.  Gough,  prevented  Hearne  from  encumbering 
our  libraries  with  a  meagre  history  of  England,  or  additions, 
to  Martin  Polanus's  Annals,  ascribed  to  one  John  Mure- 
lynch,  a  monk  of  Glassenbury,  and  another  from  Brute  or 
Ina  to  Edward  I.  by  John  Bever,  a  monk  of  Westminster, 
borrowed  from  the  "  Flores  Historiarum."  His  friend 
Thomas  Baker,  the  Cambridge  antiquary,  "  often  cau- 
tioned him  against  fatiguing  himself  too  much,  and  over- 
loading his  constitution  ;  but  he  was  not  to  be  advised,  and 
so  died  a  martyr  to  antiquities."  It  appears  from  some  of 
his  correspondence,  that  even  in  his  own  time  his  works 
rose  very  much  in  price,  and  it  is  well  known  that  of  late 
years  they  have  been  among  the  most  expensive  articles 
brought  to  market,  the  best  of  them  being  now  beyond 
the  reach  of  common  purchasers.  A  few  years  ago,  Mr. 
Bagster,  of  the  Strand,  with  a  spirit  of  liberality  and  en- 
terprize,  published  one  or  two  of  them  in  an  elegant  and 
accurate  manner,  as  the  prelude  to  a  reprint  of  the  whole 
series;  but  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  this  scheme  was  soon 
obliged  to  be  abandoned  for  want  of  encouragement. l 

HEATH  (BENJAMIN),  a  lawyer  of  eminence  of  the  last 
century,  and  recorder  of  Exeter,  was  a  celebrated  scholar 
and  an  author.  He  wrote,  1.  "  An  Essay  towards  a  demon- 
strative proof  of  the  Divine  Existence,  Unity,  and  Attri- 
butes ;  to  which  is  premised,  a  short  defence  of  the  argu- 
ment commonly  called  a  priori,"  17iO.  This  pamphlet 
was  dedicated  to  Dr.  Oliver  of  Bath,  and  is  to  be  ranked 
amongst  the  ablest  defences  of  Dr.  Clarke's,  or  rather  Mr. 
Howe's,  hypothesis;  for  it  appears  to  be  taken  from  Howe's 
"  Living  Temple."  2.  "  The  case  of  the  county  of  De- 
von with  respect  to  the  consequences  of  the  new  Excise 
Duty  on  Cyder  and  Perry.  Published  by  the  direction  of 
the  committee  appointed  at  a  general  meeting  of  that 
county  to  superintend  the  application  for  the  repeal  of 

1  Life  of  Hearne  from  his  own  MS.  published  by  Huddesford  with  the  Lives 
of  Lelafcd  and  Wood,  2  vols.  8vo,  m2.— Gent.  Mag.  vols.  LVII.  LVI1I. 
LXIX. — Letters  by  eminent  persons. — Cough's  Topography. — Dibdin's  Biblio- 
grapher, vol.  I.  and  II.— Nichols's  Bowyer. 

HEATH.  285 

that  duty,"  1763,  4to.  To  this  representation  of  the  cir- 
cumstances peculiar  to  Devonshire,  the  repeal  of  the  act  is 
greatly  to  be  ascribed  ;  and  very  honourable  notice  was 
taken  of  it  at  a  general  meeting  or  the  county.  3.  "  Notre 
sive  Lectiones  ad  Tragicorum  Graecorum  veterum,  JEs- 
chyli,  &c."  1752,  4to ;  a  work  which  places  the  author's 
learning  and  critical  skill  in  a  very  conspicuous  light :  a 
principal  object  of  which  was  to  restore  the  metre  of  the 
Greek  tragic  poets.  It  is  highly  valued  by  all  sound  cri- 
tics of  our  own  and  foreign  countries.  He  also  furnished 
the  notes  on  the  Eton  Greek  tragedies.  The  same  solidity 
of  judgment  distinguished  the  author's  last  production,  4. 
"  A  Revisal  of  Shakspeare's  Text,  wherein  the  alterations 
introduced  into  it  by  the  more  modern  editors  and  critics 
are  particularly  considered,"  1765,  8vo.  It  appears  from 
the  list  of  Oxford  graduates,  that  he  was  created  D.  C.  L. 
by  diploma,  March  31,  1762.  He  died  Sept.  13,  1766. 
The  brother  of  this  author,  Mr.  Thomas  Heath,  an  alder- 
man of  Exeter,  published  "  An  Essay  towards  a  new  Ver- 
sion of  Job,"  &c.  in  1755.  This  gentleman  was  father  to 
John  Heath,  esq.  one  of  the  judges  of  the  common  pleas. * 
HEATH  (JAMES),  an  English  historian,  was  born  1629, 
in  London,  where  his  father,  who  was  the  king's  cutler, 
lived.  He  was  educated  at  Westminster-school,  and  was 
elected  to  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  in  1646.  In  1648  he 
was  ejected  thence  by  the  parliament-visitors,  for  his  ad- 
herence to  the  royal  cause  ;  lived  upon  his  patrimony  till 
it  was  almost  spent ;  and  then  married,  which  prevented 
his  return  to  Christ  Church  at  the  restoration,  where  he 
might  have  qualified  himself  for  one  of  the  learned  profes- 
sions. To  maintain  his  family  he  now  commenced  author, 
and  corrector  of  the  press.  He  died  of  a  consumption  and 
dropsy,  at  London,  in  August  1664,  and  left  several  chil- 
dren to  the  parish.  He  published,  1.  "A  brief  Chronicle 
of  the  late  intestine  War  in  the  three  kingdoms  of  Eng- 
land, Scotland,  and  Ireland,  &c."  1661,  8vo,  afterwards 
enlarged  by  the  author,  and  completed  from  1637  to  1663, 
in  four  parts,  1663,  in  a  thick  8vo;  a  work  which,  on  ac- 
count of  the  numerous  portraits,  rather  than  its  intrinsic 
value,  bears  a  very  high  price.  To  this  edition  was  again 
added  a  continuation  from  1663  to  1675  by  John  Philips, 
nephew  by  the  mother  to  Milton,  1676,  folio.  2.  "  Elegy 

1  Nichols's  Bovrye'r. 

286  HEATH. 

upon  Dr.  Thomas  Fuller,"  1661.  3.  "The  glories  and 
magnificent  triumphs  of  the  blessed  Restoration  of  king 
Charles  II.  &c.  1662,"  8vo.  4.  "  Flagellum  ;  or,  the  Life 
and  Death,  Birth  and  Burial,  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  the  late 
usurper,"  1663,  of  which  a  third  edition  came  out  with 
additions  in  1665,  8vo.  5.  "Elegy  on  Dr.  Sanderson, 
bishop  of  Lincoln,"  1662.  6.  "  A  new  book  of  loyal  Eng- 
lish Martyrs  and  Confessors,  who  have  endured  the  pains 
and  terrors  of  death,  arraignment,  &c.  for  the  maintenance 
of  the  just  and  legal  government  of  these  kingdoms  both  in 
church  and  state,"  1663,  12mo.  7.  "Brief  but  exact  Survey 
of  the  Affairs  of  the  United  Netherlands,  &.c."  12mo. 
Heath,  as  a  historian,  is  entitled  to  little  praise  on  account 
of  style  or  argument,  but  his  works  contain  many  lesser 
particulars  illustrative  of  the  characters  and  manners  of 
the  times,  which  are  interesting  to  a  curious  inquirer.  In 
the  meanest  historian  there  will  always  be  found  some 
facts,  of*  which  there  will  be  no  cause  to  doubt  the  truth, 
and  which  yet  will  not  be  found  in  the  best;  and  Heath, 
who  perhaps  had  nothing  but  pamphlets  and  newspapers 
to  compile  from,  frequently  relates  facts  that  throw  light 
upon  the  history  of  those  times,  which  Clarendon,  though 
he  drew  every  thing  from  the  most  authentic  records,  has 
omitted. * 

HEATHCOTE  (RALPH),  an  ingenious  English  divine, 
and  miscellaneous  writer,  descended  of  an  ancient  Derby- 
shire family,  whose  property  was  injured  during  the  civil  wars, 
was  born  Dec.  1  6,  1721,  at  Barrow  upon  Soar,  in  Leicester- 
shire. His  father  was  then  curate  of  that  place,  but  afterwards 
had  the  vicarage  of  Sileby  in  that  county,  and  the  rectory 
of  Morton  in  Derbyshire.  He  died  in  1765.  His  mother 
was  a  daughter  of  Simon  Ockley,  Arabic  professor  at  Cam- 
bridge. He  passed  the  first  fourteen  years  at  home  with 
his  father,  who  taught  him  Greek  and  Latin,  but  in  April 
1736,  sent  him  to  the  public  school  of  Chesterfield,  where 
he  continued  five  years  under  the  rev.  William  Burrow,  a 
learned  man,  and  a  very  skilful  teacher.  In  April  1741r 
he  was  admitted  sizar  of  Jesus  college,  Cambridge,  and  in 
Jan.  1745,  took  his  degree  of  A.  B.  and  soon  after  entered 
intered  into  holy  orders.  In  March  1748  he  undertook  the 
cure  of  St.  Margaret's,  Leicester,  and  the  year  after  was- 
presented  to  the  small  vicarage  of  Barkby,  in  the  neigh- 

1  Ath.  Ox,  Tol.  II.— Letters  by  eminent  persons,  3  vols.  8vo,  1313. 

H  E  A  T  H  C  O  T  E.  287 

bourhood,  which,  with  his  curacy  (worth  50/.  yearly)  he 
says  made  him  "  well  to  live."  In  July  1748,  he  took  his 
master's  degree,  and  at  the  same  time  withdrew  his  name 
from  college,  having  in  view  a  marriage  with  miss  Mar- 
garet Mompesson,  a  Nottinghamshire  la;iy  of  good  family, 
which  tie  accomplished  in  August  1750,  and  whose  fortune, 
in  his  estimation,  made  him  independent.  This  lady  died 
April  12,  1790. 

In  1746  he  published,  at  Cambridge,  a  small  Latin 
work  entitled  "  Historia  Astronomic,  sive  de  ortu  et  pro- 
grt  ssu  astronomic,"  Svo,  a  juvenile,  but  ingenious  per- 
formance, and  which  seems  to  have  made  up  tor  some  little 
want  of  mathematical  fame  when  he  took  his  master's  de- 
gree. On  this  last  occasion  he  distinguished  himself  most 
in  the  classics,  and  appears  to  have  little  disposition  to 
mathematical  and  physical  attainments.  In  1752,  while 
the  Middietonian  controversy  on  the  Miraculous  power, 
&c.  was  still  raging,  although  Dr.  Middleton  himself  was 
dead,  he  published  two  pieces,  one  entitled  "  Cursory 
animadversions  upon  the  Controversy  in  general;"  the 
other,  "  Remarks  upon  a  Charge  by  Dr.  Chapman."  Iii 
1753  he  published  "  A  Letter  to  the  rev.  Thomas  Fother- 
gill,  A.  M.  fellow  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  relating  to 
his  Sermon  preached  before  that  university,  Jan.  30,  1753, 
upon  the  reasonableness  and  uses  of  commemorating  king 
Charles's  Martyrdom,"  which  Mr.  Heathcote  endeavoured 
to  show  was  neither  reasonable  nor  useful. 

These  were  published  without  his  name,  but  his  pamph- 
lets on  the  Middietonian  controversy  attracted  the  notice 
of  Dr.  War-burton,  who  discovered  the  author,  and  send- 
ing him  his  compliments,  offered  him  the  place  of  assist- 
ant preacher  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  with  the  stipend  of  half  a 
guinea  for  each  sermon.  This  was  little,  but  he  accepted 
it,  as  affording  him  an  opportunity  of  living  in  London, 
and  cultivating  learned  society.  He  accordingly  removed 
to  town  in  June  1753,  and  became  one  of  a  club  of  literati 
who  met  once  a  week,  as  he  says,  "  to  talk  learnedly  for 
three  or  four  hours."  The  members  were  Drs.  Jortin, 
Birch,  and  Maty,  Mr.  Welstein,  Mr.  De  Missy,  and  one 
or  two  more. 

On  the  appearance  of  lord  Bolingbroke's  works,  he  pub- 
lished in  1755,  "A  Sketch  of  lord  Boiingbroke's  philoso- 
phy," the  object  of  which  was  to  vindicate  the  moral  attri- 
butes of  the  Deity.  In  the  latter  end  of  the  same  year, 


came  out,  "  The  use  of  Reason  asserted  in  matters  of  Re* 
ligion,  in  answer  to  a  Sermon  preached  by  Dr  Patten  at 
Oxford,  July  13,  1755,"  whom  he  act  used  of  being  a 
Hutchinsonian ;  and,  the  year  after,  a  Defence  of  this 
against  Dr.  Patten,  who  had  replied.  Dr.  Home  also,  a 
friend  to  Dr.  Patten,  animadverted  on  Mr.  Ht  athcote's 
pamphlet:  but  it  seems  not  to  have  been  long  before  ail 
their  sentiments  concurred  ;  at  least,  the  Hutchinsonians 
could  not  blame  Mr.  Heathcote  more  than  he  blamed  him- 
self. "  When,"  says  he,  "  the  heat  of  controversy  was 
over,  I  could  not  look  into  them  (the  pamphlets)  myself, 
without  disgust  and  pain.  The  spleen  of  Middleton,  and 
the  petulancy  of  Warburton,  had  too  much  infected  me." 
This  candid  acknowledgment,  however,  seems  to  justify 
Mr.  Jones's  language  in  his  life  of  bishop  Home.  "  A  Mr. 
Heathcote,  a  very  intemperate  and  unmanly  writer,  pub- 
lished a  pamphlet  against  Dr.  Patten,  laying  himself  open, 
both  in  the  matter  and  the  manner  of  it,  to  the  criticisms 
of  Dr.  Patten,  who  will  appear  to  have  been  greatly  his 
superior  as  a  scholar  and  a  divine,  to  any  candid  reader 
who  shall  review  that  controversy.  Dr.  Patten  could  not 
with  any  propriety  be  said  to  have  written  on  the  Hutchin- 
sonian plan  ;  but  Mr.  Heathcote  found  it  convenient  to 
charge  him  with  it,  &c."  Warburton,  too,  who  had  com- 
plimented Mr.  Heathcote  to  his  face,  speaks  of  him  in  a 
letter  to  Dr.  Kurd  (in  1757)  as  one  whose  "  matter  is  ra- 
tional, but  superficial  and  thin  spread."  He  adds,  "  he 
will  prove  as  great  a  scribbler  as  Comber.  They  are  both 
sensible,  and  both  have  reading.  The  difference  is,  that 
the  one  has  so  much  vivacity  as  to  make  him  ridiculous ; 
the  other  so  little  as  to  be  unentertaining.  Comber's  ex- 
cessive vanity  may  be  matched  by  H.'s  pride  ;  which  I 
think  is  a  much  worse  quality."  In  this  censure  the  reader 
may  perceive  somewhat  that  will  recoil  upon  the  writer, 
but  Heathcote,  we  see,  lived  to  acknowledge  what  was 
amiss,  which  Warburton  did  not. 

In  1763-4-5,  Mr.  Heathcote  preached  the  Boy  lean  lec- 
tures, twenty-four  in  number,  at  St.  James's,  Westminster, 
by  the  appointment  of  the  trustees,  archbishop  Seeker 
and  the  duke  of  Devonshire.  He  published,  however,  only 
two  of  them,  in  1763;  on  the  "  Being  of  a  God,"  which 
soon  passed  into  a  second  edition.  In  1765,  on  the  death 
of  his  father,  he  succeeded  to  the  vicarage  of  Sileby,  and 
in  1766  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Sawtry- All-Saints, 
in  Huntingdonshire  5  and  in  1768  to  a  prebend  in  the  col* 

H  E  A  T  H  C  O  T  E.  289 

legiate  church  of  Southwell.  "  These,"  he  says,  "  in  so 
short  a  compass,  may  look  pompous;  but  their  clear  an- 
nual income,  when  curates  were  paid,  and  all  expences 
deducted,  did  uot  amount  to  more  than  150/."  In  1771 
he  published  "  The  Ireuarch,  or  Justice  of  the  Peace's 
Manna!,"  a  performance  which,  witii  some  singularities  of 
opinion,  was  accounted  both  sensible  and  seasonable.  He 
was  now  in  the  commission  of  the  peace.  A  second  edi- 
tion of  this  work  appeared  in  1774,  with  a  long  dedication, 
to  lord  Mansfield,  with  a  view  to  oppose  the  invectives 
levelled  against  that  illustrious  character  in  a  time  of  po- 
litical turbulence;  and  in  1781  he  published  a  third  edi- 
tion, to  which  he  gave  his  name. 

In  the  summer  of  1785  he  left  London,  and  resided  for 
the  remainder  of  his  life  principally  at  Southwell,  of  which., 
church  he  became,  in  1788,  vicar-general.  He  died  May 
i28,  1795.  He  Jeft  a  son,  RALPH  Heathcote,  esq.  his  ma- 
jesty's minister  plenipotentiary  to  the  elector  of  Cologne, 
and  to  the  landgrave  of  Hesse-Cassel,  who  died  in  Ger- 
many in  1801. 

To  the  preceding  list  of  Dr.  Heathcote's  works,  we  may 
add  that,  at  the  request  of  Mr.  Whiston,  he  wrote  the  life 
of  Dr.  Thomas  Burnet,  the  learned  master  of  the  Charter- 
house, prefixed  to  the  edition  of  his  works  printed  in  I75y ; 
and  in  1761,  on  the  recommendation  of  Dr.  Jortin,  was 
engaged  as  one  of  the  writers  in  the  ftrst  edition  of  this 
Dictionary,  and  contributed  also  some  articles  for  the  se- 
cond, printed  in  1784.  In  1767  he  published  "A  Letter 
to  the  hon.  Horace  Walpole,  concerning  the  dispute  be- 
tween Mr.  Hume  and  Mr,  Rousseau,"  12mo,  which  in  some 
of  the  Reviews  wu*>  supposed  to  be  by  Mr.  Walpole  him- 
self. He  also  published  an  te  Assize  Sermon,*'  and  a 
pamphlet  called  "  Memoirs  of  the  late  contested  election  for 
the  county  of  Leicester,"  1775.  His  "  Irenarch,"  and  the 
dedication  and  notes,  he  scattered  up  and  down,  but  with- 
out alteration,  in  a  miscellaneous  work,  published  in  1786, 
entitled  "  Sylva,  or  the  Wood;'1  an  entertaining  collection 
of  anecdotes,  &c.  which  was  reprinted  in  1783;  and  in 
1789,  he  had  begun  another  .volume  of  miscellanies,  in- 
cluding some  of  his  separate  pieces,  and  memoirs  of  him- 
self, of  which  last  we  have  availed  ourselves  in  the  pre- 
ceding sketch,  from  Mr.  Nichols's  "  Literary  Anecdotes."1 

»  Nichols's  Bowyer.— Cent.  Mag.  LXV.  LXVI.  LXXI.— Jones's  Life  of  Bp. 
Home,  first  edit.  p.  45. — U'arburUm's  Letters  to  Hurd,  4to,  p.  167. 



HEBENSTREIT  (JOHN  ERNEST),  a  celebrated  physician 
and  philologer  of  Leipsic,  was  born  at  Neuenhoff  in  the 
diocese  of  Neustadt,  in  1702.  In  1719,  he  went  to  the 
university  of  Jena,  but,  not  finding  a  subsistence  there, 
removed  to  Leipsic.  He  piassed  the  greater  part  of  his  life 
in  the  latter  university,  and  finally  died  there  in  1756. 
Besides  his  academical  and  physiological  tracts,  he  pub- 
lished, in  1739,  1,  "Carmen  de  usu  partinm,"  or  Physio- 
logia  metrica,  in  8vd.  2.  "  De  homine  sano  et  ajgroto 
Carmen,  sistens  Physiologiam,  Pathologiam,  Hygienen, 
Therapiam,  materiam  medicam,  cum  pnefatione  deantiqua 
medicina,"  Leipsic,  1753,  Svo.  3.  "  Oratio  de  Antiqui- 
tatibus  Romanis  per  Africam  repertis,"  1733,  4to.  4. 
"  Museum  Richterianum,"  &c.  Leips.  1743.  And,  5.  A 
posthumous  work,  entitled  "  Palasologia  therapirc,"  Halae, 
1779,  Svo.  This  author  had  also  an  elder  brother,  JOHN 
CHRISTIAN  Hebenstreit,  who  was  a  celebrated  divine,  and 
profoundly  versed  in  the  Hebrew  language.  Ernesti  has 
published  an  eulogium  of  each,  in  his  "OpuscuhiOratoria."1 

HEBER  (REGINALD),  a  learned  and  amiable  English 
clergyman,  the  second  son  of  Thomas  Heber,  &sq.  of  Mar- 
ton-hall  in  the  deanery  of  Craven,  one  of  the  oldest  families 
in  that  district  of  Yorkshire,  was  born  at  Marton,  Sept.  4, 
1728,  O.  S.  He  had  his  school  education  under  the  rev. 
Mr.  Wilkinson  at  Skipton,  and  the  rev.  Thomas  Hunter  at 
Blackburn,  Lancashire,  afterwards  vicar  of  Weaverham, 
Cheshire,  author  of  "  Observations  on  Tacitus,"  and  other 
works  of  credit.  From  Blackburn  he  'removed  to  the  free- 
school  at  Manchester,  and  on  March  4,  1746--7,  was  en- 
tered a  commoner  of  Brazen-nose  college;  where  his  elder' 
brother,  Richard  Heber,  was  at  that  time  a  gentleman 
commoner.  In  October  1752,  his  father  died,  and  his  mo- 
ther in  the  month  of  March  following.  He  was  admitted 
to  the  degree  of  M.  A.  July  5,  1753,  and  chosen  fellow  of 
the  college  November  15  following,  having  previously  in 
that  year  been  ordained  deacon  by  bishop  Trevor,  Match 
18,  and  priest  by  bishop  Hoadly,  Nov.  1,  to  qualify  him- 
self for  the  fellowship  founded  in  1533  by  William  Clifton, 
subdean  of  York,  for  which  he  was  a  candidate.  He  had 
private  pupils  when  he  was  only  B.  A.  and  was  afterwards 
in  much  esteem  as  a  public  tutor,  particularly  of  gentle- 
men commoners,  having  at  one  time  more  than  twenty  of 

1  Diet.  Hist.— Rees's  Cyclopaedia — Saxii  Onomaat.— Haller  Bib!,  Botsm 

H  E  B  E  R.  291 

that  rank  under  his  care.  In  July  1766,  his  brother  died, 
and,  as  he  left  no  male  issue,  Mr.  Heber  succeeded  to  a 
considerable  estate  at  Hodnet  in  Shropshire,  which  was 
bequeathed  in  1752  to  his  mother,  Elizabeth  Heber,  by 
Henrietta,  only  surviving  daughter  and  heiress  of  sir  Tho- 
mas Vernon  of  Hodnet,  bart.  who  chose  for  her  heir  the 
daughter,  in  preference  to  the  son,  of  her  niece  Elizabeth 
wife  of  Richard  Atherton,  esq.  ancestor  of  Henrietta  wife 
of  Thomas  lord  Liftbrd.  Dec.  5,  1766,  he  was  inducted 
into  the  rectory  of  Chelsea,  the  presentation  to  which  had, 
several  years  before,  been  purchased  for  him  by  his  bro- 
ther and  another  kind  relative.  He  resigned  his  fellowship 
July  1,  1767.  Finding  the  rectorial  house  at  Chelsea  bad 
and  unfinished,  he  in  part  rebuilt  and  greatly  improved  the 
whole,  without  asking  for  dilapidations,  as  the  widow  of 
his  predecessor,  Sloane  Elsmere,  D.  D.  was  not  left  in 
affluent  circumstances.  In  1770,  he  exchanged  Chelsea 
for  the  Upper  Mediety  of  Malpas,  Cheshire,  into  which 
he  was  inducted,  July  25,  on  the  presentation  of  William. 
Drake,  esq.  of  Ainersham,  Bucks ;  whose  eldest  son,  the 
late  William  Drake,  esq.  had  been  one  of  his  pupils  in 
Brazen- nose  college.  In  the  long  incumbency,  and  lat- 
terly non-residence,  of  his  predecessor,  the  honourable  and 
rev.  Henry  Moore,  D.  D.  chaplain  to  queen  Anue,  and  son 
of  the  earl  of  Drogheda,  who  was  instituted  to  Malpas, 
Nov.  26,  1713,  the  parsonage  was  become  ruinous.  Mr. 
Heber  therefore  built  an  excellent  new  house,  on  a  new 
site,  which  commands  an  extensive  view  of  Flintshire  and 
Denbighshire,  and  some  other  counties. 

On  the  death  of  lord  James  Beauclerc,  who  held  the 
rectory  of  Hodnet  in  commendam  with  the  bishopric  of 
Hereford,  Mr.  Heber  was  instituted  to  that  living,  of  which 
he  was  patron,  holding  it  with  Malpas,  from  which  it  is 
distant  about  fourteen  miles.  In  March  1303,  he  succeeded 
to  the  family  estate  in  Yorkshire  by  the  death  of  his  bro- 
thers widow,  Mrs.  Heber  of  Weston,  Northamptonshire, 
who  held  it  in  jointure.  In  the  summer  of  that  year,  re- 
taining still  the  vigour  and  faculties  of  younger  days,  he 
was  present  at  a  very  interesting  sight,  when  his  second 
son,  Mr.  Reginald  Heber,  who  two  years  before  obtained 
the  chancellor's  prize  at  Oxford  for  Latin  verse,  by  his 
very  spirited  and  classical  "  Carmen  Sceculare,"  spoke, 
with  unbounded  applause,  a  second  prize  poem,  the  ad- 
mirable verses  on-"  Palestine,"  since  published, 

U  2 

292  II  E  B  E  R. 

Mr.  Heber  died  Jan.  10,  1804.  In  April  1773,  he  mar- 
ried Mary,  third  daughter  and  co-heiress  of  Martin  Baylie, 
M.  A.  rector  of  Kelsall  and  Wrentbam  in  Suffolk.  She  died 
Jan.  30,  1774,  leaving  an  infant  son,  RICHARD  Heber,  esq. 
afterwards  M.  A.  of  Brazen-nose  college,  1797,  a  gentleman 
well  known  in  the  literary  world,  as  the  judicious  collector 
of  one  of  the  most  extensive  private  libraries  in  the  king- 
dom, and  whose  liberality  in  assisting  men  of  literature 
with  its  valuable  contents,  has  been  often  publicly  acknow- 
ledged, and  cannot  be  too  highly  commended.  In  .July 
1782,  Mr.  Reginald  Heber  married  Mary,  eldest  daughter 
of  Cuthbert  Allanson,  D.  D.  of  Brazen-nose,  rector  of 
Wath  in  Yorkshire,  who  was  for  some  years  before  his 
death  chaplain  to  the  house  of  commons.  By  this  lady  he 
left  a  daughter  Mary,  and  two  sons,  Reginald  and  Thomas 
Cuthbert,  commoners  of  Brazen-nose  college.  Mr.  Heber, 
the  father,  although  a  man  of  taste  and  learning,  published 
little.  He  has,  however,  some  elegant  English  verses  ad- 
dressed to  the  king,  on  his  accession  to  the  throne,  among 
the  Oxford  poems  on  that  occasion,  in  1761.  The  follow- 
ing year  he  published,  but  without  his  name,  tf  An  Elegy 
written  among  the  Tombs  in  Westminster  Abbey,"  printed 
for  Dodsley ;  which  was  afterwards  inserted,  \vithout  his 
knowledge,  in  Pearch's  continuation  of  Dodsley's  Poems. 
The  lines  are  moral,  plaintive,  and  religious.1 

HEBERDEN  (WILLIAM),  an  eminent  physician  and 
very  accomplished  scholar,  was  born  in  London  in  1710, 
and  received  the  early  part  of  his  education  in  that  city. 
At  the  close  of  1724,  he  was  sent  to  St.  John's  college, 
Cambridge,  where  he  proceeded  A.  B.  in  1728,  and  M.  A. 
in  1732.  In  1730  he  obtained  a  fellowship,  and  directed 
bis  attention  to  the  study  of  medicine,  which  he  pursued, 
partly  at  Cambridge,  and  partly  in  London.  Having  taken 
his  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1739,  he  practised  physic  in  the 
university  for  about  ten  years.  During  that  time  he  read 
every  year  a  course  of  lectures  on  the  Materia.Medica,  and 
made  for  that  purpose  a  valuable  collection  of  specimens, 
which  he  presented  to  St.  John's  college  in  1750,  to  which 
society,  about  ten  years  after,  he  presented  soirre  astrono- 
mical instruments.  In  1746  he  became  a  fellow  of  the 
royal  college  of  physicians,  and  two  years  afterwards  leav- 
ing Cambridge,  he  settled  in  London,  and  was  elected 

1  J.ife  by  Mr.  Archdeacon  Clmrtoa  in  Geat.  Ma£.  vol.  LXXIV, 

H  E  B  E  R  D  E  N.  293 

into  the  royal  society  in  1749.  He  very  soon  got  into  great 
business,  which  he  followed  with  unremitting  attention 
above  thirty  years,  till  it  seemed  prudent  to  withdraw  a 
little  from  the  fatigues  of  his  profession.  He  therefore 
purchased  a  house  at  Windsor,  to  which  he  used  ever  after- 
wards to  retire  during  some  of  the  summer  months  ;  but 
returned  to  London  in  the  winter,  and  still  continued  to 
visit  the  sick  for  many  years. 

In  1766  he  recommended  to  the  college  of  physicians 
the  first  design  of  the  "  Medical  Transactions,"  in  which 
he  proposed  to  collect  together  such  observations  as  might 
have  occurred  to  any  of  their  body,  and  were  likely  to  illus- 
trate the  history  or  cure  of  diseases.  The  plan  was  soon 
adopted,  and  three  volumes  have  successively  been  laid 
before  the  public,  in  1768,  1772,  and  1785.  Among  the 
useful  communications  contained  in  these  volumes,  the 
papers  of  Dr.  Heberden  himself  are  most  prominent  in 
number  and  value.  His  account  of  a  fatal  disorder  of  the 
chest,  which  he  denominated  Angim  pectoris,  first  called 
the  attention  of  physicians  to  it,  as  an  idiopathic  disease  : 
and  the  numerous  cases  of  it,  which  have  since  been  pro- 
mulgated, evince  its  frequency  and  importance.  In  this 
work,  also,  Dr.  Heberden  first  gave  an  accurate  descrip*. 
tioii  of  the  chicken-pox,  pointing  out  its  diagnostic  symp- 
toms with  precision,  chieHy  with  a  view  to  prevent  the  very 
easy  mistake  of  confounding  it  with  a  mild  small-pox.  Dr. 
Heberden  communicated  some  other  papers  to  the  royal 
society,  which  were  printed  in  its  Transactions. 

In  1778,  the  royal  society  of  medicine  in  Paris  chose 
him  into  the  number  of  their  associates.  He  declined  all 
professional  business  several  years  before  his  death,  which 
did  not  take  place  until  May  17,  1801,  when  he  was  in  his 
ninety-first  year. 

"  From  his  early  youth  he  had  always  entertained  a  deep 
sense  of  religion,  and  a  consummate  love  of  virtue,  an  ar- 
dent thirst  after  knowledge,  and  an  earnest  desire  to  pro- 
mote the  welfare  and  happiness  of  all  mankind.  By  these 
qualities,  accompanied  with  great  sweetness  of  manners, 
he  acquired  the  love  and.  esteem  of  all  good  men,  in  a  de- 
gree which  perhaps  very  few  have  experienced  ;  and  after 
passing  an  active  life  with  the  uniform  testimony  of  a  good 
conscience,  he  became  an  eminent  example  of  its  in*- 
fluence,  in  the  cheerfulness  and  serenity  of  his  latest  age." 

To  this  character,  part  of  a  sketch  of  his  life  prefixed  to 


his  "  Commentaries,0  published  in  1802,  much  might  be 
added.  No  physician,  indeed,  was  ever  more  highly  or 
more  deservedly  respected.  His  various  and  extensive 
learning,  his  modesty  in  the  use  of  it,  his  freedom  from 
jealousy  or  envy,  his  independent  spirit,  his  simple  yet 
dignified  manners,  and  his  exemplary  discharge  of  all  the 
relative  duties,  are  topics  on  which  all  who  knew  him  de- 
light to  dwell.  Mr.  Cole,  who  bestows  very  high  praise 
on  him,  an  article  in  which  that  gentleman  was  in  general 
penurious,  gives  us  the  following  anecdote  of  Dr.  Heber- 
den,  which  corresponds  with  the  above  account  of  his 
reverence  for  religion.  "  Understanding  that  Dr.  Con. 
Middleton  had  composed  a  book  on  the  '  Inefficacy  of 
Prayer,'  he  called  upon  his  widow  soon  after  the  Dr.'s 
death,  and  asked  her  if  she  was  not  in  possession  of  such 
a  tract?  She  answered  that  she  was ;  he  then  asked  her,  if 
any  bookseller  had  been  in  treaty  with  her  for  it?  She  said 
that  a  bookseller  had  offered  her  50l.  for  it.  He  then  de- 
manded, if  there  was  a  duplicate  ?  '  No :'  upon  that  he 
requested  to  see  it,  and  she  immediately  brgught  it,  and 
put  it  into  his  hands.  The  Dr.  holding  it  in  one  hand, 
and  giving  it  a  slight  perusal,  threw  it  into  the  fire,  and 
with  the  other  hand  gave  her  a  50/.  note."  This  anecdote 
Mr.  Cole  had  from  Dr.  Newton,  bishop  of  Bristol.  It  is 
certain  that  Dr.  Middleton's  widow  bequeathed  her  hus- 
band's remaining  MSS.  to  Dr.  Heberden,  from  which,  in, 
1761,  he  obliged  the  learned  world  with  a  curious  tract, 
entitled  "  Dissertations  de  servili  Medicorum  conditione 
Appendix,"  &c.  ;  with  a  short  but  elegant  advertisement 
of  his  own.  In  1763,  a  most  valuable  edition  of  the  "  Sup- 
plices  Mulieres"  of  Euripides,  with  the  notes  of  Mr.  Mark- 
land,  was  printed  entirely  at  the  expence  of  Dr.  Heber- 
den ;  and,  in  1763,  the  same  very  learned  commentator 
presented  his  notes  on  the  two  Jphigenix,  "  Doctissimo, 
&  quod  longe  prastantius  est,  humanissimo  viro  Wilhelmo 
Heberden,  M.  D.  arbitratu  ejus  vel  cremandtE,  vel  in  pub- 
licum  emittendae  post  obiturn  scriptoris,"  &c.  He  wrote 
the  epitaph  in  Dorking  church  on  Mr.  Markland,  who  had 
"bequeathed  to  him  all  his  books  and  papers.  One  of  these, 
a  copy  of  Mill's  Greek  Testament  in  folio,  the  margin 
filled  with  notes,  was  kindly  lent  by  Dr.  Heberden,  "  with 
that  liberal  attention  to  promote  the  cause  of  virtue  and 
religion  which  was  one  of  his  many  well-known  excel- 
lences," to  the  publisher  of  the  last  edition  of  Mr.  Bowyer's 

H  E  B  E  R  D  E  N.  295 

"  Conjectures  on  the  New  Testament,  1782,"  4to.  To 
Dr.  Heberden  Mr.  Bowyer  also  bequeathed  his  "  little, 
cabinet  of  coins,  a  few  books  specifically,  and  any  others, 
which  the  doctor  might  chuse  to  accept."  To  Dr.  H.'s 
other  publications,  we  may  add  his  "  ANTI0HPIAKA,  an 
Essay  on  Mithridatium  and  Theriaca,"  1745,  3vo.  He 
was  also  a  writer  in  the  "  Athenian  Letters,"  and  in  his 
early  life  contributed  some  notes  to  Grey's  "  Hudibras,"  as 
acknowledged  by  that  editor  in  his  preface. 

Dr.  Heberden  married,  Jan.  19,  1760,  Mary,  eldest 
daughter  of  William  Woilastou,  esq.  by  whom  he  had  five 
sons  and  three  daughters,  who  all  died  before  him,  except 
Dr.  William  Heberden,  one  of  his  majesty's  puysiciuns, 
and  Mary,  the  eldest  daughter,  married  to  the  rev.  George 
Jenyns,  prebendary  of  Ely.  His  son  published  in  1802,  a 
Latin  and  English  edition  of  his  father's  last  work,  entitled 
"  Gulielmi  Heberden  Commentarii  de  Morborum  Historia 
et  Curatione,"  in  Svo.  These  faithful  records  of  expe- 
rience are  related  with  perfect  candour,  and  without  any 
admixture  of  hypothesis :  the  powers  of  medicine,  how- 
ever, are  estimated  with  that  moderation  which  arises  from 
the  scepticism  of  long  life  and  practice,  and  which  some 
have  thought  carried  a  little  too  far  in  this  work;  yet  a 
work,  like  this,  formed  on  the  most  accurate  observation, 
cannot  be  too  often  referred  to  by  medical  practitioners 
and  medical  writers,  both,  as  a  source  of  instruction  and 
as  a  model.1 

HECHT  (CHRISTIAN),  a  German  protestant  divine,  was 
born  at  Halle  in  Saxony  in  1696,  and  hecame  minister  of 
Essan  in  East  Friezeland,  where  he  died  in  1748.  He 
wrote  several  treatises  in  the  German  language,  and  some 
in  Latin,  the  most  esteemed  of  which  are  his  "  Com  men- 
tatio — de  secta  Scribarum,"  and  "  Antiquitas  Haraeorum 
inter  Judaeos  in  Poloniue  et  Turcici  Imp.  regionibus.  floren- 
tis  sectrc,"  &c.2 

HECHT  (GODFREY),  by  some  said  to  be  a  brother  of 
the  preceding,  was  born  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  at  Juterbach,  and  educated  at  Wittemberg. 
In  1711  he  was  appointed  rector  of  the  college  of  Luccau, 
where  he  died  in  1721.  His  principal  works  are  on  matters 
of  biography  and  antiquities;  particularly  "  Germania 

>  JLif«  prefixed  to  the  Commentaries.— -Nichols's  Bowyer.— Cole's  MS  Atben» 
in  Brit,  Mus.  *  Diet,  Hist, 

296  II  E  C  H  T. 

sacra  et  literaria,"  1717,  8vo;  "  De  Hcnrico  Guelfo  Leone 
— -  commentarius,"  1715,  4to  ;  "Vita  Joannis  Tezeli ;" 
"  Memoria  Joannis  Lucani,"  &.C.1 

HECQ.UET  (Pinup),  a  French  physician    of  singular 
merit  and  skill,  hut  a  strong  partizan  of  the  use  of  warm 
water  and  of  Weeding,  for  which  reason  he  was  ridiculed 
by  Le  Sage  in  his  Gil  Bias,  under  the  name  of  Dr.  San- 
grado,  was  born  at  Abbeville,  in  1661,  and  practised  first 
in  that  city,  then  at  Port-royal,  and  lastly  at  Paris.     He 
was  not  properly  san  grado,  for  he  took  the  degree  of  doc- 
tor in  1697  ;  and  in  1698  had  more  business  than  he  could 
attend.     Though  attached  to  the  most  simple  mode  of  life, 
he  was  obliged  to  keep  his  carriage,  in  which   he  studied 
with  as  much  attention  as  in  bis  closet.     In   1712,  he  was 
appointed  dean  of  the  faculty  of  medicine,   and  superin- 
tended   the   publication  of  a   sort  of   dispensary,   called, 
"  The  New  Code  of  Pharmacy,"  which  was  published  some 
time  afterwards.     Hecquet  was  no  less  zealous  in  religious 
matters  than  studious   in   his  own  profession,  and  is  said 
never  to  have  prescribed  in  doubtful  cases,  without  having 
a  previous  recourse  to  prayer.     He  lived  in  the  most  ab- 
stemious manner,  and  in  1727  retired  to  a  convent  of  Car- 
melites in  Paris,  where  he  continued  accessible  only  to  the 
poor,  to  whom  he  was  a  friend,  a  comforter,  and  a  father. 
He  died  April  1 1,  1737,  at  the  age  of  seventy-six.    He  was 
interred  in  the  church  of  the  CaYmelites,  where  is  a  monu- 
ment with  a  Latin  inscription  by  Rollin.     This  able  phy- 
sician published  several  works,  nene   of  them  devoid   of 
merit.    They  are  thus  enumerated  :  1.  "  On  the  indecency 
of  men-midwives,  and  the  obligation  of  women   to  nurse 
their  own  children,"  1728,  12mo.    The  reasons  he  adduces 
on  these  subjects  are  both  moral  and  physical.     2.   "A 
Treatise  on  the  Dispensations  allowed  in  Lent,"  1705,  and 
1715,  2  vols.  12mo.     His  own  abstemious  system  inclined 
him  very  little  to  allow  the  necessity  of  any  indulgence; 
and  it  is  said  that  when  he  visited  any  of  his  wealthy  pa- 
tients, he  went  into  the  kitchen,  and  embraced  the  cooks 
and  officers  of  that  department,  acknowledging  that  they 
were  the  best  friends  the  faculty  had.     3.   "  On  Digestion, 
and  the  Disorders  of  the  Stomach,"  in  2  vols.  12mo.     4. 
"  Treatise  on  the  Plague,"  12mo.     5.  "  Novus  Medicine 
conspectus,"  2  vols.  12mo.     6.  "  Theological  Medicine,'* 

\  Moreri. 

H  E  C  Q  U  E  T.  297 

J  vols,  12mo.  7.  "Natural  Medicine,"  ditto.  8.  "  De 
purganda  Mediciftl  a  curarum  sordibus,"  12mo.  9.  "Ob- 
servations on  Bleeding  in  the  Foot,"  I2mo.  10.  "The 
Virtues  of  common  Water,"  2  vols.  12mo.  This  is  the 
work  in  which  he  chiefly  supports  the  doctrines  ridiculed 
by  Lft  Sage.  1  I.  "  The  abuse  of  Purgatives,"  12mo.  12. 
"  The  roguery  of  Medicine),"  in  tlm-e  parts,  12:no.  13. 
"The  Medicine,  Surgery,  and  Pharmacy  of  the  Poor,"  3 
vols.  I2mo;  the  best  edition  is  in  1742.  1  *.  "The  Na- 
tural History  of  Convulsions,"  in  which  he  very  saga- 
ciously referred  the  origin  of  those  disorders  to  roguery  in 
some,  a  depraved  imagination  in  others,  or  the  conse- 
quence of  some  secret  malady.  The  life  of  this  illustrious 
physician  has  been  written  at  large  by  M.  le  Fevre  de  St. 
Marc,  and  is  no  less  edifying  to  Christians  than  instructive 
to  medical  students.1 

HEDELIN  (FRANCIS),  at  first  an  advocate,  afterwards 
an  ecclesiastic,  and  abbe  of  Auhignac  and  Meimac,  was 
born  at  Paris  in  1604.  Cardinal  Richelieu,  whose  nephew 
he  educated,  bestowed  on  him  his  two  abbeys,  and  the 
protection  of  that  minister  gave  him  consequence  both  as 
a  man  of  the  world  and  as  an  author.  He  figured  by  turns 
as  a  grammarian,  a  classical  scholar,  a  poet,  an  antiquary, 
#  preacher,  and  a  writer  of  romances;  but  he  was  most 
known  by  his  book  entitled  "  Pratique  du  Theatre,"  and 
by  the  quarrels  in  which  his  haughty  and  presumptuous 
temper  engaged  him,  with  some  of  the  most  eminent 
authors  of  his  time.  The  great  Corneille  was  one  of  these, 
whose  disgust  first  arose  from  the  entire  omission  of  his 
name  in  the  celebrated  book  above  mentioned.  He  was 
also  embroiled,  on  different  accounts,  with  madame  Scu- 
deri,  Menage,  and  Richelet.  The  warmth  of  his  temper 
exceeded  rhat  of  his  imagination,  which  was  considerable; 
and  yet  he  lived  at  court  a  good  deal  in  the  style  of  a  phi- 
losopher, rising  early  to  his  studies,  soliciting  no  favours, 
and  associating  chiefly  with  a  few  friends,  as  unambitious 
as  himself,  lie  describes  himself  as  of  a  slender  constitu- 
tion, not  capable  of  taking  much  exercise,  or  even  of  ap- 
plying very  intensely  to  study,  without  suffering  from  it  in 
his  health ;  yet  not  attached  to  any  kind  of  play.  "  It  is," 
»ays  he,  "  too  fatiguing  for  the  feebleness  of  my  body,  or 
too  indolent  for  the  activity  of  «iy  mind."  The  abbe  iT  Au- 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  IJjst. 

29S  H  E  D  £  L  I  N. 

bignac  Irred  to  the  age  of  seventy-two,  and  died  at 
xnours  in  1676.  His  works  are,  1.  "  Pratique  du  Theatre," 
Amsterdam,  1717,  two  vols.  8vo;  also  in  a  4to  edition  pub- 
lished at  Paris  ;  a  book  of  considerable  learning,  but  little 
calculated  to  inspire  or  form  a  genius.  2.  "  Zenobie,"  a 
tragedy,  in  prose,  composed  according  to  the  rules  laid 
clown  in  his  "  Pratique,"  and  a  complete  proof  of  the  total 
inefhcacy  of  rules  to  produce  an  interesting  drama,  being 
the  most  dull  and  fatiguing  performance  that  was  ever  re- 
presented. The  prince  of  Conde  said,  on  the  subject  of 
this  tragedy,  "  We  give  great  credit  to  the  abbe  d'Auhig- 
nac  for  having  so  exactly  followed  the  rules  of  Aristotle, 
but  owe  no  thanks  to  the  rules  of  Aristotle  for  having  made 
the  abb£  produce  so  vile  a  tragedy."  He  wrote  a  few  other 
other  tragedies  also,  which  are  worse,  if  possible,  than 
Zenobia.  3.  u  Macaride  ;  or  the  Queen  of  the  Fortunate 
Islands,"  a  novel,  Paris,  1666,  2  vok  8vo.  4.  "  ConseiU 
cTAriste  a  Celimene,  I2mo.  5.  "  Histoire  da  terns,  ou  Re- 
lation du  Royaume  de  Coqueterie,"  12mo,  6.  "  Terence 
justifie,"  inserted  in  some  editions  of  his  "  Pratique."  7. 
"  Apologie  de  Spectacles,"  a  work  of  no  value.  A  curious 
book  on  satyrs,  brutes,  and  monsters,  has  been  attributed 
to  him  ;  but,  though  the  author's  name  was  Hedelin,  hq 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  the  same.1 

or  Grossen-hayn,  in  Misnia,  was  born  in  1675.  His  first 
publication  was  an  edition  of  Empedocles  "  de  Sphsera," 
xvith  his  own  notes,  and  the  Latin  version  of  Septimius 
Florens,  in  1711,  Dresden,  4to.  He  then  published  a 
"Notitia  Auctorum,"  1714,  8va.  His  celebrated  "  Greek 
Lexicon'*  was  published,  first  at  Leipsic,  in  1722,,  8vo,  and 
has  been  republished  here  with  many  additions,  by  Young, 
Patrick,  and  Morell.  It  was  also  much  improved  by  Er- 
nesti,  and  repubiished  at  Leipsic  in  1767.  Hedench 
published  other  lexicons  on  different  subjects,  and  died  in 
1748.  Erncsti  says  of  him,  that  he  was  a  good  man,  and 
very  laborious,  but  not  a  profound  scholar  in  Greek,  nor 
well  qualified  for  compiling  a  lexicon  for  the  illustration 
of  Creek  authors.2 

HEDGES  (Sir  CHAHLES),  a  civilian  and  statesman  of 
some  note,  was  educated  both  at  Magdalen- hall  and  cok* 

1  Chnnfepie.— Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. — Nieeron,  vol.  IV.  and  X. 
8  Diet.  Hist. — Saxii  Otfqnaast. 

H  E  D  G  E  &  299 

lege,  Oxford,  where  he  commenced  M.  A.  May  31,  1673, 
and  LL.  D.  June  26,  1675.  Engaging  in  the  profession  of 
the  civil  law,  he  acquired  considerable  eminence,  and  in 
March  1686  was  appointed  chancellor  and  vicar-general 
of  Rochester,  by  a  patent,  for  life,  probably  upon  the  re- 
signation of  sir  William  Trumball,  who  was  going  as  am- 
bassador to  the  Ottoman  court.  This  promotion  was  soon 
after  followed  by  his  acquisition  of  the  mastership  of  the 
faculties,  and  the  dignity  of  judge  of  the  high  court  of 
admiralty,  of  which  sir  Richard  Raines  was  dispossessed, 
and  on  whose  demise  some  years  afterwards,  he  became 
judge  of  the  prerogative  court  of  Canterbury.  His  pro- 
gress in  political  life  was  equally  successful,  for  he  re- 
ceived the  honour  of  knighthood,  and  served  in  parliament 
for  Orford  in  Suffolk  in  1698,  for  Malmsbury  in  Wilts  in 
1701  and  1702;  for  Calne,  in  1702;  and  for  two  Cornish 
boroughs  from  1705  to  1713.  He  was  advanced  to  be  one 
of  the  principal  secretaries  of  state,  Nov.  5,  1700,  under 
king  William,  and  again,  May  2,  I1) 02,  under  queen  Anne. 
It  was  he  that  drew  up  the  much-debated  act  of  abjura- 
tion in  1701.  In  parliament,  it  is  said,  he  voted  with  the 
vvhigs  or  tories,  as  his  interest  prompted,  but  his  attach- 
ment was  to  the  tories,  who  procured  his  promotion  to  the 
office  of  secretary  of  state.  The  whigs,  however,  prevailed 
on  queen  Anne  to  dismiss  him  from  tliat  trust  in  1706,  with 
a  proviso  that  he  should  be  judge  of  the  prerogative  court 
on  the  death  of  sir  Richard  Raines,  which,  we  have  already 
said,  he  lived  to  enjoy,  although  for  a  short  time.  He  died 
at  Richmond,  June  10,  1714. * 

HEDIO  (CASPAR),  one  of  the  early  reformers,  was  born 
in  14l>5,  at  Etlinggen,  in  the  marquisate  of  Baden;  and 
educated  at  Friburg,  where  he  took  his  master  of  arts  de- 
gree. Thence  he  went  to  Basil,  studied  divinity,  and  com- 
menced doctor  of  philosophy  and  divinity  about  1520. 
Having  imbibed  the  principles  of  the  reformed  religion,  he 
inculcated  it  with  great  success,  as  preacher  in  the  church 
at  Mentz,  until  the  violence  of  persecution  obliged  him  to 
go  to  Strasburgh  in  1523,  where,  under  the  sanction  of 
the  senate,  he  co-operated  with  Capito  and  Bucer  in  the 
reformation.  Here  he  married  in  1533  In  1543  Her- 
man, bishop  of  Cologn,  wishing  to  promote  the  cause  in 
his  diocese,  invited  Bucer  and  Hedio,  who  were  very  sue- 

1  MS  account  by  Dr,  Ducarel.— -Coote's  Catalogue  of  Civilians, 

3GO  II  EDI  O. 

cessful,  until  driven  away  by  the  emperor  and  the  Spa- 
niards. Hedio  made  his  escape  with  much  difficulty,  and 
returned  to  Strasburgh,  where  he  composed  most  of  his 
works,  and  where  he  died  Oct.  17,  1552.  His  original 
\vorks,  enumerated  by  Melchior  Adam,  are  theological, 
historical,  and  philological;  besides  which,  he  was  editor 
of  some  parts  of  the  Fathers.1 

HEDWIG  (JoiiN),  a  celebrated  botanist,  was  born 
Oct.  8,  17 SO,  at  Cronstadt,  in  Transylvania,  where  his  fa- 
tbi-r  was  one  of  the  magistrates.  After  the  first  rudiments 
of  domestic  education  at  home,  he  studied  for  four  years 
at  the  public  school  of  his  native  town.  On  the  death  of 
his  father  in  1747,  he  went  for  further  improvement  to  the 
university  of  Presburg  in  Hungary,  where  he  remained 
two  years,  and  then  proceeded  toZittau  in  Upper  Lusatia. 
In  1752  he  removed  to  Leipsic,  where  his  diligence  and 
talents,  as  well  as  his  personal  character,  procured  him 
the  favour  and  friendship  of  the  celebrated  Ludwig  in  par- 
ticular, by  whose  lectures  of  various  kinds,  as  well  as  those 
of  Hebenstreit,  Boehmer,  and  others,  he  rapidly  and 
abundantly  profited.  In  1756,  he  was  taken  into  the  house 
of  professor  Bose,  to  assist  him  in  the  demonstration  of 
plants-  in  his  botanical  lectures,  as  well  as  in  the  care  of 
patients  at  the  infirmary;  and  it  is  supposed  that  this  en- 
gagement was  full  as  advantageous  to  the  master  as  to  the 
pupil.  Having  at  length  finished  his  studies,  he  was  de- 
fcirons  of  settling  as  a  physician  in  Ills  native  place,  but 
was-  prevented  by  an  exclusive  la\v  in  favour  of  such  as  are 
educated  in  some  Austrian  school.  In  1759  he  took  bis 
degree  of  doctor  of  physic  at  Leipsic,  and  was  induced  to 
establish  himself  at  Chemnitz.  He  was  now  so  far  master 
of  his  own  time,  that  he  found  himself  able  to  alleviate  the 
labours  of  his  profession  by  almost  daily  attention  to  bis 
favourite  studies.  His  morning  hours  in  summer,  from 
five  till  breakfast-time,  were  spent  in  the  fields  and  woods, 
and  his  evenings  in  the  investigation  of  what  he  had  col- 
lected, or  else  in  the  care  of  a  little  garden  of  his  own.  To 
pursue  with  success  his  inquiries,  he  found  it  necessary,  at 
forty  years  of  age,  to  learn  drawing,  which  enabled  him 
to  publish  some  of  the  most  curious  and  authentic  botanical 

1  Melchior  Adaui  in  viiis  ThcQlogovum. — Fuller's  Abel  Redivivus.— -  Jcrtin's 

H  E  I>  W  I  G.  30* 

The  first  and  greatest  fruit  of  Heclvvig's  labours,  was  the 
determination  of  the  mule  and  female  Mowers  of  mosses,  the 
theory  of  which  was  h'rst  clearly  detailed  by  him.  He 
also  first  beheld  the  bladder-like  anther,  of  the  Liuneeaii 
Biyum  pulvinaliun,  discharging  its  pollen,  on  the  17th  of 
January,  177O.  He  was  already  satisfied  that  what  Lin- 
nteus,  misled  by  Dillenius  against  his  own  previous  opi- 
nion, had  taken  for  anthers,  were  in  fact  the  capsules  of 
mosses,  and  produced  real  (seed.  A  history  of  his  disco- 
veries was  published  in  a  German  periodical  work  at  Leip- 
sic  in  1779.  In  1782  appeared  his  valuable  "  Fuiuiamen- 
tum  Historise  Nuturalis  Muscorum  Frondosorum,"  a  baud- 
some  Latin  quarto,  in  two  parts,  with  20  coloured  micro- 
scopical plates.  The  earliest  account  given  of  Hedwig's 
opinions  in  England,  was  from  the  communications  of  the 
late  professor  J.  Sibthorp,  who  had  just  then  visited  him, 
to  Dr.  Smith,  in  1786,  and  is  annexed  to  a  translation  of 
Limiaeus's  "  Dissertation  on  the  Sexes  of  Plants,"  pub- 
lished that  year. 

Hedwig  lost  his  first  wife  in  1776,  and  again  married  a 
very  accomplished  lady  the  following  year,  who  was,  like 
the  former,  a  native  of  Leipsic.  By  her  persuasion  he  re- 
moved to  Leipsic  in  1781,  and  the  following  year  die  work 
above  mentioned  was  there  published.  The  same  subject 
is  happily  followed  up  in  his  "  Theoria  generationis  et 
fructificationis  plant  arum  cryptogamicarum  Linnaet,"  pub- 
lished at  Petersburgh  in  1784.  This  work  gained  its  author 
the  prize  from  that  academy  in  1783,  of  100  gold  ducats. 
In  it  the  fructification  and  germination  of  mosses  is  further 
illustrated,  and  a  view  is  also  taken  of  the  fructification  of 
the  other  cryptogam ic  families,  the  author  being  very  na- 
turally desirous  of  extending  his  discoveries  throughout 
that  obscure  tribe  of  plants.  A  new  and  encreased  edition 
of  this  work  appeared  in  1798. 

The  literary  fame  of  Hedwig,  und  his  medical  practice, 
were  now  every  day  increasing.  He  was  made  physician 
to  the  town  guards,  and  professor  of  physic  and  of  botany  at 
Leipsic.  The  latter  appointment,  in  which  he  succeeded 
Dr.  Pohl  removed  to  Dresden  in  1789,  was  accompanied 
with  a  house,  and  the  superintendance  of  the  public  gar- 
den. In  1791  the  senate  appointed  him  physician  to  the 
school  of  St.  Thomas.  The  duties  of  all  these  various  sta- 
tions might  be  supposed  to  have  fully  occupied  his  time, 
yet  he  still  found  leisure  ta  attend  to  new  communications 

302  H  E  D  W  I  G. 

from  his  friends.  Many  nondescript  mosses  were  sent  him 
from  Pennsylvania  by  the  rev.  Dr.  Muhienberg,  and  many 
West- Indian  ones  by  Dr.  Swartz.  A  fine  collection  of 
new  or  rare  ferns,  in  full  fructification,  was  forwarded  to 
him  by  sir  Joseph  Banks,  at  the  suggestion  of  Dr.  Smith, 
in  hopes  that  he  might  be  induced  to  take  up  their  exami- 
nation ;  it  not  being  then  known  in  this  country,  that  lie 
was  already  intent  on  the  subject,  and  preparing  his  essay 
for  the  Petersburgh  academy.  The  fruits  of  these  com- 
munications were  not  given  to  the  world  in  his  life-time. 
But  the  former  ones  contributed,  with  other  matter,  to  a 
posthumous  work,  pablished  by  his  able  pupil  Dr.  Schwae- 
grichen,  entitled  "  Species  Muscorum,"  in  4to,  with  77 
coloured  plates ;  and  the  latter  to  some  subsequent  works 
of  his  son; 'but  his  great  work  is  his  "  Cryptogam  ia»" 
1787 — 1797,  4  Vols.  fol.  the  figures  in  which  are  given 
with  a  fidelity  rarely  to  be  seen.  Hedvvig  died  Feb.  17, 
1799.  As  an  observer  and  faithful  describer,  he  cannot 
be  ranked  too  high ;  as  a  vegetable  physiologist,  if  not 
always  infallible,  he  stands  in  the  first  order;  and  his  know* 
ledge  was  enhanced  by  modesty,  candour,  affability,  the 
strictest  probity,  and  the  most  elevated  piety.  His  scien- 
tific character  in  other  respects  is  well  delineated  in  our 


HEERBRAND  (JAMES),  a  German  divine,  and  one  of 
the  propagators  of  the  reformation,  was  born  at  Nurem- 
berg in  1521.  He  was  educated  in  the  principles  of  the 
reformed  religion  by  his  father,  and  happened  to  be  at 
school  at  Ulm,  when  Erasmus's  Colloquies  were  prohibited, 
as  containing  too  many  reflections  on  the  papists ;  but 
Heerbrand  continued  to  read  them  privately,  and  imbibed 
their  spirit.  After  a  classical  education  at  Ulm,  his  father 
sent  him  to  Witteniberg  in  1538,  to  hear  Luther  and  Me- 
lanctbon,  Bugenhagius,  and  other  divines  ;  and  in  1540  he 
commenced  M.  A.  After  five  years*  study  here,  he  was 
ordained  deacon  at  Tubingen,  where  he  prosecuted  his 
studies,  and  where  in  1547  he  married.  The  year  fol- 
lowing, as  he  objected  to  the  Interim,  he  was  banished 
from  Tubingen,  but  was  soon  recalled,  and  made  pastor  of 
Herenberg.  In  1550  he  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.  and  this-/ 
being  about  the  time  of  the  council  of  Trent,  he  endea- 

J  Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  by  DivS 

H  E  E  R  B  R  A  N  D.  303 

toured  to  make  himself  master  of  the  controversy  between 
the  Roman  catholic  and  reformed  church,  by  a  careful 
study  of  the  Fathers.  In  1559  he  was  invited  by  Charles, 
marquis  of  Baden,  to  assist  in  the  reformation  in  his  domi- 
nions; and  while  here  he  prescribed  a  form  for  the  ordina- 
tion of  ministers.  Very  soon  after,  he  was  chosen  divinitv- 
professor  at  Tubingen,  and  expounded  the  Pentateuch  in 
his  lectures,  and  preached  statedly.  In  this  city,  likewise, 
he  wrote  his  answer  to  Peter  Soto,  "  De  Ecclesia,  pa'.ribus, 
et  conciliis,"  which  was  afterwards  printed.  In  1 557  he 
was  chosen  successively  rector  and  chancellor  of  the  uni- 
versity, and  pastor  and  superintendant  of  the  church. 
Having  rejected  some  valuable  offers  to  remove  to  other 
universities,  lie  fixed  his  final  residence  at  Tubingen, 
where  prince  Christopher  giving  him  some  land,  he  built 
a  house ;  and  when  old  age  obliged  him  to  remit  his  labours, 
a  stipend  was  allowed  him.  He  died  at  Tubingen,  of  a 
.lethargic  complaint  in  1600.  He  was  a  man  of  great  learn- 
ing, and  happil  >  adapted  to  the  times  in  which  he  lived  ; 
and  appears  to  have  been  consulted  in  difficult  emergen- 
cies by  many  of  the  German  princes  and  noblemen.  Of 
his  works,  which  are  numerous,  both  in  German  and  Latin, 
the  principal  are,  "  Compendium  Theologian,"  and  Hiany 
theological  dissertations  and  lives.1 

HEEHE  ( LUCAS  DE),  a  painter  of  considerable  fame, 
when  there  were  few  who  deserved  it,  was  born  at  Ghent, 
in  1534,  the  son  of  John  de  Heere,  the  best  statuary  of 
his  time ;  and  Anne  Smyters,  who  had  the  reputation  of 
being  a  most  surprising  pain  tress  of  landscapes  in  minia- 
ture. Van  Mander  gives  almost  an  incredible  account  of 
one  performance  of  that  female  artist.  From  such  parents 
De  Heere  had  a  fair  prospect  of  gaining  every  necessary 
part  of  instruction  ;  and  having  under  their  direction 
learned  to  design  and  handle  the  pencil  with  ease  and  free- 
dom, he  was  placed  as  a  disciple  with  Francis  Fioris.  With 
that  master  he  improved  very  expeditiously,  and  on  quit- 
ting his  school  travelled  to  France,  where  he  was  employed 
for  some  years  by  the  queen-mother,  in  drawing  designs 
for  tapestry.  At  his  return  to  his  native  city,  he  painted 
a  great  number  of  portraits  with  applause;  and  was  re- 
markable for  having  so  retentive  a  memory,  that  if  he  save 
any  person  but  once,  he  could  paint  his  likeness  as  strong 

'  >Ie1«W<jr  Adam.— Fflehrri  Thcatfura, 

304  H  E  E  R  E. 

4s  if  he  had  his  model  before  his  eyes.  On  the  shutters  of 
the  altar-piece  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter  at  Ghent,  he 
painted  the  Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost  on  the  Apostles,  in 
which  the  draperies  are  extremely  admired  ;  and  in  the 
church  of  St.  John  he  painted  an  altar-piece  representing 
the  Resurrection. 

His  manner  was  stiff,  resembling  that  of  his  master;  but 
m  the  colouring  of  the  heads  of  his  portraits  there  appears 
a  great  deal  of  nature  and  clearness ;  and  he  is  very  com- 
mendable for  his  high  finishing,  as  welt  as  for  giving  a  full- 
ness to  his  draperies.  This  artist  resided  for  several  years 
in  England,  where  many  of  his  portraits  of  the  nobility  are 
still  preserved,  and  much  esteemed,  such  as  lady  Jane 
Grey,  lord  Darnley  husband  of  Mary  queen  of  Scotland, 
Frances  duchess  of  Suffolk,  &c.  and  at  Longleate  there  is 
a  large  picture  of  a  gentleman,  his  wife  and  family,  con- 
sisting of  eight  persons.  Soon  after  he  came  to  England, 
he  painted  a  naked  man  with  different-coloured  clothes 
lying  besides  him,  and  a  pair  of  sheers  in  his-  hand,  as  a 
satire  on  our  fickleness  in  fashion  ;  it  is  illustrative  of  a 
verse  by  Andrew  de  Borde,  who  in  his  "  Introduction  to 
Knowledge,"  has  prefixed  to  the  first  chapter  a  naked 
maa  with  these  lines: 

f<  I  am  an  Englishman,  and  naked  I  stand  here, 
Musing  in  mind  what  raiment  I  shall  wear." 

De  Heere,  before  he  died,  which  happened  in  1584,  in 
the  fiftieth  year  of  his  age,  returned  to  Ghent  j  but  his  last 
works  are  unknown.1 

HEERKENS  (GERARD  NICHOLAS),  a  native  of  Gro- 
ningen,  was  one  of  the  most  elegant  Latin  poets  that  part 
of  Europe  has  produced  for  a  century  past.  Of  his  early 
life  we  have  no  memorials.  In  176o"he  went  to  Italy,  and 
became  acquainted  with  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  that 
period,  and  seems  to  have  joined  the  cultivation  of  the  modern 
Italian,  with  that  of  the  ancient  classical  taste,  which  he  had 
before  imbibed,  and  of  which  be  gave  an  excellent  specimen 
in  his  work  "  De  Valetudine  Literatorum,"  Leyden,  1749, 
8vo,  and  again  more  decidedly  in  his  "  Satyra  de  moribus  Par- 
hisiorumet  FrUiae,"  1750,  4to;  "  De  Oflicio  mectici  poema, 
dedicated  to  cardinal  Quirini,"  Groningen,  1752,  8vo ; 
1  Iter  Veiietum,"  which  he  published  at  Venice,  when  on 

1  PilkingtoiK—Walpole's  Anecdo  es-. 

H  E  E  R  K  E  N  S.  305 

his  tour  in  1760,  and  which  displays  the  feeling,  taj»te,  and 
sentiment  of  a  refined  scholar.  At  Rome  he  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Arcadi,  and  under  the  name  which  he  as- 
sumed in  compliance  with  the  usual  practice  of  that  society, 
he  published  in  the  above-mentioned  year  "  Marii  Cu- 
rulii  Groningensia  satyrse,"  8vo.  In  this  his  satire  is  free 
and  poignant,  yet  without  merciless  severity,  and  his  Latin 
uncommonly  pure.  In  1764,  after  his  return  home,  he 
published  his  "  Notabilia,"  2  books,  and  two  more  under 
the  same  title  in  1770,  containing  many  anecdotes  of  the 
Italian  literati,  and  notices  of  his  own  history  and  opinions. 
His  other  publications  are,  "  Anni  rustici  Januarius,"  Gro- 
ningen,  1767  ;  and  "  Aves  Frisicse,"  Rotterdam,  1787, 
in  which  he  describes  in  Ovidian  style,  and  with  a  happy 
imitation  of  that  poet,  ten  different  birds;  the  lark,  the  cross- 
bill, the  inagpy,  &c.  The  notes  to  this  poem  evince  a  great 
knowledge  of  natural  history,  and  many  facts  respecting 
these  birds  which  are  not  generally  known.  Heerkens  was 
a  physician,  but  of  his  character  or  practice  in  that  pro- 
fession we  have  no  information.  The  Diet.  Hist,  mention* 
Jiis  death  as  having  taken  place  in  1780,  whicli  must  be 
wrong,  as  in  the  last- mentioned  publication  he  promises  a 
continuation.  It  does  not  appear  that  he  was  dead  ia 
1803,  when  Saxius  published  his  last  volume.1 


HEGES1PPUS,  an  ecclesiastical  historian  of  the  second 
century,  lived  before  or  near  the  time  of  Justin  Martyr. 
He  came  to  Home  about  the  year  157,  while  Anicetus  was 
bishop  there,  and  continued  in  that  capital  till  the  year 
185,  in  friendship  and  communion  with  Anicetus,  and 
with  Soter  and  Eleutherus,  his  two  successors  in  office, 
and  is  accounted  to  have  been  sound  in  the  orthodox  faith 
respecting  the  divinity  of  Christ.  He  is  thought  to  have 
died  about  the  year  180.  He  wrote  an  ecclesiastical  his- 
tory from  the  commencement  of  the  Christian  aera  to  his 
own  time,  of  which  a  few  fragments  only  have  been  pre- 
served by  Eusebius.  As  to  five  books  of  the  Jewish  war 
which  have  been  ascribed  to  him,  and  which  are  in  the 
"  Bibl.  Patrum,"  as  well  as  separately  printed  at  Cologn, 
in  1559,  8vo,  they  are  generally  allowed  to  have  been  the 
production  of  some  later  author.2 

,   •  Diet.  Hist. — Saxii  Onovnast. — Mouth.  Rev.  vol.  LXXVII. 
8  Cave. —  Oupia. — Lariqer's  Works. 


306  H  E  I  D  A  N  U  S. 

HEIDANUS  (ABRAHAM),  a  learned  protestant  divine, 
professor  of  theology  at  Leyden,  was  born  August  10, 
1597,  at  Frakenthal,  in  the  palatinate.  He  acquired 
great  reputation  by  his  sermons  and  writings ;  was  the  in- 
timate friend  of  Descartes,  and  died  at  Leyden,  October 
15,  1678,  leaving  several  children.  Heidanus  was  author 
of  a  "  System  of  Divinity,"  1686,  2  vols.  4to,  and  other 
valuable  works  ;  among  them,  "  An  Examination  of  the 
Remonstrant's  Catechism,"  4to,  "  De  origine  Erroris,"  &c.' 

HEIDEGGEfl  (JOHN  HENRY),  a  protestant  divine  of 
Switzerland,  was  born  at  Ursevellon,  a  village  near  Zu- 
rich, July  1,  1633.  He  was  first  a  teacher  of  Hebrew  and 
philosophy  at  Heidelberg,  then  of  divinity  and  ecclesias- 
tical history  at  Steinfurt ;  and  lastly,  of  morality  and  di- 
vinity at  Zurich,  where  he  died  Jan.  18,  1698.  He  pub- 
lished, 1.  "  Exercitationes  selectee  de  Historia  sacra  Pa- 
triarcharum,"  in  2  vols.  4to,  the  first  of  which  appeared 
at  Amsterdam  in  1667,  the  latter  in  1671.  2.  "  De  ra- 
tione  studiorum  opuscula  aurea,"  &c.  Zurich,  1670,  12mo. 

3.  "  Tumulus  Tridentini   Concilii,"    Zurich,    1690,  4to. 

4.  "Historia  Papatfts,"   Amst.  1698,  4to.     There  is  also 
ascribed   to  him,  5.  A  tract  "  De  peregrinationibus  reli- 
giosis,"  in  1670,  8vo.     And,  6.  "  A  System  of  Divinity," 
1700,  folio.2 

HEIDEGGER  (JOHN  JAMES),  a  very  singular  adven- 
turer, was  th«  son  of  a  clergyman,  and  a  native  of  Zurich, 
in  Switzerland,  where  he  married,  but  left  his  country  in 
consequence  of  an  intrigue.  Having  had  an  opportunity 
of  visiting  the  principal  cities  of  Europe,  he  acquired  a 
taste  for  elegant  and  refined  pleasures,  which  by  degrees 
qualified  him  for  the  management  of  public  amusements. 
In  1708,  when  he  was  near  fifty  years  old,  he  came  to  Eng- 
land on  a  negotiation  from  the  Swiss  at  Zurich  ;  but  failing 
in  his  embassy,  he  entered  as  a  private  soldier  in  the 
guards  for  protection.  By  his  sprightly  engaging  conver- 
sation, and  insinuating  address,  he  soon  became  a  favou- 
rite with  our  young  people  of  fashion,  from  whom  he  ob- 
tained the  appellation  of  "  the  Swiss  count,"  by  which 
name  he  is  noticed  in  the  "  Tatler."  He  had  the  address 
to  procure  a  subscription,  with  which  in  1709  he  was  en- 
abled to  furnish  out  the  opera  of  "  Thomyris,"  which  was 

1  Gen.  Diet. — Moreri. 

9  Niceron,  vol.  XVU.— M«rori.— Saicii  Onomast. 


written  in  English,  and  performed  at  the  queen's  theatre 
in  the  Haymarket,  with  such  success,  that  he  g  ined  by 
this  performance  alone  500  guineas.  The  judicious  re- 
marks he  made  on  several  detects  in  the  conduct  of  our 
operas  in  general,  and  the  hints  he  threw  out  for  improving 
those  entertainments,  soon  established  his  character  as  a 
theatrical  critic.  Appeals  were  made  to  his  judgment; 
and  some  very  magnificent  and  elegant  decorations,  intro- 
duced upon  the  stage  in  consequence  of  his  advice,  gave 
such  satisfaction  to  George  II.  who  was  fond  of  operas, 
that  his  majesty  was  pleased  from  that  time  to  countenance 
him,  and  he  soon  obtained  the  chief  management  of  the 
opera-house  in  the  Haymarket.  He  then  undertook  to 
improve  another  species'of  diversion,  not  less  agreeable  to 
the  king,  the  masquerades,  and  over  these  he  always  pre- 
sided at  the  king's  theatre.  He  was  likewise  appointed 
master  of  the  revels.  The  nobility  now  caressed  htm  so 
much,  and  had  such  an  opinion  of  his  taste,  that  all  splen- 
did and  elegant  entertainments  given  by  them  upon  par- 
ticular occasions,  and  all  private  assemblies  by  subscription, 
were  submitted  to  his  direction,  for  which  he  was  liberally 

From  the  emoluments  of  these  several  employments,  he 
gained  a  regular  and  considerable  income;  amounting,  it 
is  said,  in  some  years  to  5000/.  which  he  spent  with  much 
liberality,  particularly  in  the  maintenance  of  perhaps 
somewhat  too  luxurious  a  table  ;  so  that  it  may  be  said  he 
raised  an  income,  but  never  a  fortune.  His  charity  was 
so  great,  that  after  a  successful  masquerade  he  has  been 
known  to  give  away  several  hundred  pounds  at  a  time. 
u  You  know  poor  objects  of  distress  better  than  I  do,"  he 
would  frequently  say  to  the  father  of  the  gentleman  who 
furnished  this  anecdote,  "  Be  so  kind  as  to  give  away  this 
money  for  me."  This  well-known  liberality,  perhaps, 
contributed  much  to  his  carrying  on  that  diversion  with  so 
little  opposition  as  he  met  with. 

That  he  was  a  good  judge  of  music,  appears  from  his 
opera;  but  this  is  all  that  is  known  pf  his  mental  abilities*; 

*  Pope  (Dunciad,  I.  289),  calls  the  strange  bird  from  Switzerland,  and  not 

bird  which  attended  on  the  goddess,  (as  some  have  supposed)  the  n»me  of 

" a  monster  of  a  fowl,  an  eminent  person,  who  wss  a  man  of 

Something   betwixt    a   Heidegger  and  parts,  and,  as  was  said  of  Petrouiu*, 

owl."  Arbiter  Elegaotiarum." 
And  explains  Heidegger  to  mean  "  a 

X  2 


unless  it  may  be  added  in  honour  to  his  memory,  that  hfc 
walked  from  Charirrg-cross  to  Temple-bar  and  back  again, 
and,  when  he  Came  home,  wrote  down  every  sign  on  each 
side  the  Strand. 

As  to  his  person,  though  he  was  tall  and  well-made,  it 
was  not  very  pleasing,  from  an  unusual  hardness  of  fea- 
tures*. But  he  was  the  first  to  joke  upon  his  own  ugli- 
ness ;  and  he  once  laid  a.  wager  with  the  earl  of  Chester- 
field, .that  within  a  certain  given  time  his  lordship  woukl 
not  be  able  to  produce  so  hideous  a  face  in  all  Londort. 
After  strict  search,  a  woman  was  found,  whose  features  were 
at  first  sight  thought  stronger  than  Heidegger's ;  but,  upon 
clapping  her  head-dress  upon  himself,  he  was  universally 
allowed  to  have  won  the  wager.  Jolly,  a  well-known  tay- 
lor,  carrying  his  bill  to  a  noble  duke;  his  grace,  for  eva- 
sion, said,  "  1  never  will  pay  you  till  you  bring  me  an 
uglier  fellow  than  yourself!"  Jolly  bowed  and  retired, 
wrote  a  letter,  and  sent  it  by  a  servant  to  Heidegger,  say- 
ing, "  his  grace  wished  to  see  him  the  next  morning  on 
particular  business."  Heidegger  attended,  and  Jolly  was 
tjiere  to  meet  him  ;  and  in  consequence,  as  soon  as  Hei- 
degger's visit  was  over,  Jolly  received  the  cash. 

The  late  facetious  duke  of  Montagu  (the  memorable 
contriver  of  the  bottle-conjuror  at  the  theatre  in  the  Hay- 
market)  gave  an  entertainment  at  the  Devfl  tavern,  Temple- 
bar,  to  several  of  the  nobility  and  gentry,  to  whom  he  im- 
parted his  plot.  Heidegger  was  invited,  and  a  few  hours 
after  dinner  was  made  drunk,  and  laid  insensible  upon  a  bed. 
A  profound  sleep  ensued  ;  when  the  late  Mrs.  Salmon's 
daughter  was  introduced,  who  took  a  mould  from  his  face 
in  plaster  of  Paris.  From  this  a.  mask  was  made,  and  a  few 
days  before  the  next  masquerade  (at  which  the  king  pro- 
mised to  be  present,  with  the  countess  of  Yarmouth)  the 
duke  made  application  to  Heidegger's  valet  de  chambre, 
to  know  what  suit  of  clothes  he  was  likely  to  wear ;  and  then 
procuring  a  similar  dress,  and  a  person  of  the  same  stature-, 
lie  gave  him  his  instructions.  On  the  evening  of  the  mas- 
querade, as  soon  as  his  majesty  was  seated  .(who  was  always 
known  by  the  conductor  of  the  entertainment  and  the  of- 
ficers of  the  court,  though  concealed  by  his  dress  from  the 
company),  Heidegger,  as  usual,  ordered  the  music  to  play 

*  There  is  a  metzotinto  of  Heideg-     loo,  a  slrikiog  likeness.     His  facj»  is 
nr  by  J.  Fabcr,   1742,  (other  copies      also   introduced  in  more  than  oire\>f 
1749)  from  a  painting  by  Van-      Hogarth's  print* 


•  f-'fv\  save  th.e  King;"  but  his  back  was  no  sooner  turned,, 
thiwi  the  false  Heidegger  ordered  them  to  strike  up  "  Charly 
over  the  Water."  The  whole  company  were  instantly 
thunderstruck,  an;!  all  the  courtiers  not  in  the  plot  were 
throw. i  into  a  stupid  consternation.  Heidegger  flew  to  the 
rriu.sic-gf'.!lery,  stamped  and  raved,  and  accused  the  mu- 
si..iiins  of  drunkenness,  or  of  Wing  set  on  by  some  secret 
enemy  to  ruin  him.  The  king  and  the  countess  laughed 
so  immoderately,  that  they  hazarded  a  discovery.  While 
Heidegger  stayed  in  the  gallery,  "  God  save  the  King" 
was  the  tune  ;  but  when,  after  setting  matters  to  rights, 
lie  retired  to  one  of  the  dancing-rooms,  to  observe  if  de- 
corum was  kept  by  the  company,  the  counterfeit  stepping 
forward,  and  placing  himself  upon  the  floor  of  the  theatre, 
just  in  front  of  the  music  gallery,  called  out  in  a  most  au- 
dible voice,  imitating  Heidegger,  and  asked  them  if  he 
had  not  just  told  them  to  play  "  Charly  over  the  Water?'1 
A  pause  ensued  ;  the  musicians,  who  knew  his  character, 
in  their  turn  thought  him  either  drunk  or  mad  ;  but,  as  he 
continued  his  vociferation,  "  Charly"  was  played  again. 
At  this  repetition  of  the  supposed  affront,  some  of  the  of- 
ficers of  the  guards,  who  always  attended  upon  these  oc- 
casions, were  for  ascending  the  gallery,  and  kicking  the 
musicians  out;  but  the  late  duke  of  Cumberland,  who 
could  hardly  contain  himself,  interposed.  The  company 
were  thrown  into  great  confusion.  "  Shame!  Shame!" 
resounded  from  all  parts,  and  Heidegger  once  more  flew 
in  a  violent  rage  to  that  part  of  the  theatre  facing  the  gal- 
lery. Here  the  duke  of  Montagu,  artfully  addressing  him- 
self to  him,  told  him  "the  king  was  in  a  violent  passion  ; 
that  his  best  way  was  to  go  instantly  and  make  an  apology, 
for  certainly  the  musicians  were  mad,  and  afterwards  to 
discharge  them."  Almost  at  the  same  instant  hq  ordered 
the  false  Heidegger  to  do  the  same.  The  scene  now  be- 
came truly  comic  in  the  circle  before  the  king.  Heideg- 
ger had  no  sooner  made  a  genteel  apology  for  the  insolence 
of  his  musicians,  but  the  false  Heidegger  advanced,  and 
in  a  plaintive  tone  cried  out,  li  Indeed,  Sire,  it  was  not 
my  fault,  but  that  devil's  in  my  likeness."  Poor  Heideg- 
ger turned  round,  stared,  staggered,  grew  pale,  and  could 
not  utter  a  word.  The  duke  then  himianely  whispered  in 
his  ear  the  sum  of  his  plot,  and  the  counterfeit  was  ordered 
to  take  off  his  mask.  Here  ended  the  frolic  ;  but  Heideg- 
ger swore  he  would  never  attend  any  public  amusement,  if 


that  witch  the  wax-work  woman  did  not  break  the  mould, 
and  melt  down  the  mask  before  his  face. 

Being  once  at  supper  with  a  large  company,  when  a 
question  was  debated,  which  nation  of  Europe  had  the 
greatest  ingenuity;  to  the  surprise  of  all  present,  he  claimed 
that  character  for  the  Swiss,  and  appealed  to  himself  for 
the  truth  of  it.  "  I  was  born  a  Swiss,"  said  he,  "  arid 
came  to  England  without  a  farthing,  where  I  have  found 
means  to  gain  5000/.  a  year,  and  to  spend  it.  Now  I  defy 
the  most  able  Englishman  to  go  to  Switzerland,  and, either 
to  gain  that  income,  or  to  spend  it  there."  He  died  Sept. 
4,  1749,  at  the  advanced  age  of  ninety  years,  at  his  house 
a:  Richmond,  in  Surrey,  where  he  was  buried.  He  left 
behind  him  one  natural  daughter,  miss  Pappet,  who  was 
married  Sept.  2,  1750,  to  captain  (afterwards  admiral  sir 
Peter)  Denis.  Part  of  this  lady's  fortune  was  a  house  at 
the  north-west  corner  of  Queen -square,  Ormond -street, 
which  sir  Peter  afterwards  sold  to  the  late  Dr.  Campbell, 
and  purchased  a  seat  in  Kent,  pleasantly  situated  near 
Westram,  then  called  Valence,  but  now  (by  its  present 
proprietor,  the  earl  of  Hillsborough)  Hill  Park.1 

HEINECCIUS  (JOHN  GOTLIEB),  a  German  lawyer,  was 
born  at  Eisemberg  in  1681,  and  trained  in  the  study  of 
philosophy  and  law.  He  became  professor  of  philosophy 
at  Hall,  in  1710,  and  of  law  in. 1721,  with  the  title  of 
counsellor.  In  1724  he  was  invited  to  Franeker ;  and 
three  years  after,  the  king  of  Prussia  influenced  him  to 
accept  the  law-professorship  at  Franc  fort  upon  the  Oder. 
Here  he  continued  till  1733,  when  the  same  prince  almost 
forced  him  to  resume  the  chair  at  Hall,  where  he  remained 
till  his  death,  in  1741,  although  he  had  strong  invitations 
from  Denmark,  Holland,  &c.  His  principal  works  (for 
they  are  numerous)  are,  1.  "  Antiquitatum  Romanorum 
Jurisprudentiam  illustrantium  syntagma ;"  the  best  edi- 
tion of  which  is  the  fifth,  published  at  Lewarden,  in  1777. 
2.  "  Elementa  Juris  Civilis  secundum  ordinem  Institutio- 
num  &  Pandectarum,"  2  vols.  8vo.  3.  "  Elementa  Phi- 
losophic Rationalis  &  Moralis,  quibus  pnemissa  historia 
Philosophical'  This  is  reckoned  a  good  abridgment  of 
logic  and  morality.  4.  "  Historia  Juris  Civilis,  Romani  ac 
Germanici."  5.  "  Elementa  Juris  Naturae  &  Gentium," 
which  was  translated  into  English  by  Dr.  Turnbull.  6, 

>  Nichols's  inecdotes  of  Hogarth.— Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Miwic. 

H  E  I  N  E  C  C  I  U-3.  311 

"  Fundamenta  styli  cultioris;"  a  work  of  his  youth,  but 
much  approved,  and  often  reprinted,  with  notes  by  Ges- 
ner  and  others,  Also  several  academic  dissertations  upon 
various  subjects.  His  works  were  published  collectively 
at  Geneva  in  1744,  and  form  8  vols.  in  4to.  His  brother, 
JOHN  MICHAEL,  deacon  of  the  church  of  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Paul  at  Goslar,  who  died  in  1722,  wrote  many  works  of 
reputation  in  his  country,  among  which  is  his  "  Account 
of  the  Antiquities  of  Goslar  and  the  neighbouring  places;" 
and  his  view  of  the  ancient  and  modern  Greek  church.1 

HEINECKEN  (CHRISTIAN  HENRY),  a  child  greatly  ce- 
lebrated for  the  wonderfully  premature  developemerit  of 
his  talents,  but  whose  history  will  require  strong  faith,  was 
born  at  Lubeck,  Feb.  6,  1721,  and  died  mere  June  27, 
1725,  after  having  displayed  the  most  amazing  proofs  of 
intellectual  powers.  He  could  talk  at  ten  months  old,  and 
scarcely  had  completed  the  first  year  of  his  life,  when  he 
already  knew  and  recited  the  principal  facts  contained  in 
the  five  books  of  Moses,  with  a  number  of  verses  on  the 
creanon  ;  at  thirteen  months  he  knew  the  history  of  the  Old 
Testament,  and  the  New  at  fourteen  ;  in  his  thirtieth  month, 
the  history  of  the  nations  of  antiquity,  geography,  anato- 
my, the  use  of  maps,  and  nearly  8000  Latin  words.  Be- 
fore the  end  of  his  third  year,  he  was  well  acquainted  with 
the  history  of  Denmark,  and  the  genealogy  of  the  crowned 
heads  of  Europe ;  in  his  fourth  year  he  had  learned  the 
doctrines  of  divinity,  with  their  proofs  from  the  Bible;  ec- 
clesiastical history  ;  the  institutes  ;  200  hymns,  with  their 
tunes;  80  psalms;  entire  chapters  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testament;  1500  verses  and  sentences  from  ancient  Latin 
classics ;  almost  the*  whole  Orbis  Pictus  of  Comenius, 
whence  he  had  derived  all  his  knowledge  of  the  Latin  lan- 
guage;  arithmetic;  the  history  of  the  European  empires 
and  kingdoms;  could  point  out  in  the  maps  whatever  place 
he  was  asked  for,  or  passed  by  in  his  journeys,  and  recite 
all  the  ancient  and  modern  historical  anecdotes  relating  to 
it.  His  stupendous  memory  caught  and  retained  every 
word  he  was  told ;  his  ever  active  imagination  used  what- 
ever he  saw  or  heard,  instantly  to  apply  some  examples  or 
sentences  from  the  Bible,  geography,  profane  or  eccle- 
siastical history,  the  "  Orbis  Pictus,"  or  from  ancient  clas- 
sics. At  the  court  of  Denmark  he  delivered  twelve  speeches 

1  Chaufepic. — Saxii  Onomast. 

312  H  E  I  N  E  C  K  E  N. 

\\ithout  once  faltering;  and  underwent  public  examina- 
tions on  a  variety  of  subjects,  especially  the  bistory  of 
Denmark.  He  spoke  German,  Latin,  French,  and  Low 
Dutch,  and  was  exceedingly  good-natured  and  weil-be- 
havecl,  but  of  a  most  tender  and  delicate  bodily  constitu- 
tion ;  never  ate  any  solid  food,  but  chiefly  subsisted  on 
nurses  milk,  not  being  weaned  till  within  a  very  few  months 
of  his  death,  at  which  time  he  was  not  quite  four  years  old. 
There  is  a  dissertation  on  this  child,  published  by  M.  Mar- 
tini at  Lubeck,  in  1730,  where  the  author  attempts  to 
assign  the  natural  causes  for  the  astonishing  capacity  of 
this  great  man  in  embryo,  who  was  just  shewn  to  the  world, 
and  snatched  away.  This  was  addressed  to  M.  Christ,  de 
Schoeneich,  the  child's  tutor,  who  had  published  an  ac- 
count of  him,  and  is  given  entire  in  vol.  V.  of  "  The  Re- 
public of  Letters."  Schoeneich's  account  was  republished 
so  lately  as  1778  or  1779  in  German.1 

HEINSIUS  (DANIEL),  a  celebrated  scholar  and  critic, 
professor  of  politics  and  history  at  Leyden,  and  librarian  of 
the  university  there,  was  born  at  Ghent,  in  Flanders,  May 
1£SO,  of  an  illustrious  family,  who  had  possessed  the  first 
places  in  the  magistracy  of  that  town.  He  was  frequently 
removed  in  the  younger  part  of  his  life.  He  began  his 
studies  at  the  Hague,  and  afterwards  went  with  his  parents 
into  Zealand,  where  he  was  instructed  in  polite  literature 
and  philosophy.  He  soon  learned  the  outlines  of  morality 
and  politics,  but  did  not  relish  logic,  and  had  an  unconquer- 
able aversion  to  the  niceties  of  grammar.  He  discovered 
early  a  strong  propensity  to  poetry,  and  began  to  make  verses 
before  he  knew  any  thing  of  prosody  or  the  rules  of  art.  He 
composed  a  regular  elegy  at  ten  years  of  age,  upon  the 
death  of  a  play-fellow  ;  and  there  are  several  epigrams  and 
little  poems  of  his,  written  when  he  was  not  above  twelve, 
which  shew  a  great  deal  of  genius  and  facility.  He  is  re- 
presented, however,  as  having  been  somewhat  indolent, 
and  not  likely  to  make  any  progress  in  Greek  Und  Latin 
learning ;  on  which  account  his  father  sent  him,  at  fourteen 
years  of  age,  to  study  the  law  in  the  university  of  Fra- 
neker.  But  from  that  time,  as  if  he  had  been  influenced 
by  a  spirit  of  contradK*:on,  nothing  would  please  him  but 
classics;  and  he  applies  inmself  there  to  Greek  and  Latin 
authors,  as  obstinately  as  he  had  rejected  them  in  Zealand. 

1  Schoeneich's  account.— Moreri. — Diet.  Hist. 

H  E  I  N  8  I  U  S.  3U 

tie  afterwards  removed  to  Leyden,  where  he  became  a 
pupil  of  Joseph  Scaliger ;  and  was  obliged  to  the  encou- 
ragement and  care  of  that  great  man  for  the  perfection  to 
which  he  afterwards  arrived  in  literature,  and  which  at  the 
beginning  of  his  life  there  was  so  little  reason  to  expect. 
He  published  an  edition  of  "  Silius  Italicus,"  in  1600,  pro- 
fessedly taken  from  an  ancient  MS.  and  added  notes  of  his 
own,  which  he  called   "  Crepundia  Siliana,"  to  shew  that 
they  were  written  when  he  was  extremely  young.     This 
edition  was  reprinted  at  Cambridge,   1646,    12mo.     Hein- 
sius  was  made  Greek  professor  at  eighteen,  and  afterwards 
succeeded  Scaliger  in  the  professorship  of  politics  and  his- 
tory.    When  he  was  chosen  librarian  to  the  university,  he 
pronounced  a  Latin  oration,  afterwards  published,  in  which 
he  described  the  duties  of  a  librarian,  and  the  good  order 
and  condition  in  which  a  library  should  be  kept.     Being  a 
great  admirer  of  the  moral  doctrine  of  the  stoics,   he  wrote 
an  elegant  oration   in  praise  of  the  stoic  philosophy.     He 
died  Feb.  25,  1655,  after  having  distinguished  himself  as  a 
critic  by  his  labours  upon  Silius  Italicus,  Theocritus,   He- 
siod,   Seneca,   Homer,   Hesychius,  Theophrastus,  Clemens 
Alexandrinus,  Ovid,   Livy,  Terence,   Horace,   Prudentius, 
Maximus  Tyrius,  &c.      He  published  two  treatises  "  De 
Satira    Horatiana,"    which   Balzac   affirms    to  be  master- 
pieces.    He  also  wrote  poems  in  various  languages,  which, 
have   been  often  printed,  and  always  admired.     He  was 
the  author  of  several  prose  works,  some  of  which  were  of 
the  humourous  and  satirical  cast;  as  u  Laus  Asini,"  "  Laus 
Pediculi,"  £c. 

The  learned  have  all  joined  in  their  praises  of  Heinsius. 
Gerard  Vossius  says  that  he  was  a  very  great  man  ;  and 
calls  him  the  ornament  of  the  muses  and  the  graces.  Ca- 
saubon  admires  him  equally  for  his  parts  and  learning. 
Pareus  calls  him  the  Varro  of  his  age.  Barthius  ranks 
him  with  the  first  writers.  Bochart  pronounces  him  a  truly 
great  and  learned  man  ;  and  Selden  speaks  of  him  as  "  tarn 
severiorum  quam  amceniorum  literarum  sol  ;"  a  light  to 
guide  us  in  our  gay  as  well  as  severe  pursuits  in  letters. 
Some,  however,  have  thought  that,  he  was  not  so  well 
formed  for  criticism ;  and  Le  Clerc,  in  his  account  of  the 
Amsterdam  edition  of  Bentley's  "  Horace,"  says  that 
though  doubtless  a  learned  man,  who  had  spent  his  life  in 
the  study  of  criticism,  yet  if  we  may  judge  by  his  Horace, 
he  was  by  no  means  happy  in  his  conjectures ;  but  he 

314  H  E  I  N  S  I  U  S. 

speaks  much  more  advantageously  of  his  son  Nicolas  Hein- 
sius  ;  and  agreed,  with  the  rest  of  the  world,  that  though 
not  so  learned  a  man  as  his  father,  he  had  a  better  taste 
for  criticism.  Daniel  Heinsius  was,  however,  highly  ho- 
noured abroad  as  well  as  at  home  ;  and  received  uncom- 
mon marks  of  respect  from  foreign  potentates.  Gustavus 
Adolphus,  king  of  Sweden,  gave  him  a  place  among  his 
counsellors  of  state:  the  republic  of  Venice  made  him  a 
knight  of  their  order  of  St.  Mark:  and  pope  Urban  VIII. 
was  such  an  admirer  of  his  fine  talents  and  consummate 
learning,  that  he  made  him  great  offers  if  he  would  come 
to  Rome;  "to  rescue  that  city  from  barbarism,"  as  the 
pontiff  is  said  to  have  expressed  himself.1 

HEINSIUS  (NICHOLAS),  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
more  eminent  both  in  the  literary  and  the  political  world, 
was  born  at  Leyden,  July  1620,  and  at  first  educated  under 
his  father's  inspection.  In  early  life  he  formed  an  inti- 
macy with  his  learned  contemporaries  John  Frederick  Gro- 
novius,  Vincent  Fabricius,  and  Isaac  Vossius.  The  latter 
accommodated  him  with  the  MSS.  of  Ovid,  which  were  in 
the  library  of  his  grandfather,  John  Gerard  Vossius,  and 
his  attention  to  this  author  terminated  at  last  in  an  excel- 
lent edition  of  his  works,  highly  praised  by  Ernesti  and 
Harles,  which  he  published  in  1661,  3  vols.  8vo.  In  1641, 
when  he  was  about  twenty-one  years  of  age,  he  came  over 
to  England,  and  spent  three  months  at  Oxford,  examining 
some  MSS.  of  Ovid  and  Claudian  in  the  Bodleian  library. 
He  returned  the  following  year  to  Leyden,  and  thence  to 
Spa,  on  account  of  his  health,  but  in  this  tour  visited  the 
libraries  and  the  learned  of  Brabant.  About  164-7  he  went 
to  Paris,  where  he  remained  a  year  and  a  half,  and  pub- 
lished his  Latin  poems.  He  also  employed  himself  in  col- 
lating some  manuscripts  in  the  library  of  Messrs.  Dupin. 
From  Paris  he  went  to  Italy,  and  both  at  Florence  and 
Rome  examined  with  great  care  the  literary  treasures  in 
the  grand  duke's  library,  and  in  the  Vatican.  Happening 
unfortunately  to  be  at  Naples  during  a  civic  revolt,  he  lost 
part  of  his  papers,  and  among  others  his  collation  of  Mar- 
tial. In  1648  he  published  at  Padua  his  elegies,  in  which 
he  celebrates  Italy  and  Rome,  but  speaks  somewhat  dis- 
respectfully of  his  own  country,  for  which  he  was  after- 

1  Moreri.— Foppen,  Bib!.   Belg,— Baillet   Jugemens,—  Blotmt's  Censtra.— 
Saxu  Ononvast. 

II  E  I  N  S  I  U  S.  315 

wards  blamed.  He  meant  to  have  visited  Svvisserland  on 
his  return,  but  his  father's  age  and  infirmities  making  him. 
desirous  of  his  company,  he  returned  home.  He  had 
refused  a  professor's  chair  at  Bologna,  because  the  terms 
were  that  he  should  embrace  the  Roman  catholic  religion. 
In  1649,  hearing  that  Christina,  queen  of  Sweden,  had  de- 
sired to  see  his  poems,  he  published  a  new  edition  dedi- 
cated to  her,  which  procured  him  an  invitation  to  Stock- 
holm, where  he  was  very  graciously  received  by  her  ma- 
jesty. In  1651  he  made  another  tour  to  Italy,  and  the 
following  year  being  in  Florence,  was  received  a  member 
of  the  academies  of  Delia  Crusca  and  the  Apathisti.  A 
considerable  part  of  his  object  in  this  tour  was  to  purchase 
manuscripts  and  medals  for  queen  Christina;  but,  being 
now  greatly  in  advance  for  these  purchases,  without  hav- 
ing received  any  money  from  Stockholm,  he  found  it  ne- 
cessary to  return  and  make  a  personal  application.  In  the 
mean  time  Christina  had  abdicated  the  throne,  and  Hein- 
sius,  who  had  spent  3000  florins  in  her  purchases,  pre- 
sented petition  after  petition  to  no  effect.  Promises  indeed 
he  had  in  abundance  ;  he  was  to  have  a  grant  of  lands  in 
Pomerania,  a  canonry  at  Hamburgh,  a  vicariate  at  Bremen  ; 
the  title  of  secretary,  and  four  thousand  crowns  to  defray 
the  expences  he  had  been  at ;  but  none  of  these  was 

While  in  this  situation,  he  received  the  glad  tidings  that 
the  States  of  Holland  had  appointed  him  their  resident  at 
the  Swedish  court,  with  a  salary  of  4000  florins.  This  ap- 
pointment took  place  Oct.  7,  1654.  The  following  year 
his  father  died,  which  obliged  him  to  return  to  Holland. 
In  1656  he  was  made  secretary  to  the  city  of  Amsterdam, 
which  he  was  obliged  to  resign  two  years  after  in  conse- 
quence of  being  prosecuted  by  a  young  woman  for  a 
breach  of  promise  of  marriage,  under  the  faith  of  which 
she  had  lived  with  him  and  borne  him  two  children.  This 
affair  seems  very  little  to  Heinsius's  credit,  for  he  was  not 
only  cast  in  the  suit,  but  the  sentence  was  afterwards  con- 
firmed in  1662  by  the  supreme  court  of  Holland,  to  which 
he  had  appealed. 

In  the  mean  time,  in  1660,  he  was  again  appointed  re- 
sident at  the  court  of  Stockholm,  Where  he  rerhained  until 
1667.  In  1669  he  was  appointed  deputy  extraordinary  at 
the  court  of  Moscovy.  After  holding  this  post  about  two 
years,  and  executing  some  other  political  commissions  for 

316  H  E  I  N  S  I  U  S. 

the  States,  he  retired  to  a  country  residence  in  1675,  first 
near  Utrecht,  and  afterwards  at  Vianen.  It  was  when  in 
this  latter  place  that  Peter  Francius  addressed  to  him  a 
Latin  poem,  "  Ad  Nic.  Heinsinm,  de  secessu  suo  Via- 
nensi."  In  1681,  while  at  the  Hague,  whither  he  went  on 
account  of  the  marriage  of  'his  niece,  he  difcd  Oct.  7.  His 
body  was  carried  to  Leyden,  and  interred  in  the  same 
grave  with  that  of  his  father,  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter. 

His  poems,  which  are  much  admired,  have  been  several 
times  printed  :  but  the  best  edition  is  that  of  Amsterdam, 
1666.  Some  think  him  worthy  to  be  called  "  The  Swan 
bf  Holland."  He  wrote  notes  upon,  and  gave  editions  of 
Virgil,  Ovid,  Valerius  Flaccus,  Claudian,  Prudentius,  &c. 
Bentley,  in  a  note  upon  Horace,  2  Sat.  vi.  108.  calls  his 
edition  of  Virgil,  "  editio  castigatissima."  His  Claurlian 
is  dedicated,  in  a  Latin  poem,  to  Christina  queen  of  Swe- 
den ;  and  his  Ovid  to  Thuanus,  At  his  death,  it  is  said, 
that  he  capriciously  disowned  all  his  works  ;  and  expressed 
the  utmost  regret  at  having  left  behind  him  so  many  "mo- 
numents of  his  vanity,"  as  he  called  them.  l 

HEISTER  (LAURENCE),  a  celebrated  physician,  surgeon, 
anatomist,  and  botanist,  was  born  at  Frankfort  on  the 
Maine,  in  1683.  He  was  educated  in  several  German 
universities,  and  in  1706  spent  some  time  in  the  study  of 
anatomy  and  surgery  at  Amsterdam  under  Ruysch,  then 
$o  famous  for  his  dissections  and  anatomical  preparations. 
In  the  following  year  he  went  to  serve  as  a  surgeon  in  the 
Dutch  camp  in  Brabant;  devoting  the  subsequent  winter 
to  further  improvement,  under  Boerhaave  and  his  eminent 
colleagues,  who  at  that  time  attracted  students  from  ail 
parts  to  the  university  of  Leyden,  where  Heister  took  his 
degree.  Returning  afterwards  to  the  camp,  he  was,  in 
1709,  appointed  physician  -general  to  the  Dutch  military 
hospital.  The  experience  he  thus  acquired,  raised  him  to 
a  distinguished  rank  in  the  theory  and  practice  of  surgery, 
especially  as  he  had  a  genius  for  mechanics,  and  was  by 
that  means  enabled  to  bring  about  great  improvements  in 
the  instrumental  branch  of  his  art.  In  17  10  he  became 
professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Altorf,  in  the  little  can- 
ton of  Uri,  and  rendered  himself  celebrated  by  his  lec- 
tures and  writings.  Ten  years  afterwards  a  more  advan- 

~Moreri-—  Burman's  Sylloge.—  Baillet  Jugetnens.—  Saxii 

•fc  E  I  S  T  E  R.  317 

tageous  situation  offered  itself  to  him  at  Helmstad,  where 
he  became  physician,  with  tiie  tide  of  Aulic  counsellor,  as 
usual,  to  the  duke  of  Brunswick,  as  well  as  [professor  of 
medicine,  and  afterwards  of  surgery  and  botany,  in  that 
university.  Here  he  continued  till  his  death,  which  hap- 
pened in  1758,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five.  The  czar  Peter 
invited  him  to  Russia,  but  he  was  too  comfortably  situated 
in  Germany,  where  the  favour  of  several  sovereigns  already 
shone  upon  him  at  an  early  period,  to  accept  the  invitation. 

Heister  continued  from  time  to  time  to  publish^  number 
of  books  relating  to  anatomy  and  surgery,  to  several  of 
which  he  supplied  figures  drawn  by  his  own  hand.  Among 
these,  his  most  distinguished  work  is  the  "  Compendium 
Anatomieuai,"  an  octavo  volume,  first  printed  in  1717, 
whidi  became  quite  a  classical  book,  superseding  ail  that 
had  been  previously  in  use  in  the  schools.  It  went  through 
numerous  editions,  with  successive  additions  and  improve- 
ments, and  was  translated  into  most  of  the  modern  lan- 
guages. His  "  Institutions  of  Surgery,"  also  published  in- 
German  in  1718,  was  soon  translated  into  Latin,  and  most 
of  the  modern  languages  of  Europe,  and  went  through* 
numerous  editions.  He  wrote  also  some  works  on  the 
theory  and  practice  of  medicine,  in  which  his  opinions  are 
formed  on  the  mechanical  principles  of  the  Boerhaavian 
school ;  and  a  valuable  practical  work  of  Heister's,  a  col- 
lection of  medical,  surgical,  and  anatomical  observations, 
in  quarto,  is  well  known  in  this  country  by  an  English 

Heister  seems  early  to  have  had  a  taste  for  botany,  and 
to  have  collected  plants,  as  Haller  observes,  in  his  various 
journeys.  This  taste  enabled  him  to  (ill  the  botanical  chair 
at  Helmstad  with  credit  and  satisfaction,  and  he  paid  great 
attention  to  the  garden  there,  which  he  much  enriched. 
His  first  botanical  publication,  "  De  Coilectione  Simpli- 
cium,"  was  the  inaugural  dissertation. of  one  of  his  pupils 
named  Rabe,  printed  in  1722  ;  and  had  he  written  nothing 
else,  his  botanical  labours  should  have  been  consigned  to 
oblivion;  but  his  subsequent  works  rank  him  as  an  original 
writer,  and  he  might  have  acquired  more  fame  had  he  been 
favoured  with  leisure  to  look  deeper,  and  not  been  warped 
by  preconceived  ideas.  In  1732  ha  published  a  disserta- 
tion on  the  "  Use  of  the  Leaves"  in  founding  genera  of 
plants,  preferring  those  parts  for  a  natural  arrangement, 
on  account  of  the  obscurity  and  difficulty  attending  those 

318  H  E  I  S  T  E  R. 

of  the  flower.  In  August  1741,  our  author  came  forth  as 
the  professed  adversary  of  Linnaeus,  in  the  inaugural  dis- 
sertation of  one  of  his  pupils  named  Goeckel,  entitled 
tl  Meditationes  et  Animadversiones  in  novum  Systema  Bo- 
tanicum  sexuale  LinniEi;"  but  the  arguments  by  which  the 
learned  professor  and  his  pupil  attempt  to  prove  the  posi- 
tion they  assume,  that  the  "  method  of  Linnaeus  is  ex- 
tremely difficult,  very  doubtful,  and  uncertain,"  are  not 
very  cogent.  Another  dissertation  of  Heister's,  published 
in  Oct.  1741,  "  de  Nominum  Piantarum  Mutaiione  utili 
ac  noxia,"  is  a  more  diffuse  and  elaborate  attack  on  the 
nomenclature  of  the  great  Swedish  teacher,  whom,  how- 
ever, he  terms  "  a  most  diligent  and  most  valuable  bo- 
tanist." Nor  does  it  appear  that  he  was  instigated  to  these 
attacks  by  any  personal  enmity,  nor  by  any  more  extraor- 
dinary flow  of  bile  than  was  usual  among  controversialists, 
of  that  day  at  least.  Whatever  he  pursued,  he  pursued 
with  ardour,  and  perhaps  as  he  advanced  in  age,  seated  in 
professional  state,  he  grew  more  pertinacious  in  his  opinions. 
Hence  his  subsequent  attacks  on  Linnaeus  are  marked  with 
more  vehemence,  but  proportionably,  as  usual,  with  less 
reason.  In  1748,  notwithstanding  his  dislike  to  the  Lin- 
nsean  principles,  he  published  a  "  Systema  Piantarum  Ge- 
nerale  ex  fructificatione,  cui  annectuntur  regulaj  ejusdem, 
de  Nominibus  Piantarum,  a  celeb.  Linnaei  longe  diversae." 
This  system  is  allied  to  that  of  Boerhaave,  and  though  it 
takes  into  consideration  many  particulars  of  general  habit 
or  structure,  is  not  more  natural  than  the  professedly  arti- 
ficial system  of  Linnaeus. 

We  shall  conclude  with  mentioning  a  very  splendid  pub- 
lication of  Heister  in  folio,  in  1753,  in  which  he  describes 
the  Amaryllis  Orientals  of  Linnaeus,  which  he  names  Bruns- 
vigia  alter  his  sovereign.1 

HELE  (THOMAS),  by  birth  an  Englishman,  arrived  at 
the  singular  distinction  of  being  admired  in  France  as  a 
writer  in  the  French  language.  He  was  born  in  Glouces- 
tershire about  1740.  He  began  his  career  in  the  army, 
and  served  in  Jamaica  till  the  peace  of  1763.  A  desire  of 
seeing  the  most  remarkable  parts  of  Europe,  now  carried 
him  into  Italy,  where  he  was  so  captivated  with  the  beauty 
of  the  climate,  and  the  innumerable  objects  of  liberal 

1  Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  by  Dr.  Smith. — Stocver's  Life  of  Linnieus.  p.  1 19 — 193. 
— Haller,  Bibl.  Bot. 

H  E  L  E.  31$ 

curiosity  which  presented  themselves,  that  he  continued 
there  several  years.  About  1770,  having  satisfied  his  cu- 
riosity in  Italy,  he  turned  his  thoughts  to  France,  and  went 
to  Paris.  There  also  he  studied  the  state  of  the  arts,  and 
was  particularly  attentive  to  the  theatre.  At  length  he 
began  to  write  for  the  Italian  comedy,  which  had  princi- 
pally attracted  his  notice,  and  wrote  with  considerable  suc- 
cess. The  pieces  for  that  theatre  are  written  chiefly  in 
French,  with  French  titles,  and  only  one  or  two  characters 
in  Italian.  He  wrote,  l.  "  Le  Jugement  de  Midas,"  on 
the  contest  between  French  and  Italian  music,  which  was 
much  applauded.  But  his  2.  "  Amant  jaloux,"  had  still 
more  success.  3.  His  third  piece,  "  Les  Evenemens  im- 
prevus,"  met  with  some  exceptions,  on  which  he  modestly 
withdrew  it,  and  after  making  the  corrections  suggested, 
brought  it  forward  again,  and  had  the  pleasure  to  find  it 
much  approved.  The  comedies  of  this  writer,  are  full  of 
plot,  the  action  lively  and  interesting :  his  versification  is 
not  esteemed  by  the  French  to  be  of  consummate  perfec- 
tion, nor  his  prose  always  pure  ;  yet  his  dialogue  con- 
stantly pleased,  and  was  allowed  to  have  the  merit  of  na- 
ture and  sound  composition.  Mr,  Hele  died  at  Paris,  of  a 
consumptive  disorder,  in  December  17 SO  ;  and  it  may 
possibly  be  long  before  another  Englishman  will  be  so 
distinguished  as  a  writer  in  the  French  language.  We  take 
this  account  from  French  authors,  who  write  his  name 
d'Hele,  perhaps  it  was  properly  Hale  or  Dale. ' 

HELENA,  the  empress,  mother  of  Constantine,  and 
one  of  the  saints  of  the  Romish  communion,  who  gives 
name  to  many  of  our  churches,  owed  her  elevation  to  the 
charms  of  her  person.  She  was  of  obscure  origin,  born  at 
the  little  village  of  Drepanum  in  Bithynia,  where  the  first 
situation  in  which  we  hear  of  her  was  that  of  hostess  of  an 
inn.  Constantius  Chlorus  became  enamoured  of  her  pro- 
bably there,  and  married  her;  but,  on  being  associated 
with  Dioclesian  in  the  empire,  divorced  her  to  marry 
Theodora,  daughter  of  Maximilian  Hercules.  The  acces- 
sion of  her  son  to  the  empire  drew  her  again  from  obscu- 
rity ;  she  obtained  the  title  of  Augusta,  and  was  received 
at  court  with  ali  the  honours  due  to  the  mother  of  an  em- 
peror. Her  many  virtues  riveted  the  affection  of  her  son 
to  her,  and,  when  he  became  a  Christian,  she  also  was 

'  Diet.  His^. 

320  HELENA. 

converted  ;  yet  she  did  not  scruple  to  admonish  him  when 
she  disapproved  his  conduct.  When  she  was  aear  eighty 
years  old  she  planned  and  executed  a  journey  to  the  Holy 
Land,  where  she  is  said  to  have  assisted  at  the  discovery  of 
the  true  cross  of  Christ,  reported  by  the  Romanists  to  have 
been  accompanied  by  many  miracles.  Jn  the  year  328, 
soon  after  this  discovery,  she  died  at  the  age  of  eighty. 
Helena,  wherever  she  went,  left  proofs  of  a  truly  Christian 
liberality  ;  she  relieved  the  poor,  orphans,  and  widows ; 
built  churches,  and  in  all  respests  shewed  herself  worthy 
of  the  confidence  of  her  son,  who  supported  her  in  these 
pious  efforts  by  an  unlimited  permission  to  draw  upon  his 
treasures.  At  her  death  he  paid  her  the  highest  honours, 
had  her  body  sent  to  Rome  to  be  deposited  in  the  tomb  of 
the  emperors,  and  raised  her  native  village  to  the  rank  of  a 
city,  with  the  new  name  of  Helenopolis.  She  proved  her 
prudence  and  political  wisdom  by  the  influence  she  always 
retained  over  her  son,  and  by  the  care  she  took  to  prevent 
all  interference  of  the  half-brothers  of  Constantine,  sons  of 
Cons  tan  ti  us  Chlorus  and  Theodora;  who,  being  brought 
into  notice  after  her  death,  by  the  injudicious  liberality  of 
the  emperor,  were  massacred  by  their  nephews  as  soon  as 
they  succeeded  their  father  in  the  empire. ! 

HELIODORUS,  a  native  of  Emesa  in  Phoenicia,  and 
bishop  of  Tricca  in  Thessaly,  flourished  in  the  reigns  of 
Theodosius  and  Arcaclius  towards  the  end  of  the  fourth 
century.  In  his  youth  he  wrote  a  romance,  by  which  he 
is  now  better  known  than  by  his  subsequent  bishopric  of  ; 
Tricca.  It  is  entitled  "  Ethiopics,"  and  relates  the  amours 
of  Theagenes  and  Chariclea,  in  ten  books.  The  learned 
Huetius  is  of  opinion  that  HcUodorus  was  among  the  ro- 
mance-writers what  Homer  was  among  the  poets,  the 
source  and  model  of  an  infinite  number  of  imitations,  all 
inferior  to  their  original.  The  first  edition  of  the  Ethiopics 
was  printed  at  Basil,  1533,  with  a  dedication  to  the  senate 
of  Nuremberg,  prefixed  by  Vincentius  Opsopseus,  who  in- 
forms us  that  a  soldier  preserved  the  MS.  when  the  library 
of  Buda  was  plundered.  Bourdeiot's  learned  notes  upon 
this  romance  were  printed  at  Paris  in  1619,  with  Heliodo- 
rus's  Greek  original,  and  a  Latin  translation,  which  had 
been  published  by  Stanislaus  Warszewicki,  a  Polish  knight, 
(with  th-e  Greek)  .atBa.sil,  iu  1551.  An  excellent  English 

1  Butler's  I.iv«f  of  the 

H  E  L  I  O  D  O  R  U  S.  321 

translation  of  this  romance  was  published  by  Mr.  Payne  in 
2  vols.  12mo,  in  1792.  A  notion  has  prevailed  that  a  pro- 
vincial synod,  being  sensible  how  dangerous  the  reading 
of  Heliodorus' s  Ethiopics  was,  to  which  the  author's  rank 
was  supposed  to  add  great  authority,  required  of  the  bishop 
that  he  should  either  burn  the  book,  or  resign  his  dignity ; 
and  that  the  bishop  chose  the  latter.  But  this  story  is 
thought  to  be  entirely  fabulous ;  as  depending  only  upon 
the  single  testimony  of  Nicephorus,  an  ecclesiastical  his- 
torian of  great  credulity  and  little  judgment;  and  it  is 
somewhat  difficult  to  suppose  that  Socrates  should  omit  so 
memorable  a  circumstance  when  speaking  of  Heliodorus 
as  the  author  of  "  a  love-tale  in  his  youth,  which  he  en- 
titled Ethiopics."  Valesius,  in  his  notes  upon  this  passage, 
starts  another  difficulty,  for  while  he  rejects  the  account 
of  Nicephorus  as  a  mere  fable,  he  seems  inclined  to  think, 
that  the  romance  itself  was  not  written  by  Heliodorus 
bishop  of  Tricca;  but  in  this  opinion  he  has  not  been  fol- 
lowed. Opsopaeus  and  Melancthon  have  supposed  that 
this  romance  was  in  reality  a  true  history ;  but  Fabricius 
thinks  this  as  incredible  as  that  Heliodorus,  according  to 
others,  wrote  it  originally  in  the  Ethiopic  tongue.  Some 
again  have  asserted,  that  Heliodorus  was  not  a  Christian, 
from  his  saying  at  the  end  of  his  book,  that  he  was  a  Phoe- 
nician, born  in  the  city  of  Emesa,  and  of  the  race  of  the 
sun  ;  since,  they  say,  it  would  be  madness  in  a  Christian, 
and  much  more  in  a  bishop,  to  declare  that  he  was 
descended  from  that  luminary;  but  such  language,  in  a 
young  man,  can  scarcely  admit  the  inference. 

Besides  the  Ethiopics,  Cedrenus  tells  us  of  another  book 
of  Heliodorus,  concerning  the  philosopher's  stone,  or  the 
art  of  transmuting  metals  into  gold,  which  he  presented  to 
Theodosius  the  Great;  and  Fabricius  has  inserted  in  his 
"  Bibliotheca  Gra3ca,"  a  chemical  Greek  poem  written  in 
iambic  verse,  which  he  had  from  a  MS.  in  the  king  of 
France's  library,  and  which  carries  the  name  of  Heliodorus 
bishop  of  Tricca;  but  leaves  it  very  justly  questionable, 
whether  it  be  not  a  spurious  performance. 1 

HELL  (MAXIMILIAN),  a  learned  astronomer,  and  mem- 
ber of  most  of  the  learned  societies  of  Europe,  was  bom 
in  1720,  at  Chemnitz,  in  Hungary,  and  first  educated  at 
Neusol.  Having  in  1738  entered  the  society  of  the  Jesuits, 

1  Gen,  Diet. — Moreri. — Saxii  Onomast. 


322  H  E  L  L. 

he  was  sent  by  them  to  the  college  of  Vienna,  where,  du- 
ring his  philosophical  studies,  he  displayed  a  genius  for 
mechanics,  and  employed  his  leisure  hours  in  constructing 
water-clocks,  terrestrial  and  celestial  globes,  and  other 
machines.  In  1744  and  1745  he  studied  mathematics,  now 
become  his  favourite  pursuit,  under  the  celebrated  Froe- 
lich,  and  not  only  assisted  Franz,  the  astronomer  of  the 
Jesuits'  observatory,  in  his  labours,  but  also  in  arranging 
the  museum  for  experimental  philosophy.  At  the  same 
time  he  published  a  new  edition  of  Crevellius's  "  Arith- 
metica  numeralis  et  literalis,"  as  a  text-book.  In  1746 
and  1747  he  taught  Greek  and  Latin  in  the  catholic  school 
of  Leutschau,  in  Hungary,  and  returning  to  Vienna  in  the 
latter  year,  was  employed  as  the  instructor  in  the  mathe- 
matics, and  the  art  of  assaying,  of  several  young  men 
destined  for  offices  in  the  Hungarian  mines.  In  1750  he 
published,  "  Adjumentum  memoriae  manuale  Chronologico- 
genealogico-historicum,"  which  has  since  been  translated 
into  various  languages,  and  of  which  an  enlarged  edition 
appeared  in  1774.  In  1751  and  1752  he  obtained  the 
priesthood,  completed  his  academical  degrees,  and  was 
appointed  professor  of  mathematics  at  Clausenburg.  Here 
he  published  his  "  Elementa  Arithmetical1  for  the  use  of 
his  pupils,  and  had  prepared  other  works,  when  he  was, 
in  Sept.  175"2,  invited  to  Vienna,  and  appointed  astrono- 
mer and  director  of  the  new  observatory,  in  the  building 
of  which  he  assisted,  and  made  it  one  of  the  first  in  Europe, 
both  as  to  construction  and  apparatus.  From  1757  to  1767 
he  devoted  himself  entirely  to  astronomical  observations 
and  calculations  for  the  "  Ephemerides,"  each  volume  of 
which,  published  annually,  contained  evident  proofs  of  his 
assiduity.  About  the  same  time  he  published  a  small  work, 
entitled  "  An  Introduction  towards  the  useful  employment 
of  Artificial  Magnets." 

A  circumstance  now  occurred  which  contributed  not  a 
little  to  increase  his  fame.  The  transit  of  Venus  over  the 
sun's  disk,  announced  for  June  3,  1769,  was  considered 
as  a  phenomenon,  which,  if  observed  in  different  parts  of 
the  globe,  would  furnish  data  for  determining  the  true 
distance  of  the  sun  and  planets  from  the  earth  ;  and  some 
of  the  ablest  astronomers  were  selected  to  proceed  for  this 
purpose  to  Cajaneborg  in  Finland,  to  Otaheite,  to  Califor- 
nia, and  to  Hudson's  Bay.  Hell  had  also  the  honour  of 
being  chosen  to  participate  in  this  undertaking ;  and, 

ri  E  L  L.  323 

although  he  had  previously  refused  two  offers  of  the  kind, 
accepted  that  of  Christian  VII.  king  of  Denmark,  to  ob- 
serve the  transit  in  an  island  in  the  Frozen  Ocean,  near 
Wardoehuus,  at  the  Northern  extremity  of  Europe.  Hav- 
ing set  out  in  April  1768,  with  J.  Sajnovies,  a  member  of 
the  same  order,  as  his  assistant,  he  arrived  at  the  place  of 
his  destination  October  11.  He  now  constructed  an  obser- 
vatory, and  began  his  observations,  which  extended  to  a 
great  many  other  phenomena  than  that  which  was  the 
chief  object  of  his  journey ;  but  in  this  last  he  was  success- 
ful beyond  all  expectation,  the  serenity  of  the  sky  being 
so  much  in  his  favour.  As  the  results,  however,  of  the 
astronomers  sent  out  to  different  parts  to  make  their  ob- 
servations, did  not  agree,  Hell  was  involved  in  a  literary 
contest,  particularly  with  Lalande. 

In  June  1769  he  set  out  on  his  return,  and  arrived  safely 
at  Copenhagen,  where  he  was  honoured  with  every  mark 
of  respect  by  the  king,  and  he  and  his  assistant  were  ad- 
mitted members  of  the  academies  of  Copenhagen,  Dron- 
theim,  and  Norway.  During  his  residence  at  Copenhagen, 
which  lasted  seven  months,  he  communicated,  besides 
other  things,  to  the  academy  of  sciences,  the  observations 
he  had  made  of  the  transit,  which  were  published,  and 
afterwards  reprinted  in  the  Ephemerides  for  1771.  In  May 
1770  he  returned  to  Vienna,  and  collected  and  arranged 
the  fruits  of  his  journej',  which  he  meant  to  publish  under 
the  title  of  "  Expeditio  literaria  ad  Polum  Arcticum  ;"  but 
the  suppression  of  the  order  of  the  Jesuits,  which  gave 
him  great  concern,  and  the  dispersion  of  some  of  his  li- 
terary coadjutors,  are  supposed  to  have  prevented  him  from 
completing  this  undertaking.  He  was  also  unsuccessful  in 
endeavouring  to  establish  an  academy  of  sciences,  which, 
according  to  his  plan,  was  to  be  under  the  direction  of  the 
Jesuits.  He  superintended,  however,  the  building  of  a 
new  observatory  at  Erlau,  in  Hungary,  at  the  expence  of 
the  bishop,  count  Charles  of  Esterhazy,  and  undertook 
two  journeys  thither  to  direct  the  operations,  and  to  ar- 
range a  valuable  collection  of  instruments  which  had  been 
sent  to  him  from  England.  In  the  month  of  March  1792, 
he  was  attacked  by  an  inflammation  of  the  lungs,  which 
producing  a  suppuration,  put  an  end  to  his  lite  in  a  few 
weeks.  He  is  to  be  ranked  with  those  who  have  rendered 
essential  service  to  the  science  of  astronomy.  The  "  Ephe- 
merides Astronomical  ad  meridianum  Vindobonensem," 

Y  2 

324  HELL. 

begun  in  1767,  aucl  continued  till  his  death,  forms  a  valuable 
astronomical  calendar,  which  contains  a  great  many  in- 
teresting papers.  In  other  branches  of  knowledge,  and 
particularly  theology,  he  was  a  firm  adherent  to  the  prin- 
ciples he  had  been  taught  in  his  youth,  and  which  he 
strenuously  defended.  He  always  entertained  hopes  of 
the  revival  of  the  order  of  the  Jesuits.  He  possessed  a 
benevolent  heart,  and  was  always  ready  to  assist  the  dis- 
tressed ;  in  particular  he  endeavoured  to  relieve  the  suf- 
ferings of  the  poor,  and  with  this  noble  view  expended 
almost  the  whole  of  his  property. 1 

HELLANICUS,  of  Mitylene,  was  an  ancient  Greek  his- 
torian,  born  in  the  year  A.  C.  496,  twelve  years  before  the 
birth  of  Herodotus.  He  wrote  a  history  of  "  the  earliest 
Kings  of  various  Nations,  and  the  Founders  of  Cities  ;" 
which  is  mentioned  by  several  ancient  authors,  but  is  not 
extant.  He  lived  to  the  age  of  eighty-five.  There  was 
another  Hellanicus  of  much  later  times,  who  was  a  Mile- 
sian, but  very  little  is  known  of  either.2 

HELLOT  (JOHN),  a  French  chemist,  was  born  in  1686, 
and  destined  by  his  friends  for  the  profession  of  theology, 
but  the  accidentally  meeting  with  a  book  of  chemistry,  de- 
termined him  to  make  that  science  the  principal  pursuit  of 
his  life.  From  1718  to  1732,  lie  was  employed  as  the 
compiler  of  the  "  Gazette  de  France."  He  translated 
Schlutter's  work  on  the  "  Fusions  of  Ores,  and  on  Foun- 
deries,"  and  published  it  in  1750 — 1753,  2  vols.  4to,  with 
his  own  notes  and  remarks.  He  published  a  work,  entitled 
"  L'Art  de  la  Teinture  des  Laines  et  EtofTes  de  Laines," 
1750,  12 mo,  which  is  reckoned  a  very  valuable  treatise, 
and  is  the  first  in  which  chemical  principles  are  applied  to 
the  practice  of  the  art.  He  furnished  many  articles  to  the 
"  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,"  and  some  to  the 
royal  society  of  London,  of  which  he  was  elected  a  fellow 
in  1740.  He  died  at  Paris  in  1766.3 

HELMICH  (WERNER),  a  Dutch  protestant  divine,  and 
one  of  the  early  promoters  of  the  reformed  religion  in  that 
country,  was  born  at  Utrecht  in  1551.  He  had  attained 
so  much  reputation  with  his  fellow  citizens,  that  in  1579 
they  unanimously  chose  him  their  pastor.  The  same  year, 
as  all  obstacles  to  the  establishment  of  the  reformation  were 
not  yet  overcome,  they  appointed  him  one  of  a  deputa- 

*  Athenaeum,  vol.  III.-— Diet.  Hist.  s  Moreri.  3  Diet.  Hisk. 

H  E  L  M  I  C  H.  323 

tion  sent  to  our  queen  Elizabeth,  to  request  that  in  the 
treaty  of  peace  with  Spain,  she  should  stipulate  for  the 
free  exercise  of  the  protestant  religion  in  the  United  Pro- 
vinces. In  1582,  he  was  the  first  who  preached  that  reli- 
gion openly  in  the  cathedral  of  Utrecht,  notwithstanding 
the  opposition  given  by  the  chapter.  He  afterwards  re- 
fused the  theological  chair  in  the  university  of  Leyden,  but 
accepted  the  pastoral  cvffice  at  Amsterdam  in  1602,  which 
he  held  until  his  death,  Aug.  29,  1608.  All  his  contem- 
poraries, the  protestant  divines,  speak  highly  of  his  talents, 
character,  and  services.  He  did  not  write  much  ;  except 
an  "  Analysis  of  the  Psalms,"  printed  after  his  death,  at 
Amst.  1641,  4to,  and  a  controversial  work  against  Coster 
the  Jesuit,  entitled  "  Gladius  Goliathi,"  much  commended 
by  Voetius.1 

HELMONT  (JOHN  BAPTIST  VAN),  commonly  called 
Van  Helmont,  from  a  borough  and  castle  of  that  name  in 
Brabant,  was  a  person  of  quality,  and  a  man  of  great  learn- 
ing, especially  in  physic  and  natural  philosophy ;  and 
born  at  Brussels  in  1577.  The  particulars  of  his  life,  as 
given  in  the  two  introductory  chapters  to  his  works,  give  a 
just  notion  of  the  man. 

"  In  the  year  1580,"  says  he,  "  a  most  miserable  one  to 
the  Low  Countries,  my  father  died.  I,  the 'youngest  and 
least  esteemed  of  all  my  brothers  and  sisters,  was  bred  a 
scholar  ;  and  in  the  year  1594,  which  was  to  me  the  17th, 
had  finished  the  course  of  philosophy.  Upon  seeing  none 
admitted  to  examinations  at  Louvain,  but  in  a  gown,  and 
masked  with  a  hood,  as  though  the  garment  did  promise 
learning,  I  began  to  perceive,  that  the  taking  degrees  in 
arts  was  a  piece  of  mere  mockery ;  and  wondered  at  the 
simplicity  of  young  men,  in  fancying  that  they  had  learned 
any  thing  from  their  doting  professors.  I  entered,  there- 
fore, into  a  serious  and  honest  examination  of  myself,  that 
I  might  know  by  my  own  judgment,  how  much  I  was  a 
philosopher,  and  whether  I  had  really  acquired  truth  and 
knowledge  :  but  found  myself  altogether  destitute,  save 
that  I  had  learned  to  wrangle  artificially.  Then  came  I 
first  to  perceive,  that  I  knew  nothing,  or  at  least  that 
which  was  not  worth  knowing.  Natural  philosophy  seemed 
to  promise  something  of  knowledge,  to  which  therefore  I 
joined  the  study  of  astronomy.  I  applied  myself  also  to 

*  Bunnami's  Trajectum  Eruditura. — Moreri. 

326  H  E  L  M  O  N  T. 

logic  and  the  mathematics,  by  way  of  recreation,  when  I 
was  wearied  with  other  studies ;  and  made  myself  a  master 
of  Euclid's  Elements,  as  I  did  also  of  Copernicus's  theory 
'  De  revolutionibus  orbium  ccelestium  :'  but  all  these 
things  were  of  no  account  with  me,  because  they  contained 
Jittle  truth  and  certainty,  little  but  a  parade  of  science 
falsely  so  called.  Finding  after  all,  therefore,  that  nothing 
was  sound,  nothing  true,  I  refused  the  title  of  master  of 
arts,  though  I  had  finished  my  course;  unwilling,  that 
professors  should  play  the  fool  with  me,  in  declaring  me  a 
master  of  the  seven  arts,  when  I  was  conscious  to  myself 
that  I  knew  nothing. 

"  A  wealthy  canonry  was  promised  me  then,  so  that  I 
might,  if  I  pleased,  turn  myself  to  divinity ;  but  saint 
Bernard  affrighted  me  from  it,  saying,  that  «  I  should  eat 
the  sins  of  the  people.7  I  begged  therefore  of  the  Lord 
Jesus,  that  he  would  vouchsafe  to  call  me  to  that  profession 
in  which  1  might  please  him  most.  The  Jesuits  began  at 
that  time  to  teach  philosophy  at  Louvain,  and  one  of  the 
professors  expounded  the  disquisitions  and  secrets  of  ma- 
gic. Both  these  lectures  I  greedily  received ;  but  instead 
of  grain,  I  reaped  only  stubble,  and  fantastic  conceits  void 
of  sense.  In  the  mean  time,  lest  an  hour  should  pass 
without  some  benefit,  I  run  through  some  writings  of  the 
stoics,  those  of  Seneca,  and  especially  of  Epictetus,  who 
pleased  me  exceedingly.  I  seemed,  in  moral  philosophy, 
to  have  found  the  quintessence  of  truth,  and  did  verily 
believe,  that  through  stoicism  I  advanced  in  Christian  per- 
fection ;  but  1  discovered  afterwards  in  a  dream,  that 
stoicism  was  an  empty  and  swollen  bubble,  and  that  by 
this  study,  under  the  appearance  of  moderation,  I  became, 
indeed,  most  self-sufficient  and  haughty.  Lastly,  1  turned 
over  Mathiolus  and  Dioscorides  ;  thinking  with  myself 
nothjng  equally  necessary  for  mortal  man  to  know  and 
admire,  as  the  wisdom  and  goodness  of  God  in  vegetables  ; 
to  the  end  that  he  might  not  only  crop  the  fruit  for  food, 
but  also  minister  of  the  same  to  his  other  necessities.  My 
curiosity  being  now  raised  upon  this  branch  of  study,  I 
inquired,  whether  there  were  any  book,  which  delivered 
the  maxims  and  rule  of  medicine  ?  for  I  then  supposed, 
that  medicine  was  not  altogether  a  mere  gift,  but  might 
]be  taught,  and  delivered  by  discipline,  like  other  arts  and 
sciences  :  at  least  I  thought,  if  medicine  was  a  good  gift 
coming  down  from  the  Father  of  lights,  that  it  might  have, 

H  E  L  M  O  N  T  327 

as  an  human  science,  its  theorems  and  authors,  into  whom, 
as  into  Bazaleel  and  Aholiab,  the  spirit  of  the  Lord  had 
infused  the  knowledge  of  all  diseases  and  their  causes,  and 
also  the  knowledge  of  the  properties  of  things.  I  in- 
quired, I  say,  whether  no  writer  had  described  the  quali- 
ties, properties,  applications,  and  proportions  of  vegetables, 
from  the  hyssop  even  to  the  cedar  of  Libanus?  A  certain 
professor  of  medicine  answered  me,  that  none  of  these 
things  were  to  be  looked  for  either  in  Galen  or  Avicen.  I 
was  very  ready  to  believe  this,  from  the  many  fruitless 
searches  I  hau  made  in  books  for  truth  and  knowledge  be- 
fore ;  however,  following  my  natural  bent,  which  lay  to 
the  study  of  nature,  I  read  the  institutions  of  Fuchsius  and 
Fernelius;  in  whom  I  knew  I  had  surveyed  the  whole 
science  of  medicine,  as  it  were  in  an  epitome.  Is  this, 
said  I,  smiling  to  myself,  the  knowledge  of  healing  ?  Is 
the  whole  history  of  natural  properties  thus  shut  up  in 
elementary  qualities  ?  Therefore  I  read  the  works  of  Ga- 
len twice  ;  of  Hippocrates  once,  whose  aphorisms  I  almost 
got  by  heart;  all  Avicen,  as  well  as  the  Greeks,  Arabians, 
and  moderns,  to  the  tune  of  600  authors.  I  read  them 
seriously  and  attentively  through  ;  and  took  down,  as  I 
went  along,  whatever  seemed  curious  and  worthy  of  at- 
tention ;  when  at  length,  reading  over  my  common-place 
book,  I  was  grieved  at  the  pains  I  had  bestowed,  and  the 
years  I  had  spent,  in  throwing  together  such  a  mass  of 
stufc  Therefore  I  straightway  left  off  all  books  whatever, 
all  formal  discourses,  and  empty  promises  of  the  schools  ; 
firmly  believing  every  good  and  perfect  gift  to  come  down 
from  the  Father  of  lights,  more  particularly  that  of  me- 

"  I  have  attentively  surveyed  some  foreign  nations  ;  but 
I  found  the  same  sluggishness,  in  implicitly  following"  the 
steps  of  their  forefathers,  and  ignorance  among  them  all. 
I  then  became  persuaded,  that  the  art  of  healing  was  a 
mere  imposture,  originally  set  on  foot  by  the  Greeks  for 
filthy  lucre's  sake;  till  afterwards  the  Holy  Scriptures  in- 
formed me  better.  I  considered,  that  the  plague,  which 
then  raged  at  Louvain,  was  a  most  miserable  disease,  in 
which  every  one  forsook  the  sick;  and  faithless  helpers, 
distrustful  of  their  own  art,  fled  more  swiftly  than  the  un- 
learned common  people,  and  homely  pretenders  to  cure  it. 
I  proposed  to  myself  to  dedicate  one  salutation  to  the  mi- 
serable infected ;  and  although  then  no  medicine  was  made 

S28  H  E  L  M  O  N  T. 

known  to  me  but  trivial  ones,  yet  God  preserved  my  inno- 
cency  from  so  cruel  an  enemy.  I  was  not  indeed  sent  for, 
but  went  of  my  own  accord  ;  and  that  not  so  much  to  help 
them,  which  I  despaired  of  doing,  as  for  the  sake  of  learn- 
ing. All  that  saw  me,  seemed  to  be  refreshed  with  hope 
and  joy;  and  I  myself,  being  fraught  with  hope,  was  per- 
suaded, that,  by  the  mere  free  gift  of  God,  1  should  some- 
times obtain  a  mastery  in  the  science.  After  ten  years' 
travel  and  studies  from  my  degree  in  the  art  of  medicine 
taken  at  Louvain,  being  then  married,  I  withdrew  myself, 
in  1609,  to  Vilvord,  that,  being  the  less  troubled  by  appli- 
cations, I  might  proceed  diligently  in  viewing  the  king- 
doms of  vegetables,  animals,  and  minerals.  I  employed 
myself  some  years  in  chemical  operations.  I  searched  into 
the  works  of  Paracelsus  ;  and  at  first  admired  and  honoured 
the  man,  but  at  last  was  convinced,  that  nothing  but  diffi- 
culty, obscurity,  and  error,  was  to  be  found  in  him.  Thus 
tired  out  with  search  after  search,  and  concluding  the  art 
of  medicine  to  be  all  deceit  and  uncertainty,  I  said  with  a 
sorrowful  heart,  '  Good  God  !  how  long  wilt  thou  be  angry 
with  mortal  man,  who  hitherto  has  not  disclosed  one  truth, 
in  healing,  to  thy  schools  ?  How  long  wilt  thou  deny  truth 
to  a  people  confessing  thee,  needful  in  these  days,  more 
than  in  times  past  ?  Is  the  sacrifice  of  Molech  pleasing  to 
thee  ?  wilt  thou  have  the  lives  of  the  poor,  widows,  and 
fatherless  children,  consecrated  to  thyself;  under  the  most 
miserable  torture  of  incurable  diseases  ?  How  is  it,  there- 
fore, that  thou  ceasest  not  to  destroy  so  many  families 
through  the  uncertainty  and  ignorance  of  physicians  ?' 
Then  I  fell  on  my  face,  and  said,  '  Oh,  Lord,  pardon  me,  if 
favour  towards  my  neighbour  hath  snatched  me  away  beyond 
my  bounds.  Pardon,  pardon,  O  Lord,  my  indiscreet  cha- 
rity ;  for  thou  art  the  radical  good  of  goodness  itself.  Thou 
hast  known  my  sighs ;  and  that  I  confess  myself  to  be,  to 
know,  to  be  worth,  to  be  able  to  do,  to  have,  nothing ;  and 
that  I  am  poor,  naked,  empty,  vain.  Give,  O  Lord,  give 
knowledge  to  thy  creature,  that  he  may  affectionately  know 
thy  creatures ;  himself  first,  other  things  besides  himself, 
all  things,  and  more  than  all  things,  to  be  ultimately  in  thee.' 
"  After  I  had  thus  earnestly  prayed,  I  fell  into  a  dream; 
in  which,  in  the  sight  or  view  of  truth,  I  saw  the  whole 
universe,  as  it  were,  some  chaos  or  confused  thing  without 
form,  which  was  almost  a  mere  nothing.  And  from  thence 
I  drew  the  conceiving  of  one  word,  which  did  signify  to 

H  E  L  M  O  N  T.  329 

me  this  following :  '  Behold  thou,  and  what  things  thou 
seest,  are  nothing.  Whatever  thou  dost  urge,  is  less  than 
nothing  itself  in  the  sight  of  the  Most  High.  He  knoweth 
all  the  bounds  of  things  to  be  done  ;  thou  at  least  may 
apply  thyself  to  thy  own  safety.'  In  this  conception  there 
was  an  inward  precept,  that  I  should  be  made  a  physician; 
and  that,  some  time  or  other,  Raphael  himself  should  be 
given  unto  me.  Forthwith  therefore,  and  for  thirty  whole 
years  after,  and  their  nights  following  in  order,  1  laboured 
always  to  my  cost,  and  often  in  danger  of  my  life,  that  I 
might  obtain  the  knowledge  of  vegetables  and  minerals, 
and  of  their  natures  and  properties  also.  Meanwhile,  I 
exercised  myself  in  prayer,  in  reading,  in  a  narrow  search 
of  things,  in  sifting  my  errors,  and  in  writing  down  what  I 
daily  experienced.  At  length  I  knew  with  Solomon,  that  t 
had  for  the  most  part  hitherto  perplexed  my  spirit  in  vain  ; 
and  I  said,  Vain  is  the  knowledge  of  all  things  under  the 
sun,  vain  are  the  searchings  of  the  curious.  Whom  the 
Lord  Jesus  shall  call  unto  wisdom,  he,  and  no  other,  shall 
come ;  yea,  he  that  hath  come  to  the  top,  shall  as  yet  be 
able  to  do  very  little,  unless  the  bountiful  favour  of  the 
Lord  shall  shine  upon  him.  Lo,  thus  have  I  waxed  ripe 
of  age,  being  become  a  man;  and  now  also  an  old  man, 
unprofitable,  and  unacceptable  to  God,  to  whom  be  all 

From  this  curious  account,  given  in  the  preceding  edi- 
tions of  this  Dictionary,  and  which  we  are  unwilling  to 
displace,  it  will  be  seen  that  Van  Helmont  had  a  strong 
portion  of  enthusiasm;  but  he  was  not  the  madman  which 
some  of  his  contemporaries  imagined.  For  a  period  of 
thirty  years  he  pursued  his  researches  into  the  products  of 
nature,  with  such  perseverance,  as  to  leave  few  of  the 
known  animal,  vegetable,  and  mineral  bodies  unexamined. 
In  the  course  of  these  investigations,  he  necessarily  fell 
upon  the  discovery  of  several  of  the  products  of  decompo- 
sition, and  of  new  combination,  which  chemistry  affords  : 
among  these  he  seems  to  have  been  the  first  to  notice  the 
spirit  of  hartshorn,  the  spirit  of  sulphur  per  campanam,  as 
it  was  called,  and  the  aerial  part  of  the  spa-waters,  which 
he  first  denominated  gas  (from  the  German  geist,  ghost,  or 
spirit),  and  several  other  substances.  Among  these  were 
many  articles  possessing  considerable  influence  upon  the 
living  body,  which,  being  contrasted  with  the  inertness  of 
the  simples  of  the  Galenical  practice,  roused  and  confirmed 

330  H  E  L  M  O  N  T. 

his  former  opinions  against  the  doctrines  of  that  school ; 
which  he  now  attacked  with  great  ardour  and  strength  of 
argument,  and  which  he  contributed  to  overthrow.  But 
partly  in  imitation  of  Paracelsus,  whom  he  greatly  ad- 
mired, and  partly  from  an  attempt  to  generalize  the  con- 
fused mass  of  new  facts,  which  he  had  acquired,  he  at- 
tempted to  reduce  the  whole  system  of  medicine  to  the 
principles  of  chemistry,  and  substituted  a  jargon  as  unin- 
telligible, and  hypotheses  as  gratuitous,  as  those  which  he 
had  attempted  to  refute.  He  published  from  time  to  time 
a  variety  of  works,  by  which  he  obtained  considerable  re- 
putation. The  elector  of  Cologne,  who  was  himself  at- 
tached to  chemical  inquiries,  held  him  in  great  esteem ; 
and  he  received  from  the  emperor  Rodolph  II.  and  uis  two 
successors,  invitations  to  the  court  of  Vienna  ;  but  he  pre- 
ferred his  laboratory  and  cabinet  to  these  proffered  ho- 
nours. He  died  on  the  30th  of  December,  1644,  in  the 
sixty-eighth  year  of  his  age. 

His  first  work  was  entitled  <(  De  Magnetica  Vulnerum 
Naturali  et  Legitima  Curatione,  contra  Johannem  Roberti 
Soc.  Jesu  Theologum,"  Paris,  1621,  8vo.  His  next  pub- 
lication was  relative  to  the  waters  of  the  Spa,  "  De  Spa- 
danis  Fontibus,"  Liege,  1624,  8vo.  Next  followed,  after 
a  long  interval,  "  Febrium  Doctrina  inaudita,"  Antwerp, 
1642,  12mo  ;  and  "  Opuscula  Medica  inaudita,  l.De 
Lithiasi;  2.  De  Febribus;  a.  De  Humoribus  Galeni ;  4. 
De  Peste,"  Cologne,  1644,  8vo.  On  his  death  he  re- 
quested his  son  to  collect  his  papers,  as  well  the  incom- 
plete as  the  finished  ones,  and  to  publish  them  in  the  way 
which  he  thought  the  best.  They  were  sent  to  the  printer, 
without  correction,  and  without  any  regard  to  connection 
or  arrangement,  and  published  at  Amsterdam  in  1648,  in 
4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Ortus  Medicinae,  id  est,  initia 
PhysiciB  inaudita,  progressus  Medicinal  Novus  in  Morbo- 
rum  ultionem  ad  Vitam  longam."  Under  the  title  of 
"  Opera  omnia,"  these  works  have  been  reprinted  at  va- 
rious times  and  places,  and  in  various  languages  :  the 
most  correct  edition  is  that  of  Amsterdam,  in  1652,  by 
Elzevir.  They  are  now  consulted  only  as  curiosities  ;  but 
he  certainly  anticipated,  in  obscure  gl